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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Appropriations for FY2000: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs

Appropriations for FY2000: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs

Date: December 10, 1999
Creator: Nowels, Larry
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Foreign Operations Appropriations Subcommittees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law

Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law

Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E & Shuey, Robert
Description: This report provides background on foreign policy sanctions. It addresses the following questions: Why do we apply sanctions? What objectives does the U.S. government seek to achieve when it imposes sanctions? Who imposes sanctions? What tools are available? How likely is it that sanctions will achieve the stated goal? What secondary consequences might sanctions have? What change is required for the sanctions to be lifted? Would multilateral sanctions be more desirable and achievable? The report also provides an uncomplicated map of where sanctions policies and options currently may be found in U.S. law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Jerusalem: The U.S. Embassy and P.L. 104-45

Jerusalem: The U.S. Embassy and P.L. 104-45

Date: September 22, 1999
Creator: Mark, Clyde R.
Description: Report discussing the legislation proposal to move the U.S. embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Kosovo: Review and Analysis of Policy Objectives, 1998-June 1999

Kosovo: Review and Analysis of Policy Objectives, 1998-June 1999

Date: July 21, 1999
Creator: Kim, Julie
Description: This report provides an overview of U.S. and international policy objectives in Kosovo from 1998 to mid-1999, when NATO ended an 11-week air strike operation against Yugoslavia (Serbia) and began to deploy a U.N.-authorized peacekeeping force in Kosovo. It reviews stated objectives at various points during this period. It provides an analysis of how certain policy objectives evolved and discusses the extent to which they were or were not achieved.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Coal Use in China and Other Asian Developing Countries

Global Climate Change: Coal Use in China and Other Asian Developing Countries

Date: June 16, 1999
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Description: Report discussing factors behind China's planned reliance on coal for future energy growth, including background information, factors in Asian coal use trends, Asian and world energy demands, the Asian coal and world markets, CO2 emissions trends, projected energy supply and emissions from other sources, and general conclusions regarding the issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Kosovo Conflict: Russian Responses and Implications for the United States

Kosovo Conflict: Russian Responses and Implications for the United States

Date: June 2, 1999
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress

Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress

Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Description: he United States Constitution divides foreign policy powers between the President and the Congress so that both share in the making of foreign policy. The executive and legislative branches each play important roles that are different but that often overlap. Both branches have continuing opportunities to initiate and change foreign policy, and the interaction between them continues indefinitely throughout the life of a policy. This report reviews and illustrates 12 basic ways that the United States can make foreign policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Kosovo's Future Status: Alternative Models

Kosovo's Future Status: Alternative Models

Date: May 26, 1999
Creator: Miko, Francis T
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Missile Defense and the ABM Treaty: Overview of Recent Events

National Missile Defense and the ABM Treaty: Overview of Recent Events

Date: March 19, 1999
Creator: Woolf, Amy F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China and U.S. Missile Defense Proposals: Reactions and Implications

China and U.S. Missile Defense Proposals: Reactions and Implications

Date: March 17, 1999
Creator: Sutter, Robert G
Description: The Chinese government has strongly criticized U.S. announcements that it will develop or assist in deploying missile defense systems involving cooperation with U.S. allies in East Asia, and reports of such possible U.S. cooperation with Taiwan. For those in the United States, the U.S. plans have many perceived disadvantages and advantages;1 the latter include notably providing degrees of protection for the United States and its allies against ballistic missile attack. Many in China believe that proposed U.S. development and deployment of ballistic missile defenses at home and in East Asia pose potentially serious complications for China’s ability to use its nuclear weapons to deter possible U.S. pressure and aggression, and to use Chinese ballistic missile capability to exert leverage over Japan, Taiwan, and others in East Asia.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russian Missile Technology and Nuclear Reactor Transfers to Iran

Russian Missile Technology and Nuclear Reactor Transfers to Iran

Date: December 14, 1998
Creator: Goldman, Stuart D; Katzman, Kenneth; Shuey, Robert & Behrens, Carl E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY1999: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs

Appropriations for FY1999: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs

Date: November 2, 1998
Creator: Nowels, Larry
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Foreign Operations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraqi Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Capabilities

