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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Results 2471 - 2520 of 3,041
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Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation
At the state and local level, many observers have expressed long-standing concerns over delays, duplication of effort, and additional costs frequently associated with the environmental review process for highway projects that must be completed under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, P.L. 91-190). To address these concerns, the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA21, P.L. 105-178), enacted in 1998, requires the Federal Highway Administration(FHWA) to streamline the environmental review process for highway projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2389/
Trade Retaliation: The "Carousel" Approach
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3559/
Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation
Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S. economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical products to Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Sudan, and extended this policy to apply to Cuba (Title IX of H.R. 5426, as enacted by P.L. 106-387; Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000). Related provisions place financing and licensing conditions on sales to these countries. Those that apply to Cuba, though, are permanent and more restrictive than for the other countries. Other provisions give Congress the authority in the future to veto a President's proposal to impose a sanction on the sale of agricultural or medical products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3190/
Resource Conservation Title: Comparison of Current Law with Farm Bills Passed by the House and Senate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2120/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2469/
The Privacy Act: Emerging Issues and Related Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2243/
India and Pakistan: Current U.S. Economic Sanctions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3208/
Energy Policy Act of 2002: Summary of S.1766 as Introduced
The Energy Policy Act of 2002 (S. 1766) was introduced by Senate Majority Leader Daschle on December 5, 2001, and placed on the Senate Calendar for floor action. The bill is expected to be the primary vehicle for Senate debate on national energy policy. S. 1766 would further the trend of the past two decades towards competitive electric markets. Subtitle B of Title II of S. 1766 would repeal the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA), which makes certain multi-state utility holding companies subject to regulation by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Title II, Subtitle C of the bill would prospectively repeal Section 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), which requires utilities to purchase electricity from certain small power producers and cogenerators of industrial heat and power. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2680/
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2208/
Child Support Enforcement: New Reforms and Potential Issues
This report describes several aspects of the revised CSE program and discusses three issues that probably will be reexamined by the 107th Congress — CSE financing, parental access by noncustodial parents, and distribution of support payments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2806/
Status of Trade Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3572/
Drug Control: International Policy and Options
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2351/
Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7572/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3571/
Pipeline Safety: Federal Program and Reauthorization Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2682/
Rural Education: Legislative Initiatives
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7033/
Campaign Finance: Constitutional and Legal Issues of Soft Money
Soft money is a major issue in the campaign finance reform debate because these generally unregulated funds are perceived as resulting from a loophole in the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). Generally, soft money is funds that are raised and spent according to applicable state laws, which FECA prohibits from being spent directly on federal elections, but that may have an indirect influence on federal elections. This Issue Brief discusses three major types of soft money: political party soft money, corporate and labor union soft money, and soft money used for issue advocacy communications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2592/
Suits Against Terrorist States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3206/
Child Welfare: The Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program
The report describes the authorization of funding for the Promoting Safe and Stable Families program (first created in 1993 under a different name) that has expired in the end of FY2001; thus, the 107th Congress acted to reauthorize this program and make some program changes (H.R. 2873, P.L. 107-133). P.L. 107-133 expands the definition of family preservation services under the Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program to include infant safe haven programs; clarifies the meaning of family support to include services that “strengthen parental relationships and promote healthy marriages”; provides for reallocation of unused program funds; and states that, out of any discretionary funds appropriated for the Safe and Stable Families Program, 3.3% will be added to the existing $10 million setaside for Court Improvement Grants; 3.3% will be added to the existing $6 million reservation for evaluation, technical assistance, research and training; and 2% will be added to the existing set-aside for Indian tribes (1% of mandatory funds). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2237/
K-12 Teacher Quality: Issues and Legislative Action
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2610/
Coast Guard Legislation in the 107th Congress
In the 107th Congress, the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2001, House-passed H.R. 1699, would authorize the agency’s programs for FY2002. The report contains numerous provisions on Coast Guard operations and activities. H.R. 2481, as reported, includes certain housing and maritime safety provisions; S. 1214, as reported, would establish a seaport security program. P.L. 107-20 (H.R. 2216), the FY2001 emergency supplemental appropriations bill, increased FY2001 Coast Guard funding by $92 million. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2534/
Railroad Retirement: Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3300/
Campaign Finance Bills in the 107th Congress: Comparison of S. 27 (McCain-Feingold), H.R. 2356 (Shays-Meehan), H.R. 2630 (Ney-Wyn), and Current Law
