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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Environment and the World Trade Organization (WTO) at Seattle: Issues and Concerns
This meeting of the decision making body of the WTO was expected to make decisions that would lead to another round of negotiations on a wide variety of trade rules and related issues. Although the United States continues to assert the necessity of pursuing the twin goals of free trade and environmental protection and to argue that these need not be in conflict, controversy remains over how the multilateral trading system should address the specifics of environmental issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1004/
IMF and World Bank: U.S. Contributions and Agency Budgets
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs842/
Nuclear Sanctions: Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act and Its Application to India and Pakistan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1000/
The World Trade Organization (WTO) Seattle Ministerial Conference
On November 30th to December 3rd, 1999, the highest decision-making body of the World Trade Organization (WTO), called the Ministerial Conference, will meet in Seattle to make broad policy decisions. The key issue for the trade ministers attending the meeting will be to decide on the structure and topics for the agenda of a new round of multilateral trade negotiations. Countries have committed to discuss agriculture and services trade in the new round. Other items that have been proposed for inclusion in the new round or for earlier consideration include tariff reductions, concessions for developing countries, labor issues and the environment, and the WTO decision-making process. Major labor, environmental, and consumer interest groups are expected to be present in Seattle to argue for more consideration of workers' rights and the environment within the WTO. This report provides a summary background on preparations for the Ministerial and related issues of congressional interest. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1002/
Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law
This report provides background on foreign policy sanctions. It addresses the following questions: Why do we apply sanctions? What objectives does the U.S. government seek to achieve when it imposes sanctions? Who imposes sanctions? What tools are available? How likely is it that sanctions will achieve the stated goal? What secondary consequences might sanctions have? What change is required for the sanctions to be lifted? Would multilateral sanctions be more desirable and achievable? The report also provides an uncomplicated map of where sanctions policies and options currently may be found in U.S. law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6971/
CBI/NAFTA Parity Proposals: A Comparison
The tariff and quota treatment of U.S. imports from Mexico under the North American Free Trade Agreement has resulted in a distinct and increasing competitive disadvantage for imports from the beneficiary countries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA). To eliminate this disadvantage, proposals have been made to extend to imports from Caribbean Basin countries preferential treatment equivalent to that accorded imports of identical goods from Mexico. This report compares the provisions of four such proposals: Title I of H.R. 984, Title I of S. 371, H.R. 1834, and S. 1389. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1033/
Country Applicability of the U.S. Most-Favored-Nation Status
The United States accords permanent most-favored-nation (MFN) treatment to all its trading partners except six countries to which it is denied by law and 14 countries whose MFN status is temporary and subject to the conditions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1032/
Drug Certification of Mexico in 1999: Arguments For and Against Congressional Resolutions of Disapproval
This report presents arguments for and against congressional resolutions to disapprove President Clinton’s February 26, 1999 certification of Mexico as a fully cooperative country in efforts to control illicit narcotics.1 These resolutions (H.J.Res. 35--Bachus, and H.J.Res. 43--Mica and Gilman) would disapprove the President’s certification, but would permit him to avoid withholding of assistance to Mexico if he determined that vital national interests required such assistance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs952/
Waste Trade and the Basel Convention: Background and Update
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs783/
Russian Missile Technology and Nuclear Reactor Transfers to Iran
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6968/
U.S.-European Agricultural Trade: Food Safety and Biotechnology Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs518/
Fast-Track Trade Negotiating Authority: A Comparison of 105th Congress Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs585/
China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Background and Chronology
Members of Congress are concerned about whether U.S. firms have provided technology or expertise to China for use in its ballistic missile program and whether a series of decisions by the Clinton Administration on satellite exports have facilitated legal or illegal transfers of missile-related technology to China. The New York Times reported in April 1998 that the Justice Department is conducting an ongoing criminal investigation into whether Loral Space and Communications (of New York), and Hughes Electronics (of Los Angeles) violated export control laws. The firms are alleged to have shared their findings with China on the cause of a Chinese rocket’s explosion while launching a U.S.-origin satellite in February 1996. In sharing their conclusions, the companies are said to have provided expertise that China could use to improve its ballistic missiles, including their guidance systems. This CRS report provides detailed background information, significant Congressional action, and a comprehensive chronology. The events summarized here, based on various open sources and interviews, pertain to various aspects of U.S. foreign and security policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs802/
