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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2012
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Date: June 15, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: Report that discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO).
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The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

Date: June 13, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions.
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Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Date: June 13, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment.
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Russia's Accession to the WTO and Its Implications for the United States

Russia's Accession to the WTO and Its Implications for the United States

Date: June 13, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: Russia has been invited to join the World Trade Organization (WTO) by July 23, 2012. This report looks at policy issues for Congress, and concerns for the US regarding conditions ensuring that Russia fulfills its obligations and provides meaningful trade and investment opportunities for U.S. firms.
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U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 112th Congress

U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 112th Congress

Date: June 11, 2012
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: This report discusses the economic relationship between Vietnam and the U.S. that resumed in the 1990s. Of particular interest to Congress is that both nations may soon be members of the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TTP).
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Trade Reorganization: Overview and Issues for Congress

Trade Reorganization: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: May 31, 2012
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: On January 13, 2012, President Obama asked Congress for authority to reorganize and consolidate into one department the business- and trade-related functions of six federal entities. U.S. policymakers' interest in the organizational structure of U.S. government trade functions has grown in recent years, stimulated by congressional and federal efforts to promote U.S. exports and employment, including through the National Export Initiative (NEI). Interest also has been stimulated by national debates on reducing federal spending and the size of the U.S. government. This report looks at the policy debate and role of Congress in such a move.
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EU-U.S. Economic Ties: Framework, Scope, and Magnitude

EU-U.S. Economic Ties: Framework, Scope, and Magnitude

Date: May 30, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report provides background information and analysis of the U.S.-EU economic relationship for members of the 112th Congress as they contemplate the costs and benefits of closer U.S. economic ties with the EU. It examines the economic and political framework of the relationship and the scope and magnitude of the ties based on data from various sources. In addition, the report analyzes the implications these factors have for U.S. economic policy toward the EU.
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Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Countries: Comparative Trade and Economic Analysis

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Countries: Comparative Trade and Economic Analysis

Date: May 30, 2012
Creator: Williams, Brock R.
Description: The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a proposed regional free trade agreement (FTA) currently under negotiation between Australia, Brunei, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States, and Vietnam. Congressional involvement includes consultations with U.S. negotiators on and oversight of the details of the negotiations, and eventual consideration of legislation to implement the final trade agreement. This report provides a comparative economic analysis of the TPP countries and their economic relations with the United States.
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China-U.S. Trade Issues

China-U.S. Trade Issues

Date: May 21, 2012
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Description: This report discusses the U.S.-China economic relationship and China's rapid expansion as a global economic market, both with respect to the current global economic crisis. It also examines major U.S.-China trade issues and related legislation.
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The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative

The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative

Date: May 18, 2012
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Description: This report discusses some of the proposed legislation and other issues related to the U.S. export control system. In considering the future of the U.S. export control system, Congress may weigh the merits of a unified export control system—the end result of the President's proposal—or the continuation of the present bifurcated system by reauthorizing the present Export Administration Act (EAA) or writing new legislation. In doing so, Congress may debate the record of the present dual-use system maintained by emergency authority, the aims and effectiveness of the present non-proliferation control regimes, the maintenance of the defense industrial base, and the delicate balance between the maintenance of economic competitiveness and the preservation of national security.
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The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative

The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative

Date: May 18, 2012
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Description: The 112th Congress may consider reforms of the U.S. export control system. The balance between national security and export competitiveness has made the subject of export controls controversial for decades. The U.S. export control system is diffused among several different licensing and enforcement agencies. This report not only discussed the background of such issues, but also the differences between the Obama Administration and Congress' approaches to export legislation reform.
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Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Date: May 10, 2012
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: The impact of foreign direct investment on U.S. employment is provoking a national debate regarding U.S. job creation versus outsourcing. Many economists argue that there is little evidence to support the notion that the overseas investment activities of U.S. multinational companies play a significant role in the rate at which jobs are created in the U.S. economy. They argue that the source of job creation in the economy is rooted in the combination of macroeconomic policies the nation has chosen, the rate of productivity growth, and the availability of resources. This report addresses these issues by analyzing the extent of direct investment into and out of the economy, the role such investment plays in U.S. trade, jobs, and production, and the relationship between direct investment and the broader economic changes that are occurring in the U.S. economy.
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Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report offers background information and recent more development in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia political and economic situation. It also discusses U.S. policy, U.S. aid, U.S. trade and investments to these countries, congressional response and other legislation.
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U.S. Government Agencies Involved in Export Promotion: Overview and Issues for Congress

U.S. Government Agencies Involved in Export Promotion: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah; Hanrahan, Charles E. & Villarreal, M. A.
Description: This report provides an overview of the federal government agencies that participate in U.S. export promotion efforts and the issues that they raise for Congress. The recent global economic downturn has renewed congressional debate over the role of the federal government in promoting exports. This debate has been heightened with the Obama Administration's introduction of the National Export Initiative (NEI) in the 2010 State of the Union Address.
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China's Rare Earth Industry and Export Regime: Economic and Trade Implications for the United States

China's Rare Earth Industry and Export Regime: Economic and Trade Implications for the United States

Date: April 30, 2012
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M. & Tang, Rachel
Description: Over the past few years, the Chinese government has implemented a number of policies to tighten its control over the production and export of "rare earths"-a unique group of 17 metal elements on the periodic table that exhibit a range of special properties, such as magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are important to a number of high technology industries, including renewable energy and various defense systems. This report examines the economic and trade implications of China's rare earth policies for the United States.
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The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues

