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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2004
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004: "Lone Wolf" Amendment to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act

Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004: "Lone Wolf" Amendment to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act

Date: December 29, 2004
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Policy: Historical Overview, Conceptual Framework, and Continuing Issues

Energy Policy: Historical Overview, Conceptual Framework, and Continuing Issues

Date: December 21, 2004
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: Energy policy issues of continuing interest include whether or not to open up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for leasing; settlement upon a pipeline route to allow production of Alaskan natural gas; access to public lands for energy exploration and development; restructuring of the electric utility industry to encourage competition and consumer choice; raising corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for motor vehicles; seeking effective means to promote energy conservation using currently available technologies; and development of new technologies and alternative fuels. This report discusses those major policy approaches, provides a conceptual framework for categorizing energy policy proposals, and briefly describes issues that remain current in the debates over energy policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies

Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies

Date: December 21, 2004
Creator: Best Jr., Richard A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2005

Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2005

Date: December 20, 2004
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: This report provides background information on each defense-related environmental program, discusses key funding issues, and examines relevant provisions in authorization legislation and appropriations for FY2005.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Semiautomatic Assault Weapons Ban

Semiautomatic Assault Weapons Ban

Date: December 16, 2004
Creator: Krouse, William J.
Description: This report focuses on the use and interpretation of firearms trace data produced by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus

Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus

Date: December 15, 2004
Creator: Dale, Charles V.
Description: Affirmative action remains a focal point of public debate as the result of legal and political developments at the federal, state, and local levels. This report discusses legislation related to affirmative action, as well as legal rulings on the topic and the federal government's role in first establishing and, later, attempting to curb affirmative action policies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: This report summarizes major provisions of federal law and offers a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions which govern financial activity of federal election campaigns. The laws are based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, 1979, and 2002, and the Revenue Act of 1971.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Commodity Programs: Direct Payments, Counter-Cyclical Payments, and Marketing Loans

Farm Commodity Programs: Direct Payments, Counter-Cyclical Payments, and Marketing Loans

Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Monke, Jim
Description: This report discusses federal law that has authorized farm income and commodity price support programs for over 70 years.The 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171) authorizes the current programs for the 2002-2007 crop years. The payment framework combines direct payments of the 1996 farm bill (P.L. 104-127) with counter-cyclical payments of prior laws. Subsidies continue for wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, and rice, and soybeans and peanuts are added to the list of major crops. Dry peas, lentils, and chickpeas were added to the loan program, and wool, mohair, and honey were reinstated. This report covers grains, cotton, oilseeds, and peanuts. These commodities have similar rules, and generally account for about two-thirds of CCC outlays.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act: Implementation and Issues

Safe Drinking Water Act: Implementation and Issues

Date: December 8, 2004
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses key drinking water issues in the 108th Congress involving water infrastructure funding and problems caused by specific contaminants, such as the gasoline additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), perchlorate, and lead in drinking water. Congress last reauthorized the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1996, and although funding authority for most SDWA programs expired in FY2003, broad reauthorization efforts were not pursued as EPA, states, and water utilities continued implementing the 1996 amendments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Visa Issuances: Policy, Issues, and Legislation

Visa Issuances: Policy, Issues, and Legislation

Date: December 7, 2004
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report opens with an overview of visa issuances, with sections on procedures for aliens coming to live in the United States permanently and on procedures for aliens admitted for temporary stays. It includes a discussion of visa screening policies, including inadmissibility, databases, an analysis of visa refusals, biometric visas and other major visa policy procedures. Summaries of key laws revising visa policy enacted in the 107th Congress follows. The final section analyzes selected issues in the 108th Congress, notably the 9/11 Commission recommendations, visa revocation and removal, new technologies, potential impact on business, and other security concerns.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
9/11 Commission: Current Legislative Proposals for U.S. Immigration Law and Policy

9/11 Commission: Current Legislative Proposals for U.S. Immigration Law and Policy

Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report briefly discusses some of the major immigration areas under consideration in comprehensive reform proposals suggested by the 9/11 Commission, including asylum, biometric tracking systems, border security, document security, exclusion, immigration enforcement, and visa issuances. It refers to other CRS reports that discuss these issues in depth and will be updated as needed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act Issues in the 108th Congress