Russian Missile Technology and Nuclear Reactor Transfers to Iran
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs800/
U.S. Agriculture and the International Monetary Fund
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs514/
Fast-Track Trade Negotiating Authority: A Comparison of 105th Congress Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs584/
Trade Agreements: Renewing the Negotiating and Fast-Track Implementing Authority
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs598/
Transfer of Missile and Satellite Technology to China: A Summary of H.Res. 463 Authorizing a House Select Committee
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs804/
The U.S. Tobacco Industry in Domestic and World Markets
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs513/
Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law
This report provides background on foreign policy sanctions and the events that might necessitate their use, criteria to consider when determining if sanctions are appropriate, approaches that might be effective, and aspects of the use of sanctions that are sometimes overlooked or not considered fully. The report also provides an uncomplicated map of where sanctions policies and options currently may be found in U.S. law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs730/
Asian Financial Crisis: An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Policy Interests and Options
The principal focus of this report is on the foreign policy ramifications of the Asian financial crisis and U.S. options for addressing them. This report tracks and analyzes the efforts of the most seriously affected Asian countries to deal with their economic and financial problems, and their interaction with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the United States, and other major sources of financial support and policy advice. It also addresses the implications of the crisis for such U.S. interests as regional stability and the prevention of conflict, trade liberalization, and U.S. regional and global leadership, and discusses the principal factors that could influence the duration and severity of the crisis. A final section considers options for Congress in the context of various criticisms of the IMF’s stabilization programs and the operations of the Fund itself. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs692/
Multilateral Agreement on Investment: Implications for the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs811/
Africa: Trade and Development Initiatives by the Clinton Administration and Congress
In February 1997, the Clinton Administration submitted the second of five annual reports on the Administration's Comprehensive Trade and Development Policy for Africa as required by section 134 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (House Document 103-3415, Vol. 1.). On April 24, 1997, members of the African Trade and Investment Caucus introduced a bill, H.R. 1432, on U.S.-Africa trade and investment issues. In his State of the Union address in January 1998, President Clinton called on Congress to pass the trade legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs813/
Country Applicability of the U.S. Most-Favored-Nation Status
The United States accords permanent most-favored-nation (MFN) treatment to all its trading partners except six countries to which it is denied by law and 14 countries whose MFN status is temporary and subject to the conditions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs810/
Maquiladoras and NAFTA: The Economics of U.S.-Mexico Production Sharing and Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs812/
Oil Imports: An Overview and Update of Economic and Security Effects
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs432/
APEC and the 1997 Summit in Vancouver
This report discusses the November 25, 1997 summit held by leaders of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in Vancouver, B.C., Canada. The purpose of the summit was to further pursue the APEC agenda of endorsing a framework developed by APEC leaders' finance ministers to promote financial stability in the Asia-Pacific region and to supplement resources by the International Monetary Fund when necessary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs451/
Agriculture and Fast Track Trade Legislation
Senate and House committees in October reported legislation for new fast track authority enabling the Administration to negotiate trade agreements with foreign countries and to submit them to Congress for consideration under expedited procedures. Many agricultural and food industry interests are among the export-dependent enterprises that support new fast track authority, arguing that foreign trading partners will not seriously negotiate with an Administration that lacks it. However, some agricultural groups argue that fast track provides them with inadequate opportunities for dealing with their issues, and that it ultimately will lead to new agreements that benefit foreign more than U.S. producers, at least in some commodity sectors. Neither bill was taken to the floor in 1997 because of insufficient votes for passage in the House. However, the President is expected to seek approval in 1998. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs407/
Agricultural Exports: Technical Barriers to Trade
