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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Results 1391 - 1440 of 2,353
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The Middle East Peace Talks
This report discusses the Middle East peace talks, including the new peace process with the most recent developments,and the war against terrorism. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8559/
U.S.-India Bilateral Agreements and "Global Partnership"
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8674/
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8554/
Northern Ireland: The Peace Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8695/
United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8558/
Fatah and Hamas: the New Palestinian Factional Reality
For the first time in its history, the Palestinian parliament is set to be led by Hamas, which the United States and European Union have designated a foreign terrorist organization. Although some lauded the generally free and fair election in January 2006, others criticized the outcome and accused Hamas of “hijacking” democracy. This report provides an overview of the new political realities in the West Bank and Gaza after the election, the challenges Fatah and Hamas face, and possible implications for U.S. policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9153/
India's Nuclear Separation Plan: Issues and Views
This report provides background on India’s nuclear fuel cycle, a discussion of various issues involved in separating civilian and military nuclear facilities and potential concerns for Congress as it considers whether the United States has adequate assurances that its nuclear cooperation does not assist, encourage, or induce India’s nuclear weapons development, production, or proliferation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9169/
State and Urban Area Homeland Security Plans and Exercises: Issues for the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9265/
Palestinian Elections
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9411/
Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy
This report provides background and analysis on Sudan, and discusses the humanitarian crises, peace talks, terrorism and U.S. policy towards Sudan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822577/
North Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8560/
Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8450/
Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2006
This report, which will be updated periodically, focuses on the interactions between Mexico and the United States on migration and border issues during the administrations of President George W. Bush and President Vicente Fox of Mexico. These interactions are increasingly tense in 2006 due to violence in the border region and debate over U.S. immigration reform. The discussions and agreements fall into four areas: (1) the bilateral migration talks, (2) the Partnership for Prosperity, (3) the Border Partnership Agreement, and (4) the trilateral "Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North America." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10395/
Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2006
This report focuses on the interactions between Mexico and the United States on migration and border issues during the administrations of President George W. Bush and President Vicente Fox of Mexico. The discussions and agreements fall into four areas: (1) the bilateral migration talks, (2) the Partnership for Prosperity, (3) the Border Partnership Agreement, and (4) the trilateral “Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North America. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9798/
Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2006
This report focuses on the interactions between Mexico and the United States on migration and border issues during the administrations of President George W. Bush and President Vicente Fox of Mexico. The discussions and agreements fall into four areas: (1) the bilateral migration talks, (2) the Partnership for Prosperity, (3) the Border Partnership Agreement, and (4) the trilateral “Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North America. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9372/
Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8367/
The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8673/
The Middle East Peace Talks
This report examines the current climate regarding peace talks in the Middle East. Congress is interested in the peace talks because of its oversight role in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy, its support for Israel, and keen constituent interest. It is concerned about U.S. financial and other commitments and the Palestinians' fulfillment of their commitments to Israel. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824704/
Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8672/
Navy Role in Global War on Terrorism (GWOT): Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10853/
U.S.-Thailand Free Trade Agreement Negotiations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8679/
Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8549/
China: Economic Sanctions
This report discusses a list of economic sanctions that the United States currently maintains against China. The influence of Congress on U.S. policy toward China, once significant because so much hung on the annual possibility that favorable trade terms could be suspended, has more recently been diffused. Sanctions that remain in place today can all be modified, eased, or lifted altogether by the President, without congressional input. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8581/
Conducting Foreign Relations Without Authority: The Logan Act
The Logan Act was intended to prohibit United States citizens without authority from interfering in relations between the United States and foreign governments. There appear to have been no prosecutions under the Act in its more than 200 year history. However, there have been a number of judicial references to the Act, and it is not uncommon for it to be used as a point of challenge concerning dealings with foreign officials. Although attempts have been made to repeal the Act, it remains law and at least a potential sanction to be used against anyone who without authority interferes in the foreign relations of the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9143/
Legal Developments in International Civil Aviation
This report provides background on U.S. civil aviation agreements, updates the current status of U.S. “Open Skies” negotiations with the EU, and addresses the status of the legal debate concerning both the foreign ownership and control rules and the cabotage laws. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10836/
Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions
After the massive reorganization of federal agencies precipitated by the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), there are now four main federal agencies charged with securing the United States’ borders: the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), which patrols the border and conducts immigrations, customs, and agricultural inspections at ports of entry; the Bureau of Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE), which investigates immigrations and customs violations in the interior of the country; the United States Coast Guard, which provides maritime and port security; and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), which is responsible for securing the nation’s land, rail, and air transportation networks. This report is meant to serve as a primer on the key federal agencies charged with border security; as such it will briefly describe each agency’s role in securing our nation’s borders. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10146/
Al Qaeda: Statements and Evolving Ideology
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8269/
U.S.-European Union Trade Relations: Issues and Policy Challenges
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8389/
Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol
This report includes some issues for Congress to consider which could include the slow rate of integration between the USBP’s biometric database of illegal aliens and the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) biometric database of criminals and terrorists; the number of unauthorized aliens who die attempting to enter the country each year; the organized human smuggling rings that have proliferated as entering the country has become more difficult; and the threat posed by terrorists along the sparsely defended Northern border as well as the more porous Southwest border. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8464/
