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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions
Monetary policy can be defined broadly as any policy relating to the supply of money. Monetary policy can have important effects on aggregate demand and through it on real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), unemployment, real foreign exchange rates, real interest rates, the composition of output, etc., all of which are short-term effects. Over the longer run, the major effect of monetary policy is on the rate of inflation. A growing money supply is important for the subsequent growth in money spending or aggregate demand. The Federal Reserve executes monetary policy by setting a target for an overnight interest rate called the federal funds rate. Changes in the federal funds rates affect primarily short-term interest rates, and through these changes, money spending. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10492/
Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions
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Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions
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Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns
This report discusses the Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9363/
Is China a Threat to the U.S. Economy?
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Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts
U.S. real GDP growth has been positive for 18 consecutive quarters, and the economy is considered to be in an "expansion" phase. The rebound in payroll employment has been modest compared with past expansions. Other elements in the economic picture are promising: 1) A pick-up in output at the same time as employment is growing slowly means that productivity (or output per worker) is increasing; and 2) The inflation rate, measured by the CPI, rose 3.4% during 2005. The consensus among economists is that GDP will grow between 3.3% and 3.6% in 2006. The unemployment rate is expected to show little tendency to change. The inflation rate is expected to be higher than the rate that prevailed in 2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10494/
Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts
This report contains information regarding the Current Economic Conditions, Recent Macroeconomic Developments, Posture of Monetary and Fiscal Policy, Summary of Current Developments, Sources of GDP Growth, Economic Forecasts 2001, and Promotion of Economic Growth. The report also presents statistics regarding the Growth Rate of Real GDP v. Final Sales, Civilian Unemployment Rate, Rate of Change in the Consumer Price Index, Rate of Change in the GDP Deflators, Rate of Change in Labor Costs, U.S. Foreign Trade Deficit, Alternative Measures of Fiscal Policy, The Growth Rates of the Monetary Aggregates, etc. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9314/
Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts
This report begins with a comprehensive presentation of current economic conditions focusing on income growth, unemployment, and inflation. The posture of monetary and fiscal policy is surveyed as are the forecasts of economic activity. It concludes with data on the factors important for economic growth. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9748/
Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions
Monetary policy can be defined broadly as any policy relating to the supply of money. Monetary policy can have important effects on aggregate demand and through it on real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), unemployment, real foreign exchange rates, real interest rates, the composition of output, etc., all of which are short-term effects. Over the longer run, the major effect of monetary policy is on the rate of inflation. A growing money supply is important for the subsequent growth in money spending or aggregate demand. The Federal Reserve executes monetary policy by setting a target for an overnight interest rate called the federal funds rate. Changes in the federal funds rates affect primarily short-term interest rates, and through these changes, money spending. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10491/
Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions
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Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions
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China's Economic Conditions
Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1979, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing economies. Many economists speculate that China could become the world's largest exporter within the next few years and the largest economy within a few decades, provided that the government is able to continue and deepen economic reforms, particularly in regard to its inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs), the state banking system, and fixed exchange rate system. China's economy continues to be a concern to many U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China's economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on various U.S. industries. This report explores both sides of this issue in detail. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10309/
China's Economic Conditions
China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9850/
China's Economic Conditions
China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9475/
Turkmenistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests
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Long-Term Growth of the U.S. Economy: Significance, Determinants, and Policy
The rate of long-term economic growth is the salient measure of the nation's ability to steady advance its material living standard. The pace of long-term economic growth is likely to be a center of attention in the decades just ahead, as the U.S. economy confronts the need to undertake unprecedentedly large generational transfers of income to pay for the retirement of the huge baby-boom generation as well as large transfers to the rest of the world to meet the debt service costs of the United States' large and still growing foreign debt. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10372/
Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations
The country of Panama has made significant political and economic progress since the 1989 U.S. military intervention that ousted the regime of General Manuel Noriega from power. The current President, Martin Torrijos, has faced significant challenges, including dealing with the funding deficits of the country's social security fund; developing plans for the expansion of the Panama Canal; and combating unemployment and poverty. The U.S. has close relations with Panama, and both countries currently cooperate on counternarcotics efforts, the security of the Panama Canal and the Panama-Colombia border, and negotiations for a bilateral free trade agreement. This report describes all of the above; the aforementioned U.S.-Panamanian negotiations for a bilateral free trade agreement is detailed in particular. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10483/
Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations
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U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
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Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare
This report provides an overview of the economics of international trade that may be helpful for consideration of many recurring international economic policy issues. It is intended as a general explanation of mainstream economic principles that may be considered in gauging the economic significance of trade issues as well as the trade-offs inherent in many policy choices. This report provides a brief overview of the economic arguments for free trade, common arguments for trade barriers, and the cause and economic significance of persistent large trade deficits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10433/
Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare
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Gasoline Price Increases: Federal and State Authority to Limit "Price Gouging"
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Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues
This is one part in the series of reports that provide a background and analysis, and most recent developments regarding broadband or high-speed Internet access. The report starts out by answering questions; what is broadband and why is it important? This report also discusses broadband technologies, the status of broadband deployment and the related policy issues, as well as the legislation in congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8929/
Algeria: Current Issues
This report examines the current state of Algeria, including the country's associations with terrorism, despite steady decreases of domestic terrorism; the lessening in power of the Algerian military; and growing oil revenues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9133/
Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts
This report begins with a comprehensive presentation of current economic conditions focusing on income growth, unemployment, and inflation. The posture of monetary and fiscal policy is surveyed as are the forecasts of economic activity. It concludes with data on the factors important for economic growth. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8985/
Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues
This is one part in the series of reports that provide a background and analysis, and most recent developments regarding broadband or high-speed Internet access. The report starts out by answering questions; what is broadband and why is it important? This report also discusses broadband technologies, the status of broadband deployment and the related policy issues, as well as the legislation in congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8747/
The Effects of Government Expenditures and Revenues on the Economy and Economic Well-Being: A Cross-National Analysis
Congress passed and the President signed a reconciliation bill (P.L. 109-171) to reduce mandatory spending by $39 billion between FY2006 and FY2010. A revenue reduction reconciliation bill (H.R. 4297) has not been enacted as of the date of this report. Many argue that tax and spending reductions will stimulate economic growth, whereas many others argue that tax cuts will lead to a larger deficit with adverse economic effects and that spending cuts will reduce critical government services. This report examines the effects of government spending and taxation on economic growth and economic well-being by comparing the United States with 20 other industrial Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9956/
El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and Relations with the United States
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The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: History, Perspectives, and Issues
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The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: History, Perspectives, and Issues
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China's Economic Conditions
China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8569/
The Pattern of Interest Rates in 2006: Could It Signal an Impending Recession?
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The Pattern of Interest Rates in 2006: Could It Signal an Impending Recession?
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Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
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Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues
This is one part in the series of reports that provide a background and analysis, and most recent developments regarding broadband or high-speed Internet access. The report starts out by answering questions; what is broadband and why is it important? This report also discusses broadband technologies, the status of broadband deployment and the related policy issues, as well as the legislation in congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8296/
The North Korean Economy: Background and Policy Analysis
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Higher Education Tax Credits: An Economic Analysis
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The Rise of China and Its Effect on Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea: U.S. Policy Choices
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China's Economic Conditions
China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8343/
Plan Colombia: A Progress Report
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California's San Joaquin Valley: A Region in Transition
This report analyzes the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) counties and statistically documents the basis of current socioeconomic conditions. The report further explores the extent to which the SJV shares similarities with and differs from the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) area and a 68- county Central Appalachian subregion which contains some of the most economically distressed counties in Appalachia. The report also examines the role of federal expenditures in the cities and counties of the SJV. In addition to examining socioeconomic conditions in the SJV, the report provides analysis of water supply and quality issues especially those concerning agriculture, air quality concerns, and rail and shipping issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8225/
Regulation of Broadcast Indecency: Background and Legal Analysis
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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or "Mad Cow Disease") in North America: A Chronology of Selected Events
This report provides a chronology of selected events leading up to and following the discoveries of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) in North America. These are primarily regulatory, legal, and congressional developments that are frequently referenced in the ongoing policy debate. The chronology does not contain entries for the introduction of the many BSE-related bills introduced into this or previous Congresses, except for those in recent years where committee or floor action has occurred. This report, which will be updated if significant developments ensue, is intended to be used alongside other CRS reports that provide more background and context for the BSE policy debate, and that cover many specific legislative proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8733/
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease): Agricultural Issues for Congress
This report presents the background and analysis of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy, including the definition. It also discusses the BSE economic and trade implications as well as selected issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7867/
Topics in Aging: Income and Poverty Among Older Americans in 2004
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Limiting Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's Portfolio Size
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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or "Mad Cow Disease"): Current and Proposed Safeguards
This report presents an overview of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) in the United States. Shortly after the first case of BSE was announced, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and other officials announced measures to improve existing safeguards against the introduction and spread of BSE. This report discusses trade restrictions, the live-stock “feed ban”, as well as the BSE surveillance and testing in cattle. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8731/
The Economic Effects of Raising National Saving
Raising the share of income we save is a frequent aim of public policy. That may be particularly apparent in debates about the size of the federal budget deficit, but concerns about the low household saving rate have also prompted policymakers to consider ways to encourage individuals to save more. How much individuals save will directly affect their future economic well-being, but from a macroeconomic perspective, the source of saving — be it households, business, or government — makes no difference. This report presents standard economic analysis of the macroeconomic effects of raising saving. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7912/
Price Increases in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Authority to Limit Price Gouging
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The Macroeconomic Effects of Hurricane Katrina
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