Clean Water Act Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the Clean Water Act. Prospects for legislative initiatives to comprehensively amend the Clean Water Act (CWA) have stalled for some time over whether and exactly how to change the law, and Congress has recently focused legislative attention on narrow bills to extend or modify selected CWA programs, rather than taking up comprehensive proposals. For example, the 108th Congress enacted one bill amending the CWA, legislation to reauthorize the National Estuary Program (H.R. 4731, P.L. 108-399).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Constitutionality of a Senate Filibuster of a Judicial Nomination

Constitutionality of a Senate Filibuster of a Judicial Nomination

Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Shampansky, Jay R
Description: This report provides an overview of the major issues which have been raised recently in the Senate regarding the Judicial Nominations, Filibusters, and the Constitution: When a Majority Is Denied Its Right to Consent and in the press concerning the constitutionality of a Senate filibuster (i.e., extended debate) of a judicial nomination.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies

Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies

Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Best Jr., Richard A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Commodity Programs: Honey

Farm Commodity Programs: Honey

Date: December 3, 2004
Creator: Canada, Carol
Description: This report discusses the honey price support program, which was first created by the Agricultural Act of 1949 (P.L. 81-439) to provide market price stability for honey producers and to encourage maintenance of sufficient bee populations for pollination
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
FDA Regulation of Tobacco Products: A Policy and Legal Analysis

FDA Regulation of Tobacco Products: A Policy and Legal Analysis

Date: December 3, 2004
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen & Feder, Jody
Description: This report examines the legislative debate over giving FDA the authority to regulate tobacco products and provides some analysis of S. 2461/H.R. 4433. It begins with an overview of the FDA’s 1996 tobacco rule that includes a summary of the agency’s arguments for asserting jurisdiction over tobacco products. That is followed by an analysis of the U.S. Supreme Court decision in FDA v. Brown & Williamson, which overturned the FDA tobacco rule. The report then reviews the 1997 proposed national tobacco settlement, which would have codified the FDA rule and given the agency explicit authority to regulate tobacco products as medical devices. It includes a discussion of the FDA provisions in the McCain tobacco bill, which was introduced and debated in the 105th Congress in an attempt to implement the proposed settlement. The final section of the report summarizes the provisions in S. 2461/H.R. 4433 and discusses some of the key issues, including preemption and the regulation of reduced-risk products.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues

Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues

Date: December 1, 2004
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Description: In the 108th Congress, debate over energy efficiency programs has focused on budget, oil, natural gas, and electricity issues, and provisions in the omnibus energy policy bill, S. 2095, H.R. 6, and S. 14/S. 1149. The Bush Administration’s FY2005 budget request for the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Energy Efficiency Program sought $875.9 million, including $543.9 for R&D and $332.0 million for grants. In the first session, the omnibus energy bill (H.R. 6) had several significant tax and regulatory measures for energy efficiency. It did not pass the Senate due to concerns about cost and an MTBE “safe harbor” provision.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tax Implications of SILOs, QTEs, and Other Leasing Transactions with Tax-Exempt Entities

Tax Implications of SILOs, QTEs, and Other Leasing Transactions with Tax-Exempt Entities

Date: November 30, 2004
Creator: Shvedov, Maxim
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Gambling: A Sketch of Legislative Proposals in the 108th Congress

Internet Gambling: A Sketch of Legislative Proposals in the 108th Congress

Date: November 29, 2004
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Gambling: An Abridged Overview of Federal Criminal Law

Internet Gambling: An Abridged Overview of Federal Criminal Law

Date: November 29, 2004
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Gambling: Overview of Federal Criminal Law

Internet Gambling: Overview of Federal Criminal Law

Date: November 29, 2004
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate and Omnibus Energy Legislation

Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate and Omnibus Energy Legislation

Date: November 24, 2004
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Description: This report discusses a variety of issues pertaining to energy policy. It includes information about most recent developments, background and analysis broken down into major categories, and relevant legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
School Choice: Current Legislation

School Choice: Current Legislation

Date: November 24, 2004
Creator: Smole, David P.
Description: This report provides an overview of current local, state, and federal policies and programs that support school choice and identifies and summarizes recent federal school choice legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Soil and Water Conservation Issues

Soil and Water Conservation Issues

Date: November 24, 2004
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A.
Description: This report discusses soil and water conservation, which were prominent farm policy topics in the 108th Congress as the Administration implemented provisions in the 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171). This farm bill increased spending and expanded the scope of the conservation effort by reauthorizing and amending most existing conservation programs and enacting new ones through FY2007.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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