The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues

Date: April 27, 2012
Creator: Villarreal, M. Angeles
Description: The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement, or U.S. Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement, is a comprehensive free trade agreement (FTA) between the United States and Colombia, which will eventually eliminate tariffs and other barriers in bilateral trade in goods and services. The agreement will enter into force on May 15, 2012. The United States is Colombia's leading trade partner. Colombia accounts for a very small percentage of U.S. trade (1.0% in 2011), ranking 22nd among U.S. export markets and 23rd as a supplier of U.S. imports. Economic studies on the impact of a U.S.-Colombia FTA have found that, upon full implementation of an agreement, the impact on the United States would be positive but very small due to the small size of the Colombian economy when compared to that of the United States (about 2.2%). This report also discusses concerns that Congress has with Colombian human rights violations.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: April 26, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The objective of sanctions may be on its way to achievement but has not been accomplished to date. U.S. officials believe that these sanctions caused Iran to return to the nuclear bargaining table in April 2012 with greater seriousness and intent toward peaceful resolution. Despite the imposition of what many now consider to be "crippling" sanctions, some in Congress believe that economic and diplomatic pressure on Iran needs to increase further and faster. In the 112th Congress, legislation would enhance both the economic sanctions and human rights-related provisions of a previous Iran sanctions laws However, movement on new sanctions might be on hold pending the outcome of a second round of nuclear talks slated for May 23 in Baghdad.
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Domestic Content Legislation: The Buy American Act and Complementary Little Buy American Provisions

Domestic Content Legislation: The Buy American Act and Complementary Little Buy American Provisions

Date: April 25, 2012
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Description: Congress has broad authority to place conditions on the purchases made by the federal government or with federal dollars. One of many conditions that it has placed on direct government purchases is a requirement that they be produced in the United States. The most well-known of these requirements is the Buy American Act, which is the major domestic preference statute governing procurement by the federal government. This report summarizes (1) the Buy American Act, what it does and does not cover; (2) the Little Buy American Acts found in permanent law, emphasizing what they govern, major exceptions and why Congress felt them necessary in light of the requirements of the Buy American Act; and (3) the temporary Little Buy American provision found in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.
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Burma's Political Prisoners and U.S. Sanctions

Burma's Political Prisoners and U.S. Sanctions

Date: April 24, 2012
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: The installation of the Union Government in 2011 and the undertaking of initial reforms have raised the prospects for the resumption of a democratically elected civilian government in Burma after five decades of military rule. The release of Burma's political prisoners has a central role in U.S. policy and Burma's political future. Many of the U.S. sanctions on Burma were implemented after Burma's ruling military junta suppressed protests and detained many political prisoners. In addition, the removal of many of the existing U.S. sanctions requires the release of all political prisoners in Burma.
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The Dominican Republic-Central America- United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA DR): Developments in Trade and Investment

The Dominican Republic-Central America- United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA DR): Developments in Trade and Investment

Date: April 23, 2012
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). This permanent, comprehensive, and reciprocal trade agreement eliminates tariff and non-tariff barriers to two-way trade, building on unilateral trade preferences begun under the 1983 Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI). CAFTA-DR reinforces the idea that growth in trade correlates closely with policies that promote economic stability, private investment in production, public investment in education, infrastructure, logistics, and good governance in general.
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U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview

U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview

Date: April 23, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: Two major U.S. trade remedies are antidumping (AD) law, which combats the sale of imported products at less than their fair market value, and countervailing duty (CVD) law, which aims to offset foreign government subsidization of imported goods. This report discusses these two law's impact on U.S. foreign relations.
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WTO Dispute Settlement: Status of U.S. Compliance in Pending Cases

WTO Dispute Settlement: Status of U.S. Compliance in Pending Cases

Date: April 23, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: Although the United States has complied with adverse rulings in many past World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes, there are currently 14 cases in which rulings have not yet been implemented or the United States has acted and the dispute has not been fully resolved. Nine unresolved cases involve trade remedies. The report discusses all fourteen cases in detail, which include antidumping, aircraft subsidies, cotton subsidies, online gambling restrictions, music copyright law, and trademark infringement.
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Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate

Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate

Date: April 19, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C.
Description: This report presents, first, a brief history, economic rationale, and legal background leading to the establishment of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). Second, the report presents a discussion of U.S. implementation of the GSP, along with the present debate surrounding its renewal and legislative developments to date. Third, an analysis of the U.S. program's effectiveness and the positions of various stakeholders are presented. Fourth, implications of the expiration of the U.S. program and possible options for Congress are discussed.
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Trade Primer: Qs and As on Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy

Trade Primer: Qs and As on Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy

Date: April 16, 2012
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: The 112th Congress has a full legislative and oversight agenda on international trade. The agenda so far has included approval of legislation to implement free trade agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea, and may take up enhanced enforcement of U.S. trade agreements, as well as Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) status, oversight of the World Trade Organization's Doha Round, and trade relations with China. This report provides information and context for many of these topics. It is divided into four sections in a question-and-answer format: trade concepts; U.S. trade performance; formulation of U.S. trade policy; and trade and investment issues. Additional suggested readings are provided in an appendix.
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