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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Foreign Medical Graduates: A Brief Overview of the J-1 Visa Waiver Program

Foreign Medical Graduates: A Brief Overview of the J-1 Visa Waiver Program

Date: June 5, 2008
Creator: Ester, Karma
Description: The Educational and Cultural Exchange Visitor program has become a gateway for foreign medical graduates (FMGs) to gain admission to the United States as nonimmigrants for the purpose of graduate medical education and training. These FMGs either enter under the J-1 nonimmigrant visa or receive waivers that require them to work in a designated healthcare professional shortage area for a minimum of three years. The ability of states to request such waivers is known as the "Conrad State Program," and was added temporarily to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) in 1994. It has been extended by the last several Congresses. Legislation has been introduced in the 110th Congress to address the program's expiration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Convention Against Doping in Sport: Issues for Congress

International Convention Against Doping in Sport: Issues for Congress

Date: May 28, 2008
Creator: Wyler, Liana Sun
Description: The International Convention Against Doping in Sport seeks to harmonize anti-doping commitments for non-professional sports at the international level. This Convention was adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 2005 and entered in force on February 1, 2007. Issues that could arise as the Senate considers the treaty include its relationship to anti-doping regulations in professional sports, potential consequences that non-ratification could pose to the United States, and the legitimacy and effectiveness of current international anti-doping activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Coal Excise Tax Refunds: United States v. Clintwood Elkhorn Mining Co.

Coal Excise Tax Refunds: United States v. Clintwood Elkhorn Mining Co.

Date: May 16, 2008
Creator: Lunder, Erika
Description: In 1998, a U.S. district court held that the imposition of the coal excise tax, or black lung excise tax, on coal destined for export was unconstitutional. The process of refunding the tax has been controversial. This is because some coal producers and exporters have attempted to bypass the limitations in the Internal Revenue Code's refund scheme for bringing suit under the Export Clause in the Court of Federal Claims, seeking damages from the United States in the amount of coal excise taxes paid. The Federal Circuit Court of Appeals held the court had jurisdiction under the Tucker Act to hear the suits and allowed them as an alternative to the Code's refund process. However, in a 2008 decision, United States v. Clintwood Elkhorn Mining Co., the Supreme Court unanimously held that taxpayers must comply with the Code's administrative refund process before bringing suit. Meanwhile, H.R. 1762 and S. 373 would provide an alternative method for taxpayers to receive coal excise tax refunds.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraqi Civilian Casualties Estimates

Iraqi Civilian Casualties Estimates

Date: May 16, 2008
Creator: Fischer, Hannah
Description: This report presents various governmental and nongovernmental estimates of Iraqi civilian dead and wounded. The Department of Defense (DOD) regularly updates total U.S. military death and wounded statistics from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). However, no Iraqi or U.S. government office regularly releases publicly available statistics on Iraqi civilian deaths or civilians who have been wounded. Statistics on Iraqi civilian dead and wounded are sometimes available through alternative sources, such as nonprofit organizations, or through statements made by officials to the press. Because these estimates are based on varying time periods and have been created using differing methodologies, readers should exercise caution when using these statistics and should look on them as guideposts rather than as statements of fact.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Avian Flu Pandemic: Potential Impact of Trade Disruptions

Avian Flu Pandemic: Potential Impact of Trade Disruptions

Date: May 8, 2008
Creator: Langton, Danielle
Description: Concerns about potential disruptions in U.S. trade flows due to a global health or security crisis are not new. The possibility of an avian flu pandemic with consequences for global trade is a concern that has received attention recently, although some experts believe there is little cause for alarm. This report considers possible trade disruptions, including possible impacts on trade between the United States and countries and regions that have reported avian influenza infections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Critical Infrastructure: The National Asset Database

Critical Infrastructure: The National Asset Database

Date: September 14, 2006
Creator: Moteff, John D
Description: The purpose of this report is to discuss the National Asset Database: what is in it, how it is populated, what the Database apparently is, what it is not, and how it is intended to be used. The report also discusses some of the issues on which Congress could focus its oversight, including appropriation bill language.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Construction, Military Quality of Life and Veterans' Affairs, FY2007 Appropriations

Military Construction, Military Quality of Life and Veterans' Affairs, FY2007 Appropriations

Date: September 13, 2006
Creator: Else, Daniel H; Graney, Paul J & Panangala, Sidath Viranga
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal and State Quarantine and Isolation Authority

Federal and State Quarantine and Isolation Authority

Date: August 16, 2006
Creator: Swendiman, Kathleen S & Elsea, Jennifer K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Authorized Generic Pharmaceuticals: Effects on Innovation

Authorized Generic Pharmaceuticals: Effects on Innovation

Date: August 8, 2006
Creator: Thomas, John R
Description: The practice of “authorized generics” has recently been the subject of considerable attention by the pharmaceutical industry, regulators, and members of Congress alike. An “authorized generic”–sometimes termed a “branded,” “flanking,” or “pseudo” generic–is a pharmaceutical that is marketed by or on behalf of a brand name drug company, but is sold under a generic name. Although the availability of an additional competitor in the generic drug market would appear to be favorable to consumers, authorized generics have nonetheless proven controversial. Some observers believe that authorized generics potentially discourage independent generic firms both from challenging drug patents and from selling their own products.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Construction, Military Quality of Life and Veterans' Affairs, FY2007 Appropriations

Military Construction, Military Quality of Life and Veterans' Affairs, FY2007 Appropriations

Date: August 4, 2006
Creator: Else, Daniel H; Graney, Paul J & Panangala, Sidath Viranga
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department