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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2008
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the reasons that Iran is considered a threat to U.S. security, including Iran's nuclear program, involvement with terrorist organizations, and involvement with neighboring countries' local governments. The report also discusses ways which the U.S. hopes to modify Iran's behavior with sanctions, and the effectiveness of these sanctions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Strategic Arms Control After START: Issues and Options

Strategic Arms Control After START: Issues and Options

Date: December 23, 2008
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Description: This report provides background information about the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty and reviews the discussions about a possible successor to START. It also presents a range of alternatives that the United States and Russia might consider if they choose to follow START with a new framework for the arms control process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Terrorist Attacks in Mumbai, India, and Implications for U.S. Interests

Terrorist Attacks in Mumbai, India, and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: December 19, 2008
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: This report examines the November 26, 2008 terrorist attack on Mumbai, India that left 174 people dead and hundreds more injured. The report assesses the resulting tension between India and Pakistan, due to possible links between the attackers and the Lashkar-e-Taiba terrorist group, who are believed to have past ties with Pakistan's military and intelligence services. The report also examines the implications of the attack on U.S. foreign policy.
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Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

Date: December 18, 2008
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.; Cook, Colleen W. & Durand, Alessandra
Description: This report covers the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and U.S.-Mexico drug trafficking. It also looks at migration, environmental issues, legislation in the 110th Congress, and the relationship between the Bush Administration and Mexico.
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The Department of Defense Role in Foreign Assistance: Background, Major Issues, and Options for Congress

The Department of Defense Role in Foreign Assistance: Background, Major Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: December 9, 2008
Creator: Serafino, Nina M.
Description: This report begins with a brief introduction to the three areas in which DOD plays a role in foreign assistance and to Congress's part in authorizing that role and briefly discusses the general evolution of DOD's role and the Department of State's current perception of that role based on current national security needs. The report then provides an overview of the evolution of the DOD role and current activities in the three areas cited above, with a snapshot of the varying perspectives on the DOD roles in these areas.
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The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

Date: December 8, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report examines the political and economic landscape of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The UAE’s open economy and society have won praise, but lax export controls, particularly in the emirate of Dubai, are causing U.S. concern over proliferation of advanced technology; terrorist transiting; and human trafficking. The UAE undertook its first major electoral process in December 2006, although with a small, hand-picked electorate and for a body with limited powers.
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Rwanda: Background and Current Developments

Rwanda: Background and Current Developments

Date: December 4, 2008
Creator: Dagne, Ted
Description: This report discusses the current political conditions of Rwanda, including a brief historical overview. The report also includes information about the poor human rights conditions in Rwanda and U.S. Rwanda relations.
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Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Date: November 24, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the reasons that Iran is considered a threat to U.S. security, including Iran's nuclear program, involvement with terrorist organizations, and involvement with neighboring countries' local governments. The report also discusses ways which the U.S. hopes to modify Iran's behavior with sanctions, and the effectiveness of these sanctions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Date: November 24, 2008
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians. This report addresses this issue at length, including the arguments for and against the agreement, as well as general U.S.-Colombia economic relations.
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Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, continues to be riven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting. The Administration is optimistic that the passage of key laws in 2008, including a law to govern provincial elections to be held in early 2009, will sustain recent reductions in violence.
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Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Iraq's political system. The result of a U.S.-supported election process, it continues to be driven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pakistan's Capital Crisis: Implications for U.S. Policy

Pakistan's Capital Crisis: Implications for U.S. Policy

Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Martin, Michael F. & Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: Pakistan - a key U.S. ally in global efforts to combat Islamist militancy - is in urgent need of an estimated $4 billion in capital to avoid defaulting on its sovereign debt. The Pakistani government is seeking short-term financial assistance from a number of sources, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), China, and an informal group of nations (including the United States) known as the "Friends of Pakistan." The current crisis has placed some strain on U.S.-Pakistan relations.
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Vietnamese Victims of Agent Orange and U.S.-Vietnam Relations

Vietnamese Victims of Agent Orange and U.S.-Vietnam Relations

Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: According to various estimates, the U.S. military sprayed approximately 11-12 million gallons of Agent Orange over nearly 10% of Vietnamese territory between 1961 and 1971. This report examines various estimates of the effects of Agent Orange on Vietnam's people and environment, the history of U.S. policy on the issue, the current clean-up efforts in Vietnam, the various forms of assistance -- including U.S. assistance -- provided to people with medical conditions associated with dioxin exposure, and the implications for bilateral relations. It concludes with a brief discussion of possible congressional responses to the issue.
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China's Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues

