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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of the key issues for Congress related to Egypt and U.S. foreign aid to Egypt. The United States has provided significant military and economic assistance to Egypt since the late 1970s. U.S. policymakers are now debating complex questions about the future of U.S.-Egypt relations, and these debates and events in Egypt are shaping consideration of appropriations and authorization legislation in the 114th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824679/
Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy
This report provides an overview of the situation in Ukraine, two years after the February 2014 collapse of the Kremlin-supported government of President Viktor Yanukovych. Following the collapse, there was an emergence of a pro-Western, pro-reform government and an energized public generally anxious to lessen Moscow's influence, committed to addressing the need for serious reform and determined to draw closer to Europe and the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824785/
FY2017 State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs Budget Request: In Brief
This report provides an overview and highlights of budget requests for the State Department, Foreign Operations, and Related Appropriations (SFOPS). It includes information from the previous fiscal years with an account-by-account comparison of the FY2017 request to the FY2016 estimates and FY2015 actuals in Appendix A. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824741/
Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report looks at Kuwait's relationships with its neighbors in the Persian Gulf, and its own political system which has been in turmoil since 2006. Kuwait remains pivotal to U.S. efforts to secure the Persian Gulf region because of its willingness to cooperate with U.S. strategy and military operations in the region and its proximity to both Iran and Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824504/
Additional U.S. Ground Troops to Counter the Islamic State? Five Questions
This report briefly discusses various arguments regarding the introduction of additional ground forces to secure territory once it has been taken back from the Islamic State. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824592/
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report examines the current political state of Afghanistan at length, discussing the political background, security policy, and regional relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824587/
Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons
This report discusses Pakistan's nuclear arsenal, which probably consists of approximately 110-130 nuclear warheads, although it could have more. Pakistan's nuclear arsenal is widely regarded as designed to dissuade India from taking military action against Pakistan, but Islamabad's expansion of its nuclear arsenal, development of new types of nuclear weapons, and adoption of a doctrine called "full spectrum deterrence" have led to concern about an increased risk of nuclear conflict between Pakistan and India. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824771/
Brazil: Background and U.S. Relations
This report discusses the current political and economic situation in Brazil and examines the U.S.'s commercial relationship with the country. The United States traditionally has enjoyed robust economic and political relations with Brazil on issues ranging from international development to climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824502/
The Islamic State and U.S. Policy
This report provides background on the Islamic State organization, discussing its goals, operations, and affiliates, as well as analyzing related U.S. legislative and policy debates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824525/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): In Brief
This report briefly summarizes some of the key controversial issues of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), including select market access issues (such as on dairy and other agricultural products, autos, and textiles and apparel) as well as the level of intellectual property protection, the scope and enforcement of environment and worker rights provisions, investor-state dispute settlement, access to government procurement, and the potential inclusion of provisions on currency valuation and exchange rates. The TPP is a proposed free trade agreement (FTA) among 12 Asia-Pacific countries, which the Obama Administration casts as comprehensive, with economic and strategic significance for the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824794/
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
This report provides an overview of the New Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START). The Obama Administration and outside analysts argue that New START strengthens strategic stability and enhances U.S. national security. Critics, however, question whether the treaty serves U.S. national security interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824634/
Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report describes the relationship between the United States and the Sultanate of Oman, especially with respect to Oman's support of U.S. efforts toward peace in the Middle East, the U.S. free trade agreement with Oman, and Oman's relatively close relations with Iran. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824637/
Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report discusses the kingdom of Saudi Arabia's relations with the United States; its stability, and its future trajectory are subjects of continuing congressional interest. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824586/
El Salvador: Background and U.S. Relations
This report examines El Salvador's recent history, as well as its current political, economic, and security/human rights challenges. It then analyzes key issues in U.S.-Salvadoran relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824413/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Strategic Implications
This report discusses selected strategic arguments related to the proposed 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade agreement (FTA) negotiations. The potential impacts of the agreement may be an active area of debate during the second session of the 114th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824718/
El Salvador: Background and U.S. Relations
This report examines El Salvador's recent history, as well as its current political, economic, and security/human rights challenges. It then analyzes key issues in U.S.-Salvadoran relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824579/
Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief discussion of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation with U.S. policy objectives in the Middle East. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824568/
Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions
