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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2008
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Job Loss and Infrastructure Job Creation During the Recession

Job Loss and Infrastructure Job Creation During the Recession

Date: December 23, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: The report examines trends in employment and job loss since the start of the latest recession then focuses on job creation estimates associated with increased spending on infrastructure, placing a heavy emphasis on explaining the limitations with the methodology that is often utilized to develop the estimates.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration-Related Worksite Enforcement: Performance Measures

Immigration-Related Worksite Enforcement: Performance Measures

Date: December 2, 2008
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: Over the past few years, the media have been filled with reports about worksite enforcement operations, commonly referred to as immigration raids. These operations represent the public face of efforts by the Department of Homeland Security to curtail the employment of unauthorized immigrants. According to 2006 estimates, there are some 7.8 million unauthorized workers in the U.S. civilian workforce. Enforcement activity by the Department of Labor (DOL) is also relevant to a discussion of federal efforts to curtail unauthorized employment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Converting Retirement Savings into Income: Annuities and Periodic Withdrawals

Converting Retirement Savings into Income: Annuities and Periodic Withdrawals

Date: December 1, 2008
Creator: Mulvey, Janemarie & Purcell, Patrick
Description: To a worker contemplating retirement, there is perhaps no more important question than "How long will my money last?" Congress has a strong interest in the income security of older Americans because much of their income is either provided directly from public programs like Social Security, or in the case of pensions and retirement accounts, is subsidized through tax deductions and deferrals. This report looks at strategies to help deal with the following risks: longevity, investment, inflation, and unexpected events.
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Converting Retirement Savings into Income: Annuities and Periodic Withdrawals

Converting Retirement Savings into Income: Annuities and Periodic Withdrawals

Date: December 1, 2008
Creator: Mulvey, Janemarie & Purcell, Patrick
Description: To a worker contemplating retirement, there is perhaps no more important question than "How long will my money last?" Congress has a strong interest in the income security of older Americans because much of their income is either provided directly from public programs like Social Security, or in the case of pensions and retirement accounts, is subsidized through tax deductions and deferrals. This report discusses risks involved with retirement fund disbursement and strategies for dealing with such risks.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Date: November 24, 2008
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians. This report addresses this issue at length, including the arguments for and against the agreement, as well as general U.S.-Colombia economic relations.
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Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Date: November 24, 2008
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians. This report addresses this issue at length, including the arguments for and against the agreement, as well as general U.S.-Colombia economic relations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Worker Safety in the Construction Industry: The Crane and Derrick Standard

Worker Safety in the Construction Industry: The Crane and Derrick Standard

Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report first examines the incidence of fatal and nonfatal on-the-job injuries in the private sector. It next analyzes the causes of fatalities in the construction industry and the involvement of cranes in those deaths. The report then addresses the status of a proposed rule to update the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) crane and derrick standard. It closes with an overview of jurisdictions having safety regulations for cranes more stringent, in whole or part, than the existing federal standard.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Temporary Farm Labor: The H-2A Program and the U.S. Department of Labor's Proposed Changes in the Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)

Temporary Farm Labor: The H-2A Program and the U.S. Department of Labor's Proposed Changes in the Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)

Date: November 6, 2008
Creator: Mayer, Gerald
Description: This report begins with a description of the H-2A program. Next, the report explains how the AEWR is currently determined and how it would be calculated under the proposed regulations. Finally, the report examines some potential effects of the proposed change in the AEWR on the wages and employment of foreign and U.S. workers on U.S. farms.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal White-Collar Pay: FY2009 Salary Adjustments

Federal White-Collar Pay: FY2009 Salary Adjustments

Date: October 23, 2008
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L.
Description: This report discusses the federal white-collar employee pay. The annual pay adjustment is based on the Employment Cost Index (ECI), which measures changes in private-sector wages and salaries.
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Pay-for-Performance: Linking Employee Pay to Performance Appraisal

Pay-for-Performance: Linking Employee Pay to Performance Appraisal

Date: October 20, 2008
Creator: Ginsberg, Wendy
Description: This report discusses issues related to measuring performance across the federal government and analyzes a variety of methods utilized by the government to measure employee performance and its linkage to pay.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Federal Civil Service Annuities

Cost-of-Living Adjustments for Federal Civil Service Annuities

Date: October 16, 2008
Creator: Purcell, Patrick
Description: Cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS) are based on the rate of inflation as measured by the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W). All CSRS retirees and survivors receive COLAs. Under FERS, however, non-disabled retirees under age 62 do not receive COLAs. This report discusses cost-of-living adjustments for government retirees, as well as related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Social Security: The Cost-of-Living Adjustment in January 2009

Social Security: The Cost-of-Living Adjustment in January 2009

Date: October 16, 2008
Creator: Sidor, Gary
Description: The 5.8% COLA payable in January 2009 was triggered by the rise in the CPI-W from the third quarter of 2007 to the third quarter of 2008. This COLA triggers identical percentage increases in Supplemental Security Income (SSI), veterans' pensions, and railroad retirement benefits, and causes other changes in the Social Security program. Although COLAs under the federal Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and the federal military retirement program are not triggered by the Social Security COLA, these programs use the same measuring period and formula for computing their COLAs. Their recipients will also receive a 5.8% COLA in January 2009.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Coverage of Contagious Diseases

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Coverage of Contagious Diseases

Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Jones, Nancy Lee
Description: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), provides broad nondiscrimination protection for individuals with disabilities in employment public services, public accommodations and services operated by private entities, transportation, and telecommunication. This report briefly discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act's statutory provisions relating to contagious diseases and relevant judicial interpretations.
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Taxation of Unemployment Benefits