Technical barriers to trade (TBTs) are widely divergent measures that countries use to regulate rnarkets, protect their consumers, and preserve natural resources, but which can also discriminate against imports in favor of domestic products. Most TBTs in agriculture are sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures designed to protect humans, animals, and plants from contaminants, diseases, and pests. In the wake of new trade agreements aimed at reducing tariffs, import quotas, and other trade barriers, TBTs have become more prominent concerns for agricultural exporters and policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs380/
Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law
This report provides background on the range of actions that might be termed foreign policy sanctions and the events that might necessitate their use. Criteria are offered that legislators might consider to judge when sanctions might be appropriate, approaches that might be effective, aspects of the use of sanctions that are sometimes overlooked or not considered fully. The report provides an uncomplicated "map" of where sanctions policies and options currently lay in U. S. law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs465/
China: U.S. Economic Sanctions
This report presents a history of U.S. economic sanctions imposed against the People's Republic of China for foreign policy reasons since 1949. It highlights sanctions that are currently active and details occasions on which those restrictions have been modified, waived or permanently lifted. The report provides citations for Presidential authority in current law and the Administration's issuance of regulations and administrative orders. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs450/
Generalized System of Preferences
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs495/
NAFTA: Economic Effects on the United States After Three Years
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs496/
U.S. Economic Sanctions Through 1996
Since the early 1960s, the United States has imposed a range of economic sanctions on Cuba, the most prominent of which is a comprehensive embargo prohibiting trade with Cuba. This Congressional Research Service report first provides an overview of U.S.-Cuba relations and U.S. policy toward Cuba. It then examines the history and current legislative and executive authorities of the various components of U.S. sanctions against Cuba, including aid, trade, and other restrictions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26077/
Export Administration Legislation
This report discusses briefly the major export control provisions that existed under EAA-1979 and the current authorities for regulating exports. It then summarizes the major export control provisions of the proposed EAA-1996 and discusses some aspects of the bill that may be debated in Congress and the press. Highlighted are implications for nonproliferation policy, for national security and foreign policy, and for business; other topics covered are foreign boycott provisions, criminal and civil penalties, and judicial review. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs363/
Softwood Lumber Imports: The 1996 U.S.-Canada Agreement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6357/
China-U.S.-Taiwan Economic Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs336/
China's Most-Favored-Nation Status: U.S. Wheat, Corn, and Soybean Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6361/
Legislative Procedure for Disapproving the Renewal of China's Most-Favored-Nation Status
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs362/
The China-U.S. Intellectual Property Rights Dispute: Background and Implications for China-U.S. Economic Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs334/
China, Congress, and Sanctions - Findings of a Workshop-Seminar
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs333/
U.S.-Japan Trade: Framework Talks and Other Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs338/
The Federal Reserve's Arrangement for Emergency Loans to Japanese Banks
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs212/
U.S. Trade: Proposals to Reorganize the Trade Policy Structure
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs269/
APEC and Free Trade in the Asia Pacific
This report discusses the summit held by President Bill Clinton and other leaders of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) on November 19, 1995. The report discusses the primary reason for the summit, an Action Agenda intended to lead to free and open trade and investment among its members. The report also discusses how APEC countries were divided on certain issues going into this summit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs261/
Vietnam-U.S. Relations: The Debate Over Normalization
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs215/
U.S.-Japan Trade: Framework Talks and Other Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs224/
The 1995 Japan-U.S. Auto and Parts Trade Dispute: Terms of the Settlement and Implications
On June 28, 1995, the United States and Japan reached a settlement in a long-running dispute over access to Japan's market for automobiles and parts. 100-percent tariffs by the United States on imports of luxury cars from Japan had been threatened under a Section 301 unfair trade practices case dealing with the aftermarket for autoparts in Japan. This report describes the dispute, the settlement, and questions and issues that still remain. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs268/
Japanese Trade Balance and Exchange Rate: Seeing Through the Numbers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs266/
U.S.-Japan Trade: Framework Talks and Other Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs223/
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