This report identifies the legislative bases for sanctions imposed on Iran, and the nature of the authority to waive or lift those restrictions. It comprises two tables that present legislation and executive orders that are specific to Iran and its objectionable activities in the areas of terrorism, human rights, and weapons proliferation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824812/
Iran Sanctions
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides some examples, based on open sources, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824791/
Latin America and the Caribbean: Key Issues for the 114th Congress
This report provides an overview of U.S. policy toward Latin America and the Caribbean. It discusses the political and economic environment that affects U.S. relations, and then examines the Obama Administration's policy priorities in the region. The report then examines congressional interests in Latin America, looking at selected regional and country issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824566/
The U.S. Military Presence in Okinawa and the Futenma Base Controversy
This report provides background information on the U.S.-Japan alliance and discusses the politics of U.S. basing in Okinawa. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824609/
The European Union: Questions and Answers
This report serves as a primer on the European Union and provides a brief description of U.S.-EU relations that may be of interest in the 114th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824423/
Legislative Actions to Repeal, Defund, or Delay the Affordable Care Act
This report covers the overall relationship between the U.S. and North Korea, with an emphasis on nuclear diplomacy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824571/
North Korea: A Comparison of S. 1747, S. 2144, and H.R. 757
This report compares S. 1747, the North Korea Sanctions Enforcement Act of 2015, as introduced in the Senate by Senator Menendez on July 9, 2015; S. 2144, the North Korea Sanctions and Policy Enhancement Act of 2015, introduced in the Senate by Senator Gardner on October 6, 2015; and H.R. 757, the North Korea Sanctions Enforcement Act of 2015, introduced in the House by Representative Royce on February 5, 2015, and passed, as amended by the Committee on Foreign Affairs, by the House on January 12, 2016, by a vote of 418-2. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824539/
Iran, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses issues regarding Iran's political history and structure. It also takes a look at economic and defense policy responses for Congress, specifically focusing on Iran's nuclear capabilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824628/
Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons
This report discusses Pakistan's nuclear arsenal, which probably consists of approximately 110-130 nuclear warheads, although it could have more. Pakistan's nuclear arsenal is widely regarded as designed to dissuade India from taking military action against Pakistan, but Islamabad's expansion of its nuclear arsenal, development of new types of nuclear weapons, and adoption of a doctrine called "full spectrum deterrence" have led to concern about an increased risk of nuclear conflict between Pakistan and India. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824466/
U.S.-Mexico Security Cooperation After "El Chapo" Guzmán's January 2016 Recapture
This report discusses relations between the U.S. and Mexico following the escape and recapture of Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán from a maximum security federal prison near Mexico City in July 2015. One key concern for U.S. policymakers is whether the Mexican government will be able to hold Guzmán securely in the same prison from which he escaped and then extradite him swiftly to the United States--a source of tension in U.S.-Mexican relations. Another is whether Guzmán's recapture, which was supported by U.S. intelligence, will lead to closer security cooperation moving forward. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824698/
Iran Sanctions
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides some examples, based on open sources, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824670/
Cuba: Issues for the 114th Congress
This report is divided into three major sections analyzing Cuba's political and economic environment, U.S. policy, and selected issues in U.S.-Cuban relations. While legislative initiatives are noted throughout the report, a final section of the report provides a listing of bills and resolutions introduced in the 114th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824816/
American Agriculture and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement
This report identifies four considerations about the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement that are particularly relevant for U.S. food and agriculture. It includes a partial snapshot of some of the higher-profile improvements in market access for agricultural products in the agreement, a summary of selected provisions beyond market access that are of interest to food and agriculture, a brief overview of industry reactions to the agreement, and a review of what would need to occur for the agreement to enter into force for the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824454/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): In Brief
This report briefly summarizes some of the key provisions listed in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) that are seen as controversial. The TPP is a proposed free trade agreement (FTA) among 12 Asia-Pacific countries, which the Obama Administration casts as comprehensive, with economic and strategic significance for the United States. These controversial issues include select market access (such as on dairy and other agricultural products, autos, and textiles and apparel) as well as the level of intellectual property protection, the scope and enforcement of environment and worker rights provisions, the treatment of state-owned enterprises (SOEs), investor-state dispute settlement, access to government procurement, and the potential inclusion of provisions on currency valuation and exchange rates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824575/
U.S. Foreign Assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean: Recent Trends and FY2016 Appropriations
This report provides an overview of U.S. assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean. It analyzes historical and recent trends in aid to the region as well as the Obama Administration's FY2016 request for State Department and U.S Agency for International Development (USAID)-administered assistance. It also examines legislative developments on foreign aid appropriations for Latin America and the Caribbean in FY2016, and raises questions Congress may examine as it considers future appropriations for the region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824678/
State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts
This report briefly discusses the foreign operations appropriations legislation generally and then provides a short description of the various funding accounts as they appear in Division K, "Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2016," of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016 (P.L. 114-113). The State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriations legislation provides annual funding for almost all of the international affairs programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824541/
Iraq: Politics and Governance
This report provides background and analysis on the politics of Iraq, including its communities, its governing personalities and factions, security forces and militias, and the government's human rights record. The report does not provide a detailed analysis of the U.S.-led campaign to defeat Islamic State forces in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824437/
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current state of reform and foreign policy in Bahrain. The Bahrain government's use of repression against the unrest has presented a policy dilemma for the Obama Administration because Bahrain is a longtime ally that is pivotal to maintaining Persian Gulf security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824554/
Iran, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses issues regarding Iran's political history and structure. It also takes a look at economic and defense policy responses for Congress, specifically focusing on Iran's nuclear capabilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824684/
Haiti Under President Martelly: Current Conditions and Congressional Concerns
This report discusses the current political issues in Haiti and resulting U.S. policy objectives. The main priorities for U.S. policy regarding Haiti are to strengthen fragile democratic processes, continue to improve security, and promote economic development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795880/
Cuba: Issues for the 114th Congress
This report is divided into three major sections analyzing Cuba's political and economic environment, U.S. policy, and selected issues in U.S.-Cuban relations. A final section of the report provides a listing of bills and resolutions introduced in the 114th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795886/
Iran's Foreign Policy
This report provides an overview of Iran's foreign policy, which has been a subject of numerous congressional hearings and of sanctions and other legislation for many years. The report analyzes Iranian foreign policy as a whole and by region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795916/
The Islamic State--Frequently Asked Questions: Threats, Global Implications, and U.S. Policy Responses
With the attacks in Beirut, over Egypt, and in Paris, the Islamic State has demonstrated a transnational capability that suggests its strategic objectives and tactics have evolved. The response to these attacks by the United States and other nations continues to evolve as the threat posed by IS changes. This report poses frequently asked questions with answers excerpted from other CRS products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795925/
Malaysia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report analyzes U.S.-Malaysia relations and the economy, domestic politics, and diplomacy of Malaysia. It also provides background on current events and policy debates, as Congress has expressed interest in a variety of issues in U.S.-Malaysia relations, especially regarding trade, security cooperation, and human rights. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795858/
Iran-U.S. Air Service Not Imminent
This report discusses the prospect of bilateral air service between Iran and the United States to resume, after the July 2015 agreement in which Iran accepted strict limits on its nuclear program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795674/
The "Islamic State" and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the The Islamic State (IS, aka the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, ISIL/ISIS, or the Arabic acronym Daesh), which is a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group that controls large areas of Iraq and Syria, has adherents in several other countries, and disrupts regional and international security with violence and terrorism. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795829/
Poland and Its Relations with the United States: In Brief
This report provides an overview and assessment of the relationship between the Untied States and Poland over the last 25 years, including developmentents in Poland that are of interest to the U.S. Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795835/
Iraq: Politics and Governance
This report provides background and analysis on the politics of Iraq, including its communities, governing personalities and factions, security forces and militias, and the government's human rights record. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795640/
Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations In Brief
This report provides information and analysis relevant for Congress on the following: Assessments of U.S.-Turkey relations, Turkish foreign policy, and Turkey's strategic orientation, Turkish efforts to cooperate with the United States against the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq, and key issues regarding Turkey's domestic politics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795877/
U.S. Agent Orange/Dioxin Assistance to Vietnam
This report discusses U.S. assistance to Vietnam for the environmental and health damage attributed to a dioxin contained in Agent Orange and other herbicides sprayed over much of the southern portion of the country during the Vietnam War, which remains a major issue in bilateral relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795551/
Iran Sanctions
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides some examples, based on open sources, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795854/
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
This report provides an overview of the New Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START). The Obama Administration and outside analysts argue that New START strengthens strategic stability and enhances U.S. national security. Critics, however, question whether the treaty serves U.S. national security interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795845/
The Iran Hostages: Efforts to Obtain Compensation
This report outlines the history of various efforts relating to benefits for victims of the 1979-1981 Iran Hostage Crisis, and describes several bills currently before Congress: the Justice for Former American Hostages in Iran Act of 2015, S. 868, a companion bill, H.R. 3338, and Section 122 of the Department of State Operations Authorization and Embassy Security Act, Fiscal Year 2016, S. 1635. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795779/
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