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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Federal Budget: Current and Upcoming Issues
This report examines changes to the Federal Budget for Fiscal Years 2008-2010. The report considers the factors that have an effect on various budgetary functions and decisions. The report specifically focuses on the effect of the 2007-2008 financial recession on the budget, but also considers more long-term fiscal issues such as health care for retiring Baby-Boomers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462748/
Security Classification Policy and Procedure: E.O. 12958, as Amended
This report describes security classification policy and procedure, largely prescribed in a series of successive presidential executive orders issued over the past 50 years. This policy provides the rationale and arrangements for designating information officially secret for reasons of national security, and for its declassification as well. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29519/
Understanding China's Political System
This report provides an overview of contemporary PRC (People's Republic of China) politics by analyzing the main institutional actors and their interactions. The goal is not so much to provide the definitive study of the current political dynamics in China, but to offer a framework for examining and understanding PRC politics as they play out with respect to particular policies or issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501884/
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, focusing particularly on the influence of the Taliban and other militant groups and on the leadership of Afghan President Hamid Karzai. This report also discusses the U.S.-Afghanistan relationship and U.S. efforts under the Obama Administration to provide military, reconstructive, and stabilization aid. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626973/
Desalination: Status and Federal Issues
This report discusses desalination in the context of federal policy. Interest in desalination of seawater, brackish water, and contaminated freshwater has increased in the United States as the technology's costs have fallen and pressure to develop new water supplies has grown. Adoption of desalination, however, remains constrained by financial, environmental, and regulatory and social factors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627158/
Guantanamo Detention Center: Legislative Activity in the 111th Congress
This report analyzes relevant provisions in enacted legislation and selected pending bills relating to the U.S. Naval Station in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, a facility in which alleged enemy combatants are detained. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463260/
Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger Prescreening
This report discusses the controversy continues to surround U.S. air passenger prescreening and terrorist watchlist checks. In the past, such controversy centered around diverted international flights and misidentified passengers. Recent incidents raise new policy issues regarding the interaction between these broader terrorist databases and systems and the "No-Fly" and selectee lists, as well as the relationship between passenger prescreening processes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627096/
Congressional Review Act: Rules Not Submitted to GAO and Congress
This report discusses the Congressional Review Act (CRA; 5 U.S.C. ยง801-808), which was enacted to improve congressional authority over agency rulemaking, and requires federal agencies to submit all of their final rules to both houses of Congress and the Government Accountability Office (GAO) before they can take effect. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627172/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Status
This report looks at the background of Iran's nuclear policy. It covers the current status of Iran's nuclear facilities, and current controversy surrounding them, as well as the effects of international sanctions on Iran, recent sabotages on the Iran Enrichment Program, an estimated timeline of Iran's nuclear weapon capabilities, and whether or not Iran even has a nuclear weapons program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626983/
Air Force KC-X Tanker Aircraft Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues for Congress in FY2011, which are whether to approve, reject, or modify DOD's new KC-X competition strategy, and whether to approve, reject, or modify the Air Force's request for FY2011 research and development funding for the new KC-X program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627064/
Iran Sanctions
This report focuses on the United States' relationship with Iran and how the Obama Administration is handling prior administration's economic sanctions against Iran. The Obama Administration's policy approach toward Iran has contrasted with the Bush Administration's by attempting to couple the imposition of sanctions to an active and direct U.S. effort to negotiate with Iran on the nuclear issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627236/
Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462180/
China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues
Using a variety of unclassified consultations and sources, this report discusses the national security problem of the People's Republic of China's (PRC) role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response, including legislation, since the mid-1990s. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627108/
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress
This report focuses on the potential implications of China's naval modernization for future required U.S. Navy capabilities. This report is based on unclassified open-source information, such as the annual Department of Defense (DOD) report to Congress on China's military power, an August 2009 report from the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), and published reference sources such as Jane's Fighting Ships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501982/
Coast Guard Deepwater Acquisition Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
This report provides background information and oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's Deepwater acquisition programs for replacing and modernizing the service's aging fleet of deepwater-capable ships and aircraft. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627044/
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet, which performs a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505512/
Defense: FY2010 Authorization and Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the administration's fiscal year 2010 budget request. The report discusses base budget, war costs and issues regarding the defense appropriations for FY2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501936/
Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization
This report discusses the history of constitutional interpretations and legislative responses relevant to the collection of private information for criminal investigation, foreign intelligence gathering, and national security purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627051/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the IAEA board and the Security Council. It will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462909/
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues Congress faces regarding the Navy's proposed FY2011 budget, particularly as relating to destroyer procurement plans and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626939/
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
The Department of Defense (DOD) is placing an increased planning and budgeting emphasis on irregular warfare (IW) operations, such as counterinsurgency operations. In addition, counterterrorism (CT) operations have been a DOD area of emphasis since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The Navy for several years has carried out a variety of IW and CT activities, and has taken some steps in recent years to strengthen its ability to conduct such activities. This report discusses these activities and potential oversight issues raised by them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501969/
Navy Nuclear Aircraft Carrier (CVN) Homeporting at Mayport: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's proposal to homeport a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier (CVN) at Mayport, Florida. Transferring a CVN from Norfolk, Virginia, to Mayport would also shift the local economic activity associated with homeporting a CVN, which some sources estimate as being worth hundreds of millions of dollars per year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501639/
Navy Nuclear-Powered Surface Ships: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress
This report discusses the possibility of increasing the number of Navy surface ships powered by nuclear energy, including the Navy's planned CG(X) cruiser. The overall report has a specific emphasis on the planned CG(X) cruiser, and how the implementation of this cruiser may be delayed by current budget proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627073/
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy. Congress in recent years has proposed, and sometimes passed, legislation regarding the naming of specific ships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462022/
The United Arab Emirates Nuclear Program and Proposed U.S. Nuclear Cooperation