Iraqi Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Capabilities

Date: September 4, 1998
Creator: Bowman, Steven R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Research and Development in Russia: An Important Factor for the Future

Research and Development in Russia: An Important Factor for the Future

Date: August 24, 1998
Creator: Boesman, William C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Indonesia: U.S. Relations With the Indonesian Military

Indonesia: U.S. Relations With the Indonesian Military

Date: August 10, 1998
Creator: Niksch, Larry
Description: This report describes the history and the issues involved in the longstanding differences between Congress and the executive branch over U.S. policy toward the Indonesian military (ABRI). The report describes two past episodes when these differences broke out: the period of Indonesian radicalism under President Sukarno in the early 1960s and the initial years of the Indonesian military occupation of East Timor in the late 1970s. It outlines the different views of the Indonesian military between its congressional critics and executive branch officials who have promoted close U.S. relations with it.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russian Missile Technology and Nuclear Reactor Transfers to Iran

Russian Missile Technology and Nuclear Reactor Transfers to Iran

Date: July 29, 1998
Creator: Goldman, Stuart D; Katzman, Kenneth; Shuey, Robert & Behrens, Carl E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taiwan: Texts of the Taiwan Relations Act, the U.S. - China Communiques, and the "Six Assurances"

Taiwan: Texts of the Taiwan Relations Act, the U.S. - China Communiques, and the "Six Assurances"

Date: July 13, 1998
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: This report discusses the U.S. policy on Taiwan, which is governed by the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), the 3 U.S. joint communiqués with China, and the so-called "Six Assurances" on Taiwan.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Religious Persecution Abroad: Congressional Concerns and Actions

Religious Persecution Abroad: Congressional Concerns and Actions

Date: June 25, 1998
Creator: Bite, Vita
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Changing Conditions: Possible Implications for US Interests

China's Changing Conditions: Possible Implications for US Interests

Date: June 22, 1998
Creator: Sutter, Robert G
Description: This report discusses possible outcomes and implications for U.S. interests vary. For example, increasingly effective political administration and reform with continued successful economic modernization would be generally compatible with U.S. interests in greater economic opportunity, foreign policy cooperation, and political liberalization in China. Alternatively, Chinese administration, economic vitality, and internal cohesion could degenerate, limiting U.S. economic opportunities, challenging U.S. interests in stability in East Asia, but also diminishing potential threats from a strong China. Finally, China could develop formidable economic power while retaining authoritarian political control, with China emerging as a world power less interested in accommodating U.S. interests than in opposing them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran: Arms and Technology Acquisitions

Iran: Arms and Technology Acquisitions

Date: June 22, 1998
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China: Pending Legislation in the 105th Congress

China: Pending Legislation in the 105th Congress

Date: June 19, 1998
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: This report tracks pending human rights legislation, including bills concerning: prison conditions and prison labor exports (H.R. 2195, H.R. 2358); coercive abortion practices (H.R. 2570); China’s policies toward religion (H.R. 967, H.R. 2431); and more general human rights issues (H.R. 2095). Other bills concern Taiwan — in particular, Taiwan’s entry into the World Trade Organization (H.Res. 190) and the U.S. role in helping Taiwan with a theater missile defense system (H.R. 2386). Also, legislation is pending on China’s missile proliferation activities (H.Res. 188), Radio Free Asia broadcasting to China (H.R. 2232), China’s participation in multilateral institutions (H.R. 1712, H.R. 2605), and the activities of China’s military and intelligence services (H.R. 2647, H.R. 2190).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China: Pending Legislation in the 105th Congress

China: Pending Legislation in the 105th Congress

Date: June 19, 1998
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: The 105 Congress has been active on issues involving China. This report, which will be updated as developments occur, tracks pending human rights legislation, including bills concerning: prison conditions and prison labor exports; coercive abortion practices; China’s policies toward religion; and more general human rights issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Kosovo and U.S. Policy

Kosovo and U.S. Policy

Date: June 16, 1998
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hong Kong After Its Return to China: Implications for US Interests

Hong Kong After Its Return to China: Implications for US Interests

Date: June 10, 1998
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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