S. 27 (McCain-Feingold), the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2001, was introduced January 22, 2001 in a form similar to prior versions of the last two Congresses. On April 2, after a two-week debate and adoption of 22 amendments, the Senate passed S. 27 by a vote of 59-41. That measure’s companion Shays-Meehan bill, the Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2001, was initially introduced as H.R. 380 in a form similar to House-passed versions of the prior two Congresses; on June 28, the bill was modified and offered as H.R. 2356. H.R. 2360 (Ney-Wynn), the Campaign Finance Reform and Grassroots Citizen Participation Act of 2001, was introduced and ordered reported favorably by the House Administration Committee on June 28. (Shays-Meehan was ordered reported unfavorably at the same time.) The two primary features of the bills are restrictions on party soft money and issue advocacy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2597/
Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes
In theory, state sales and use taxes are based on the destination principle, which prescribes that taxes should be paid where the consumption takes place. States are concerned because they anticipate gradually losing more tax revenue as the growth of Internet commerce allows more residents to buy products from vendors located out-of-state and evade use taxes. The size of the revenue loss from Internet commerce and subsequent tax evasion is uncertain. Congress is involved in this issue because commerce conducted by parties in different states over the Internet falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. The degree of congressional involvement is an open question. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10193/
Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9627/
Extending the Internet Tax Moratorium and Related Issues
The Internet Tax Freedom Act, enacted in 1998, placed a 3-year moratorium on the ability of state and local governments 1) to impose new taxes on Internet access or 2) to impose multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce. It grandfathered existing taxes on Internet access. The original moratorium expired on October 21, 2001. Numerous bills to extend the moratorium were introduced in the first session of the 107th Congress. The Congress approved H.R. 1552 (P.L. 107-75, enacted November 28, 2001) which extended the prior moratorium by 2 years, until November 1, 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3472/
Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes: A Description of Current Law
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3420/
Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6840/
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Overview of Major Provisions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2207/
Drug Certification Requirements and Congressional Modifications in 2001
This report provides a brief summary of the existing drug certification requirements for drug producing and drug-transit countries, background on the experience, criticisms, and reform efforts under these provisions; a summary of early congressional options and proposals advanced in 2001, with possible advantages and disadvantages; a summary of later initiatives with legislative activity; and (5) a tracking of legislative action on the major initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2555/
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3604/
Selected Tax Law Changes Effective January 1, 2002
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7036/
Clean Water Act Issues in the 107th Congress
Key water quality issues that may face the 107th Congress include: actions to implement existing provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA), whether additional steps are necessary to achieve overall goals of the Act, and the appropriate federal role in guiding and paying for clean water activities. Legislative prospects for comprehensively amending the Act have for some time stalled over whether and exactly how to change the law. If clean water issues receive attention in the 107th Congress, consideration of specific issues will depend in part on the CWA policy agenda of the new Bush Administration and on priorities of the key committees that have major jurisdiction over the Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6519/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2468/
CONTOMS (Counter Narcotics and Terrorism Operational Medical Support Program)
Since the September 11th terrorist attack, greater attention has focused on federal, state, and local readiness to respond to situations involving terrorism or weapons of mass destruction (WMD). One such federal program that provided federal support to local law enforcement and first responders is CONTOMS (Counter Narcotics and Terrorism Operational Medical Support). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7001/
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: The Next Chapter
This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for energy development. The report discusses arguments for and against such development and focuses especially on related pieces of legislation that directly affects the future of the ANWR. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1405/
Selected Aviation Security Legislation in the Aftermath of the September 11 Attack
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2036/
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Statutory Language and Recent Issues
This report summarizes the major provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and also discusses selected recent issues, including ten ADA Supreme Court cases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1460/
Coast Guard Legislation in the 107th Congress
In the 107th Congress, the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2001, House-passed H.R. 1699, would authorize the agency’s programs for FY2002. The report contains numerous provisions on Coast Guard operations and activities. H.R. 2481, as reported, includes certain housing and maritime safety provisions; S. 1214, as reported, would establish a seaport security program. P.L. 107-20 (H.R. 2216), the FY2001 emergency supplemental appropriations bill, increased FY2001 Coast Guard funding by $92 million. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1600/
Drug Control: International Policy and Options
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1527/
Terrorism and the Law of War: Trying Terrorists as War Criminals before Military Commissions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1842/
Terrorism: Section by Section Analysis of the USA PATRIOT Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1651/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1688/
Strategic Petroleum Reserve
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1662/
Terrorism Risk Insurance: A Summary of Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1717/
Immigration: S Visas for Criminal and Terrorist Informants
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6978/
Intelligence and Law Enforcement: Countering Transnational Threats to the U.S.
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1831/
Summary of the Medicare Regulatory and Contracting Reform Act of 2001 (H.R. 3391)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1364/
Juvenile Justice Legislation: Overview and the Legislative Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1452/
Monitoring Inmate-Attorney Communications: Sixth Amendment Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7000/