China's Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues

Date: November 20, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M. & Labonte, Marc
Description: Many Members of Congress charge that China's policy of accumulating foreign reserves (especially U.S. dollars) to influence the value of its currency constitutes a form of currency manipulation intended to make its exports cheaper and imports into China more expensive than they would be under free market conditions. Although China made modest reforms to its currency policy in 2005, Members contend the forms have not gone far enough and have warned of potential legislative action. This report summarizes the main findings CRS Report RL32165, China's Currency: Economic Issues and Options for U.S. Trade Policy.
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China’s Holdings of U.S. Securities: Implications for the U.S. Economy

China’s Holdings of U.S. Securities: Implications for the U.S. Economy

Date: November 20, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M. & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report examines the importance to the U.S. economy of China’s investment in U.S. securities, as well as U.S. concerns over the possibility that China might unload a large share of those holdings, the likelihood that this would occur, and the potential implications such action could have for the U.S. economy. The report concludes that a large sell-off of Chinese Treasury securities holdings could negatively affect the U.S. economy, at least in the short-run. As a result, such a move could diminish U.S. demand for Chinese products and thus could lower China’s economic growth as well. The issue of China’s large holdings of U.S. securities is part of a broader question that has been raised by many economists: What are the implications of the heavy U.S. reliance on foreign investment to maintain healthy economic growth and to finance the budget deficit?
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Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

Date: November 20, 2008
Creator: Kerr, Paul K.
Description: This report examines the background of Iran's nuclear policy, the current status of Iran's nuclear facilities, the effects of international sanctions on Iran, recent sabotages on the Iran Enrichment Program, an estimated timeline of Iran's nuclear weapon capabilities, and whether or not Iran even has a nuclear weapons program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Date: November 19, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. It addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration. This report also discusses the continued tensions between various Iraqi sociocultural groups.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China and the Global Financial Crisis: Implications for the United States

China and the Global Financial Crisis: Implications for the United States

Date: November 17, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Description: Over the past several years, China has enjoyed one of the world's fastest growing economies and has been a major contributor to world economic growth. However, the current global financial crisis threatens to slow China's economy. China is a major economic power and holds huge amounts of foreign exchange reserves, and thus it could play a major role in responding to the current crisis. For example, in an effort to help stabilize the U.S. economy, China might boost its holdings of U.S. Treasury securities, which would help fund the Federal Government's purchases of troubled U.S. assets. However, this could raise a number of issues and concerns for U.S. policymakers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Relations with the United States

Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Relations with the United States

Date: November 14, 2008
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando
Description: This report includes background information on Bolivia's political unrest, particularly regarding instability in shifting leaderships, economic situation, and relations with the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

Date: November 14, 2008
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.; Cook, Colleen W. & Durand, Alessandra
Description: This report covers the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and U.S.-Mexico drug trafficking. It also looks at migration, environmental issues, legislation in the 110th Congress, and the relationship between the Bush Administration and Mexico.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China and the Global Financial Crisis: Implications for the United States

China and the Global Financial Crisis: Implications for the United States

Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Description: Over the past several years, China has enjoyed one of the world's fastest growing economies and has been a major contributor to world economic growth. However, the current global financial crisis threatens to slow China's economy. China is a major economic power and holds huge amounts of foreign exchange reserves, and thus it could play a major role in responding to the current crisis. For example, in an effort to help stabilize the U.S. economy, China might boost its holdings of U.S. Treasury securities, which would help fund the Federal Government's purchases of troubled U.S. assets. However, this could raise a number of issues and concerns for U.S. policymakers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview

Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview

Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Description: China is a major source of U.S. imports of consumer products (such as toys) and an increasingly important supplier of various food products. Reports of unsafe seafood, pet food, toys, tires, and other products imported from China over the past year or so have raised concern in the United States over the health, safety, and quality of imported Chinese products. This report provides an overview of this issue and implications for U.S.-China trade relations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: November 12, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Afghanistan's political transition, which was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005. Since then, insurgent threats to Afghanistan's government have escalated to the point that some experts are questioning the future of U.S. stabilization efforts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pakistan's Capital Crisis: Implications for U.S. Policy

Pakistan's Capital Crisis: Implications for U.S. Policy

Date: November 7, 2008
Creator: Martin, Michael F. & Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: Pakistan - a key U.S. ally in global efforts to combat Islamist militancy - is in urgent need of an estimated $4 billion in capital to avoid defaulting on its sovereign debt. The elected government of President Asif Ali Zardari and Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani is seeking short-term financial assistance from a number of sources, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), China, and an informal group of nations (including the United States) known as the "Friends of Pakistan." The current crisis has placed some strain on U.S.-Pakistan relations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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