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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9539/
The Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (S. 2590): Overview and Comparison with H.R. 5060
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9523/
Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2007 Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9430/
Military Base Closures and the Impact Aid Program for Education
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9552/
Defense: FY2007 Authorization and Appropriations
The Senate began floor debate on the FY2007 defense appropriations bill, H.R. 5631 on August 1, but it did not complete the bill before adjourning for the August recess. The Senate plans to resume action on September 5. As reported by the appropriations committee, the bill provided $453.5 billion for defense, including $50 billion in appropriations for overseas operations. The total is $9.1 billion less than the Administration requested. In floor action, the Senate added substantial amounts to the $50 billion in emergency spending, including $13.1 billion to reequip units returning from abroad and $1.8 billion for border security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9427/
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
This report is intended to provide an overview of the Adequate Yearly Process (AYP) concept and several related issues, a description of the AYP provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, and an analysis of the implementation of these provisions by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the states. It will be updated when major administrative actions are taken by ED, or substantial new data on state implementation become available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9446/
Defense Transformation: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress
This report addresses defense transformation from a DOD-wide perspective. The Bush Administration identified transformation as a major goal for the Department of Defense (DOD) soon after taking office and has since worked to refine and implement its plans for defense transformation. Defense transformation can be defined as large-scale, discontinuous, and possibly disruptive changes in military weapons, concepts of operations (i.e., approaches to warfighting) and organization. The issue for the 109th Congress is how to take the concept of defense transformation into account in assessing and acting on Administration proposals for DOD. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9356/
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
Large-scale assistance programs are being undertaken by the United States following the war with Iraq. To fund such programs, in April 2003, Congress approved a $2.48 billion Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) in the FY2003 Supplemental Appropriation. Additional and similar funding is also outlined in this report. Many reconstruction efforts in Iraq -- including infrastructure projects, the training and equipping of Iraqi security forces, and general political and societal reinforcement -- are underway, but security concerns have slowed progress considerably. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10444/
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9879/
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9546/
Navy Aircraft Carriers: Proposed Retirement of USS John F. Kennedy -- Issues and Options for Congress
The Navy's FY2007 budget proposes retiring the conventionally-powered aircraft carrier John F. Kennedy (CV-67) and reducing the size of the carrier force from 12 ships to 11. One potential issue for Congress is whether the carrier force should include 12 ships or some other number. If a carrier is to be retired in the near term so as to reduce the carrier force to 11 ships, a second potential issue is whether that carrier should be the Kennedy or another ship. Potential alternatives to the Kennedy include the conventionally-powered Kitty Hawk and the nuclear-powered carriers Enterprise and Vinson. A third potential issue for Congress concerns the relative military advantages of different homeporting arrangements for the carrier force. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10398/
Navy Aircraft Carriers: Proposed Retirement of USS John F. Kennedy - Issues and Options for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9795/
V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft
The V-22 Osprey is a tilt-rotor aircraft, capable of vertical or short take off and landing, with forward flight like a conventional fixed-wing aircraft. The MV-22 is the Marine Corps' top aviation priority. Marine Corps leaders believe that the Osprey will provide them an unprecedented capability to quickly and decisively project power from well over the horizon. The V-22 program has been under development for over 25 years. Safety and maintenance concerns have arisen over this period. Supporters tout the V-22's potential operational capabilities relative to the helicopters it will replace. It will fly faster, farther, and with more payload than the currently used machinery. Detractors tend to emphasize the V-22's long development schedule, its three fatal accidents, and its high cost relative to the helicopters it will replace. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10465/
V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9766/
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief
In response to the widespread destruction caused by Hurricane Katrina, the 109th Congress enacted two FY2005 emergency supplemental appropriations bills, which together provided $62.3 billion for emergency response and recovery needs. This CRS report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10219/
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief
This CRS report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9902/
Homeland Security Research and Development Funding, Organization, and Oversight
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9540/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9538/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