Taxation of Unemployment Benefits

Date: October 14, 2008
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Description: Unemployment compensation (UC) benefits have been fully subject to the federal income tax since the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514). Individuals who receive UC benefits during a year may elect to have the federal (and in some cases state) income tax withheld from their benefits. H.R. 6844 would provide a two-year suspension of the taxation of UC benefits. This report provides an overview of the taxation of UC benefits and legislation related to taxing UC benefits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Haitian Economy and the HOPE Act

The Haitian Economy and the HOPE Act

Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: This report discusses the HOPE Act as it relates to the Haitian economy and U.S. trade policy. In providing preferential access to Haitian apparel imports, the HOPE Act, as amended, gives Haitian firms a competitive (price) advantage over other foreign producers who must pay U.S. duties on apparel exports made from yarns and fabrics supplied by non-regional (e.g., Asian) producers.
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The Federal Workforce: Characteristics and Trends

The Federal Workforce: Characteristics and Trends

Date: September 30, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Curtis W.
Description: This report discusses the federal workforce, which is also expected by some to reflect the gender, racial, and ethnic diversity of the country as a whole. In addition, understanding recent changes in the overall size and composition of the federal workforce can indicate what changes may lie in the future.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Base Closures: Socioeconomic Impacts

Military Base Closures: Socioeconomic Impacts

Date: September 19, 2008
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock & Webel, Baird
Description: The most recent Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission submitted its final report to the Administration on September 8, 2005. In the report, the commission rejected 13 of the initial Department of Defense recommendations, significantly modified the recommendations for 13 other installations, and approved 22 major closures. The loss of related jobs, and efforts to replace them and to implement a viable base reuse plan, can pose significant challenges for affected communities. This report explores the potential economic impact of military closures on communities, especially rural communities, which are more heavily affected by such closures and suffer from slower economic recovery times in such instances.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Older Workers: Employment and Retirement Trends

Older Workers: Employment and Retirement Trends

Date: September 15, 2008
Creator: Purcell, Patrick
Description: This report begins by describing the change in the age distribution of the U.S. population that will occur between 2005 and 2025 and by summarizing the historical data on the labor force participation of older workers. This discussion is followed by an analysis of data from the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey on employment and receipt of pension income among persons age 55 and older. Employment trends among older workers are then discussed in the context of data from the Social Security Administration on the proportion of workers who claim retired-worker benefits before the full retirement age (65 years and 10 months for people who turn 65 in 2008). The final section of the report discusses "phased retirement," a process that combines reduced hours of work with receipt of pension income.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Worker Safety in the Construction Industry: The Crane and Derrick Standard

Worker Safety in the Construction Industry: The Crane and Derrick Standard

Date: September 9, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report first examines the incidence of fatal and nonfatal on-the-job injuries in the private sector. It next analyzes the causes of fatalities in the construction industry and the involvement of cranes in those deaths. The report then addresses the status of a proposed rule to update the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) crane and derrick standard. It closes with an overview of jurisdictions having safety regulations for cranes more stringent, in whole or part, than the existing federal standard.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

Date: August 14, 2008
Creator: Seelke Clare, Ribando & Siskin, Alison
Description: This report focuses on human trafficking both internationally and within the United States. The report begins with an overview of human trafficking including a discussion of the definition of human trafficking, the scope of the problem globally, and an examination of the victims. It follows with an analysis of global antitrafficking efforts by the United States and the international community. The report then focuses on trafficking into and within the United States, examining relief for trafficking victims in the United States and discussing U.S. law enforcement efforts to combat domestic trafficking. The report concludes with an overview of antitrafficking legislation in the 110th Congress, and an analysis of policy issues related to human trafficking.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unemployment Compensation (Insurance) and Military Service

Unemployment Compensation (Insurance) and Military Service

Date: August 5, 2008
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Description: The Unemployment Compensation (UC) program contains several provisions relevant to current and former military service personnel and their families. The UC program does not provide benefits for military servicemembers on active duty. However, former active duty military personnel (and certain reservists) separated from active duty may be eligible for Unemployment Compensation for Ex-Servicemembers (UCX). Spouses of military service personnel who voluntarily quit a job to accompany their spouses on account of a military transfer may be eligible for UC benefits, based on the laws of the state where the civilian spouse was employed. States may choose to create provisions that remove or limit these tax increases in certain situations.
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Job Loss: Causes and Policy Implications

Job Loss: Causes and Policy Implications

Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: Job loss is one of the most important macroeconomic problems facing policymakers, both in terms of its economic and social cost. This report discusses factors that cause job loss and the policy implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Globalization, Worker Insecurity, and Policy Approaches

Globalization, Worker Insecurity, and Policy Approaches

Date: July 31, 2008
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Description: This report discusses the global economy, or what many call globalization, which has a growing impact on the economic futures of American companies, workers, and families. Increasing integration with the world economy makes the U.S. and other economies more productive. For most Americans, this has translated into absolute increases in living standards and real disposable incomes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Globalization, Worker Insecurity, and Policy Approaches

Globalization, Worker Insecurity, and Policy Approaches

Date: July 31, 2008
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Description: This report discusses the global economy, or what many call globalization, which has a growing impact on the economic futures of American companies, workers, and families. Increasing integration with the world economy makes the U.S. and other economies more productive. For most Americans, this has translated into absolute increases in living standards and real disposable incomes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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