U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8463/
Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment
This report discusses the recent controversy that has arisen regarding U.S. treatment of enemy combatants and terrorist suspects detained in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations, and whether such treatment complies with U.S. statutes and treaties such as the U.N. Convention Against Torture and Other Forms of Cruel and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT). Congress recently approved additional guidelines concerning the treatment of detainees. The Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006 (P.L. 109- 148), and the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-163) contain identical provisions that (1) require Department of Defense (DOD) personnel to employ United States Army Field Manual guidelines while interrogating detainees, and (2) prohibit the “cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment of persons under the detention, custody, or control of the United States Government.” These provisions, added to the defense appropriations and authorization bills via amendments introduced by Senator John McCain, have popularly been referred to as “the McCain amendment.” This report discusses the McCain amendment, as modified and subsequently enacted into law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8483/
U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism
This report examines the evolution of counterterrorism cooperation between the United States and the European Union (EU), particularly since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. It includes a discussion of U.S.-EU cooperation progress and ongoing challenges, as well as perspectives and issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824414/
Libya: Legislative Basis for U.S. Economic Sanctions
This report discusses U.S. laws and executive orders that impose economic sanctions currently in place against Libya, including whether they can be changed by executive action, and exemptions to the sanctions that could make foreign assistance available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8687/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8365/
Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8368/
Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation
Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S. economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical products to Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Sudan, and extended this policy to apply to Cuba (Title IX of H.R. 5426, as enacted by P.L. 106-387; Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000). Related provisions place financing and licensing conditions on sales to these countries. Those that apply to Cuba, though, are permanent and more restrictive than for the other countries. Other provisions give Congress the authority in the future to veto a President's proposal to impose a sanction on the sale of agricultural or medical products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8294/
FY2006 Homeland Security Grant Distribution Methods: Issues for the 109th Congress
This report discusses issues regarding homeland security assistance to states and localities, which is available from three primary sources — the State Homeland Security Grant Program (SHSGP), the Law Enforcement Terrorism Prevention Program (LETPP), and the Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9161/
Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8943/
The World Trade Organization: The Hong Kong Ministerial
The World Trade Organization (WTO) held its 6th Ministerial summit in Hong Kong from December 13-18, 2005. WTO Ministerials are held every two years to bring together trade ministers from member states, often to make political decisions for the body. Although an original goal of the Ministerial was to agree on a package of modalities (methods by which the round is negotiated) for the ongoing Doha Development Agenda (DDA) round of trade negotiations, this aim was dropped in order to avoid a high-profile failure similar to previous Ministerials at Cancun and Seattle. Rather, members agreed to some modest advancements in agriculture, industrial tariffs, and duty and quota-free access for least developed countries. The final outcome of these negotiations could provide a substantial boost to the world economy, but if the round itself is not completed, there may be repercussions for the WTO as an institution and for the architecture of the world trading system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9994/
The World Trade Organization: The Hong Kong Ministerial
The World Trade Organization (WTO) held its 6th Ministerial summit in Hong Kong from December 13-18, 2005. WTO Ministerials are held every two years to bring together trade ministers from member states, often to make political decisions for the body. Although an original goal of the Ministerial was to agree on a package of modalities (methods by which the round is negotiated) for the ongoing Doha Development Agenda (DDA) round of trade negotiations, this aim was dropped in order to avoid a high-profile failure similar to previous Ministerials at Cancun and Seattle. Rather, members agreed to some modest advancements in agriculture, industrial tariffs, and duty and quota-free access for least developed countries. The final outcome of these negotiations could provide a substantial boost to the world economy, but if the round itself is not completed, there may be repercussions for the WTO as an institution and for the architecture of the world trading system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9970/
Papua, Indonesia: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9213/
Mexico's Importance and Multiple Relationships with the United States
This report provides information on the importance of Mexico to U.S. interests and catalogues the many ways Mexico and the United States interact. The report is a snapshot of the bilateral relationship at the beginning of 2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10841/
U.S. Agricultural Policy Response to WTO Cotton Decision
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8383/
North Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8364/
The Middle East Peace Talks
This report discusses the Middle East peace talks, including the new peace process with the most recent developments,and the war against terrorism. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8289/
WTO Doha Round: The Agricultural Negotiations
The pace of negotiations in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations quickened in October 2005 as the December Hong Kong Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) approached. At Hong Kong, however, while WTO members agreed on a broad outline of negotiating objectives for further liberalizing global trade in agriculture, industry and services, they made only limited progress in determining precise numerical formulas (known as modalities) for meeting the Round’s aims. WTO members agreed to intensify efforts to reach agreement on modalities and conclude Doha Round negotiations by the end of 2006. This report assesses the current status of agricultural negotiations in the Doha Round; traces the developments leading up to the Hong Kong Ministerial; examines the major agricultural negotiating proposals; discusses the potential effects of a successful Doha Round agreement on global trade, income, U.S. farm policy, and U.S. agriculture; and provides background on the WTO, the Doha Round, the key negotiating groups, and a schedule of historical and upcoming events relevant to the agricultural negotiations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8390/
Border Security: Fences Along the U.S. International Border
This report outlines the issues involved with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's (DHS's) completion of the San Diego border fence and highlights some of the major legislative and administrative developments regarding the construction of new border fences. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824762/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8105/
Price Determination in Agricultural Commodity Markets: A Primer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9219/
U.S. Assistance to Women in Afghanistan and Iraq: Challenges and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9998/