The Navy in February 2006 proposed to maintain in coming years a fleet of 313 ships, including, among other things, 11 aircraft carriers, 48 attack submarines (SSNs), 88 cruisers and destroyers, 55 Littoral Combat Ships (LCSs), 31 amphibious ships, and a Maritime Prepositioning Force (Future), or MPF(F), squadron with 12 new-construction amphibious and sealift-type ships. The Navy says that for its shipbuilding plans to be affordable and executable, the Navy needs to control certain non-shipbuilding expenditures and build ships within estimated costs. The Navy's shipbuilding plans raise potential issues regarding the shipbuilding industrial base, particularly in the areas of the submarine design and engineering base, and the surface combatant construction base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10404/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9793/
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9863/
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
This report tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. It includes information on the President's request and the congressional response, as well as congressional initiatives during this legislative process. Basic information is provided to help the reader understand this process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10295/
Defense: FY2007 Authorization and Appropriations
The Senate began floor debate on the FY2007 defense appropriations bill, H.R. 5631 on August 1, but it did not complete the bill before adjourning for the August recess. The Senate plans to resume action on September 5. As reported by the appropriations committee, the bill provided $453.5 billion for defense, including $50 billion in appropriations for overseas operations. The total is $9.1 billion less than the Administration requested. In floor action, the Senate added substantial amounts to the $50 billion in emergency spending, including $13.1 billion to reequip units returning from abroad and $1.8 billion for border security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9424/
Homeland Security Grants: Evolution of Program Guidance and Grant Allocation Methods
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9498/
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9464/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9462/
Budget Reconciliation Legislation in 2005-2006 Under the FY2006 Budget Resolution
The FY2006 budget resolution, which was agreed to by the House and Senate on April 28, 2005, included reconciliation instructions for: (1) an omnibus bill to reduce mandatory outlays by about $35 billion over a five-year period, covering FY2006-FY2010; (2) a bill to reduce revenues by $70 billion over the same period; and (3) a bill to increase the limit on the public debt by $781 billion. Congressional action on the resultant reconciliation legislation, while ultimately successful, was marked by controversy and delay. As of May 2006, congressional action on the reconciliation legislation called for in the FY2006 budget resolution was completed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10357/
Budget Reconciliation Legislation in 2005-2006 Under the FY2006 Budget Resolution
The FY2006 budget resolution (H.Con.Res. 95), which was agreed to by the House and Senate on April 28, 2005, included reconciliation instructions for: (1) an omnibus bill to reduce mandatory outlays by about $35 billion over a five-year period, covering FY2006-FY2010; (2) a bill to reduce revenues by $70 billion over the same period; and (3) a bill to increase the limit on the public debt by $781 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9824/
Budget Reconciliation Legislation in 2005-2006 Under the FY2006 Budget Resolution
The FY2006 budget resolution (H.Con.Res. 95), which was agreed to by the House and Senate on April 28, 2005, included reconciliation instructions for: (1) an omnibus bill to reduce mandatory outlays by about $35 billion over a five-year period, covering FY2006-FY2010; (2) a bill to reduce revenues by $70 billion over the same period; and (3) a bill to increase the limit on the public debt by $781 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9405/
Defense: FY2007 Authorization and Appropriations
On July 20, the Senate Appropriations Committee marked up its version of the FY2007 defense appropriations bill, H.R. 5631. Floor action is expected to begin on August 1. The Senate bill provides $453.5 billion defense programs, including $50 billion in appropriations for overseas operations. The total is $9.1 billion less than the Administration requested. Earlier, on June 20, the House passed its version of the bill. It provides $416.3 billion for defense programs, $4.1 billion below the request. The amounts in the House and Senate bills are not directly comparable, since some programs in the Senate bill are covered in the House in the Military Quality of Life/Veterans Affairs appropriations bill, H.R. 5385. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9426/
The Budget for Fiscal Year 2006
The Administration's Mid-Session Review (July 2006) had a revised deficit estimate for FY2006 of $296 billion (2.3% of gross domestic product). This was over $100 billion below the FY2006 deficit estimate in the President's FY2007 budget (February 2006). On March 17, 2005, the House and Senate adopted their respective budget resolutions for FY2006. After extensive leadership discussion, a conference reached agreement on April 28; both chambers adopted it later that day. The conference agreement included reconciliation instructions for mandatory spending reductions, tax reductions, and an increase in the statutory debt limit. This report explores these issues in full, as well as detailing additional legislation regarding the FY2006 Budget and budget resolutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10386/
The Budget for Fiscal Year 2006
The July 2005 mid-year budget report from the Administration had an improved deficit outlook through FY2010, while CBO’s August 2005 mid-year report included a somewhat worsened baseline deficit outlook. Congress passed three continuing resolutions (CRs) on appropriations during the fall and early winter to fund otherwise unfunded activities. It needed the time to complete action on the regular appropriation bills for FY2006. The last two cleared Congress on December 21, almost three months after the start of FY2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9373/