This report provides background information on the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and U.S. and it discusses the UAE nuclear program and the proposed U.S.-UAE cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627223/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2009
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 260 women who have served in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505441/
Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai to address corruption within the Afghan government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463481/
Air Force C-17 Aircraft Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information on the C-17 Aircraft program, including previous appropriations, related programs, and issues for Congress. The primary issue for Congress in FY2010 is whether to procure additional C-17s. An additional issue is whether to pass legislation relating to the airlift aircraft force structure. Congress's decisions on these issues could affect DOD capabilities and funding requirements and the U.S. military aircraft industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626917/
Air Force F-22 Fighter Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Air Force F-22 fighter, also known as the Raptor, which is the world's most capable air-to-air combat aircraft. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626954/
Air Force KC-X Tanker Aircraft Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues for Congress in FY2011, which are whether to approve, reject, or modify DOD's new KC-X competition strategy, and whether to approve, reject, or modify the Air Force's request for FY2011 research and development funding for the new KC-X program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627210/
Air Force Next-Generation Bomber: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses key issues regarding funding for a next-generation bomber (NGB) program. Congress's decisions on these issues could affect Air Force capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. aircraft manufacturing industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627025/
Cluster Munitions: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the two major international initiatives that address cluster munitions: the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) and negotiations under the UN Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). This report also provides a brief historical overview of cluster munitions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627089/
DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress
This report briefly discusses the Department of Defense leasing foreign-built ships, the opponents of this practice, and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627101/
F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report details the Obama Administration's proposed FY2010 defense budget requests for F-35 program funding and outlines the issues that Congress must consider when deciding whether to approve, reject, or modify the administration's funding requests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627079/
International Forestry Issues in Climate Change Bills: Comparison of Provisions of S. 1733 and H.R. 2454
This report discusses the allowances and emissions reductions from reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627245/
Navy Aegis Cruiser and Destroyer Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
The Navy has begun a multi-billion dollar program to modernize its 84 existing Aegis cruisers and destroyers over a period of more than 20 years. This report explores this program in detail, including the reasons for the program and the oversight issues it poses for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491450/
Navy CG(X) Cruiser Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
The Navy is currently developing technologies and studying design options for a planned new cruiser called the CG(X). This report explores the reasoning behind the development of these cruisers, the budgetary actions taking place to enable their development, selected technical specifics of their design, and various other information relating to defense procurement costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626886/
Navy F/A-18E/F and EA-18G Aircraft Procurement and Strike Fighter Shortfall: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Navy's proposed FY2011 budget requests (about $1.8 billion) for the procurement of 22 F/A- 18E/F Super Hornet strike fighters and about $1.0 billion for the procurement of 12 EA-18G Growler electric attack aircraft. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626979/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and presents potential issues for Congress concerning the Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans. Decisions that Congress makes on Navy shipbuilding programs can substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627227/
Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the CVN-78 program, which includes the CVN-78 and CVN-79 as the first two ships in the Navy's new Gerald R. Ford (CVN- 78) class of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers (CVNs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501702/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress
This report discusses current issues for Congress concerning the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program including the program's mission modules, the combat survivability of the LCS, hull cracking and engine problems on LCS-1, and corrosion on LCS-2. The LCS is a relatively inexpensive Navy surface combatant equipped with modular "plug-and-fight" mission packages. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627005/
Navy LPD-17 Amphibious Ship Procurement: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress
This report discusses the Navy's shipbuilding plan that calls for procuring an 11th and final San Antonio (LPD-17) class amphibious ship in FY2011. This report discusses the procurement cost estimates of this ship, as well as related issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627075/
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs) at a rate of one per year for the past several years, and a total of 11 boats have been procured through FY2009. This report discusses the Navy's proposed FY2010 budget, which requests $1,964.3 million in procurement funding to complete the procurement cost of a 12th Virginia-class boats. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501963/
Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Legal Issues
This report discusses the legal framework that applies to private security contractors (PSCs) in Iraq and Afghanistan. The report follows up with a discussion of jurisdiction over PSC personnel in U.S. courts, identifying possible means of prosecuting contractor personnel who are accused of violating the law overseas in the context of U.S. military operations. Finally, the report briefly discusses the possible implication of the roles of private security contractors with respect to inherently governmental functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627137/
Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense-- Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the changing role and finance of sea-based systems in U.S. ballistic missile defense (BMD). Decisions that Congress reaches on this issue could affect U.S. BMD capabilities and funding requirements; the size, capabilities, and operational patterns of the Navy and the other services; and the shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627035/
VH-71/VXX Presidential Helicopter Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the VH-71 program, which is intended to provide 23 new presidential helicopters to replace the current fleet of 19 aging presidential helicopters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626953/
V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses background information on the V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft, as well as procurement and related oversight issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627093/
National Security Letters: Proposed Amendments in the 111th Congress
This report includes a chart comparing the provisions of the bills and current law. It also reprints the text of the five National Security Letters (NSL) statutes as they now appear and as they appeared prior to amendment by the USA PATRIOT Act (to which form they would have returned under some of the bills). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505490/
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current state of Bahrain, which has undergone substantial political reforms since the late 1990s, but which still suffers from tension between the Shiite majority and the Sunni-led government. This report focuses particularly on Bahrain's relationship with Iran and Bahrain's relationship with the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29485/
Pay-for-Performance: Lessons from the National Security Personnel System
This report reviews the creation of the National Security Personnel System (NSPS), examines how NSPS operates, discusses litigation against it, and analyzes lessons that can be learned from NSPS as Congress decides whether to maintain the GS, create a new federal pay system, or modify existing ones. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505448/
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