The Budget for Fiscal Year 2006
The July 2005 mid-year budget report from the Administration had an improved deficit outlook through FY2010, while CBO’s August 2005 mid-year report included a somewhat worsened baseline deficit outlook. Congress passed three continuing resolutions (CRs) on appropriations during the fall and early winter to fund otherwise unfunded activities. It needed the time to complete action on the regular appropriation bills for FY2006. The last two cleared Congress on December 21, almost three months after the start of FY2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9799/
S. 3521, the Stop Over Spending Act of 2006: A Brief Summary
S. 3521, the Stop Over Spending Act of 2006, proposes several changes to the congressional budget process. This report provides a brief summary of the major provisions of S. 3521. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9483/
Defense: FY2007 Authorization and Appropriations
The Senate began floor debate on the FY2007 defense appropriations bill, H.R. 5631 on August 1, but it did not complete the bill before adjourning for the August recess. The Senate plans to resume action on September 5. As reported by the appropriations committee, the bill provided $453.5 billion for defense, including $50 billion in appropriations for overseas operations. The total is $9.1 billion less than the Administration requested. In floor action, the Senate added substantial amounts to the $50 billion in emergency spending, including $13.1 billion to reequip units returning from abroad and $1.8 billion for border security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9425/
Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2007 Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9429/
Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues
This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief overview of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objectives in the Middle East. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10305/
Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9854/
Land and Water Conservation Fund: Overview, Funding History, and Current Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9469/
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9465/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9463/
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2006
From FY1989 through FY2006, 33 appropriations, authorization, or farm disaster acts added approximately $55.4 billion in supplemental funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The two most recent supplemental appropriations were provided in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the Gulf of Mexico and in preparation for a possible U.S. outbreak of avian influenza. Some FY1989, the vast majority of the total supplemental funding has been paid directly to farmers, primarily through two mechanisms: "market loss payments" and crop disaster payments. This report includes the total annual funding additions in the 33 acts providing economic and farm disaster assistance through USDA programs since FY1989. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10390/
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2006
From FY1989 through FY2006, 33 appropriations, authorization, or farm disaster acts added approximately $55.4 billion in supplemental funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The two most recent supplemental appropriations were provided in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the Gulf of Mexico and in preparation for a possible U.S. outbreak of avian influenza. Some FY1989, the vast majority of the total supplemental funding has been paid directly to farmers, primarily through two mechanisms: "market loss payments" and crop disaster payments. This report includes the total annual funding additions in the 33 acts providing economic and farm disaster assistance through USDA programs since FY1989. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9308/
Social Security: What Would Happen if the Trust Funds Ran Out?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9457/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9455/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
The Navy in February 2006 proposed to maintain in coming years a fleet of 313 ships, including, among other things, 11 aircraft carriers, 48 attack submarines (SSNs), 88 cruisers and destroyers, 55 Littoral Combat Ships (LCSs), 31 amphibious ships, and a Maritime Prepositioning Force (Future), or MPF(F), squadron with 12 new-construction amphibious and sealift-type ships. The Navy says that for its shipbuilding plans to be affordable and executable, the Navy needs to control certain non-shipbuilding expenditures and build ships within estimated costs. The Navy's shipbuilding plans raise potential issues regarding the shipbuilding industrial base, particularly in the areas of the submarine design and engineering base, and the surface combatant construction base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10403/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9794/
Foreign Policy Budget Trends: A Thirty-Year Review
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9410/
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
Congressional debate over U.N. funding focuses on the following questions: (1) What is the appropriate level of U.S. funding for U.N. system operations and programs? (@) What U.S. funding actions are most likely to produce a positive continuation of U.N. system reform efforts? The U.N. system includes the parent U.N. organization, a number of affiliated agencies, voluntary funds and programs, and peacekeeping operations. For nearly 60 years, the United States has been the single largest financial contributor to the U.N. system. Both Congress and the executive branch have been pressing U.N. system organizations to reform, especially to improve management and budgeting practices. In recent years, the U.N. has undertaken reforms, including a restructuring of its financial assessment system, allowing the U.S. to pay some of its arrears. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10512/
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9696/