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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
United States Fire Administration: An Overview
The U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) - which includes the National Fire Academy (NFA) - is currently an entity within the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The objective of the USFA is to significantly reduce the nation's loss of life from fire, while also achieving a reduction in property loss and non-fatal injury due to fire. In the 112th Congress, debate over the USFA budget focuses on whether the USFA is receiving sufficient funding to accomplish its mission, given that appropriations for USFA have consistently been well below the agency's authorized level. An ongoing issue is the viability and status of the USFA and National Fire Academy within the Department of Homeland Security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33077/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and presents potential issues (and costs) for Congress concerning the Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103176/
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects
This report discusses the causes of funding gaps and shutdowns of the federal government, processes that are associated with shutdowns, and how agency operations may be affected by shutdowns. The report concludes with a discussion of potential issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103227/
Tax Policy Options for Deficit Reduction
This report analyzes various revenue options for deficit reduction and highlights proposals made by the President's Fiscal Commission and the Debt Reduction Task Force. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103127/
FY2011 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues
This report focuses on the annual defense authorization process. It includes discussions of pay raises, insurance, social programs, and other personnel policy issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103102/
Limitations in Appropriations Measures: An Overview of Procedural Issues
This report deals with the procedure and scope of appropriations limitations within the House and the Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103124/
Legislative Branch: FY2011 Appropriations
This report discusses budgetary issues of the legislative branch of the U.S. government during Fiscal Year 2011. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103093/
Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy
This report provides an overview of the U.S. foreign assistance program by answering frequently asked questions on the subject. It is intended to provide a broad view of foreign assistance over time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103053/
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and oversight issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. The Navy's proposed FY2012 budget requests procurement funding for the 15th and 16th Virginia-class boats, and advance procurement (AP) funding for Virginia-class boats to be procured in future years. Decisions that Congress makes on procurement of Virginia-class boats could substantially affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122287/
Peacekeeping/Stabilization and Conflict Transitions: Background and Congressional Action on the Civilian Response/Reserve Corps and other Civilian Stabilization and Reconstruction Capabilities
This report focuses on the establishment of the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS) in the Office of the Secretary of State, and on the Civilian Reserve Corps (CRC). This report provides background on this initiative, its progression from the Bush Administration through the Obama Administration, and items under consideration in the 112th Congress relating to continued funding of S/CRS and the CRC. It also discusses proposals and tracks related legislative action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103180/
Limiting Central Government Budget Deficits: International Experiences
This report focuses on how major developed and emerging-market country governments, particularly the G-20 and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, limit their fiscal deficits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103083/
Renewable Energy R&D Funding History: A Comparison with Funding for Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Energy Efficiency R&D
This report provides a cumulative history of Department of Energy (DOE) funding for renewable energy compared with funding for the other energy technologies-nuclear energy, fossil energy, and energy efficiency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31502/
Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
Report that provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program. Issues for Congress concerning the Aegis BMD program include whether to approve, reject, or modify MDA and Navy funding requests for the program, and whether to provide MDA or the Navy with additional direction concerning the program. Congress's decisions regarding the Aegis BMD program could substantially affect U.S. BMD capabilities and funding requirements, U.S. Navy ship force levels and operating patterns, and the defense industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228054/
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
Report that discusses issues Congress faces regarding the Navy's proposed FY2011 budget, particularly as relating to destroyer procurement plans and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227986/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
Report that provides background information for Congress concerning the U.S. Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans. It includes information about costs and issues, such as the planned size of the Navy, the rate of ship procurement, and the affordability of the plans. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228002/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
Report that provides background information and presents potential issues (and costs) for Congress concerning the U.S. Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228001/
Navy LPD-17 Amphibious Ship Procurement: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress
Report concerning the Navy's FY2011-FY2015 shipbuilding plan calls for procuring an 11th and final San Antonio (LPD-17) class amphibious ship in FY2012. This report discusses the procurement cost estimates of this ship, as well as related issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228076/
Navy Shipboard Lasers for Surface, Air, and Missile Defense: Background and Issues for Congress
Report regarding potential Navy shipboard lasers for countering surface, air, and ballistic missile threats. It does not discuss the use of lasers on Navy aircraft or submarines, or the use of lasers by other military services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227690/
Neglected Tropical Diseases: Background, Responses, and Issues for Congress
Over the past decade, global health has become a priority in U.S. foreign policy, more than tripling U.S. funding for such efforts. This report discusses neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a group of 17 diseases that are found primarily among the poorest people in 149 countries and territories. NTDs are an important focus of U.S. global health assistance and may come under scrutiny as the 112th Congress debates spending levels for ongoing global health programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31476/
Should the United States Levy a Value-Added Tax for Deficit Reduction?
Report that discusses the levying of a value-added tax (VAT), a broad-based consumption tax, to potentially assist in resolving United States fiscal problems. It considers the experiences of the 29 nations with value-added taxes (VATs) in the 30-member Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) which are relevant to the feasibility and operation of a possible U. S. VAT. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227705/
Intelligence Authorization Legislation: Status and Challenges
This report reviews the intelligence appropriations process, describes various changes that have been proposed, and analyzes the issues associated with the proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227638/
Veterans Affairs: Historical Budget Authority, Fiscal Years 1940 Through 2010
This report provides information on the historical budget authority of the Department of Veterans Affairs (formerly the Veterans Administration) for FY1940 through FY2010. Budget authority is presented in both current dollars and constant 2010 dollars (i.e., inflation-adjusted). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103250/
The Nunn-McCurdy Act: Background, Analysis, and Issues for Congress
For almost 30 years, the Nunn-McCurdy Act has served as one of the principal mechanisms for notifying Congress of cost overruns in Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs). This report discusses the Act's background, amendments, and relevancy to current times. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103099/
The Army's Ground Combat Vehicle (GCV) and Early Infantry Brigade Combat Team (E-IBCT) Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
Report that looks at budget requests for the Army's Future Combat System (FCS) program, Ground Combat Vehicle (GCV) program, and brigade combat teams (BCTs). It ends with a discussion of potential issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227702/
The Marines' Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV), which is an armored amphibious vehicle program that originated two decades ago to replace the 1970s-era Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAV). The EFV has experienced a variety of developmental difficulties, which this report explores. This report also discusses potential related issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103251/
Navy Nuclear-Powered Surface Ships: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress
This report discusses the possibility of increasing the number of Navy surface ships powered by nuclear energy, including the Navy's planned CG(X) cruiser. The report explores a 2006 Navy study that discusses budget considerations, the cost of a nuclear-powered ship compared to a ship powered by crude oil, and other suggestions relating to this proposed expansion. The overall report has a specific emphasis on the planned CG(X) cruiser and how the implementation of this cruiser may be delayed by current budget proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103206/
Coast Guard Deepwater Acquisition Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
This report provides background information and oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's Deepwater acquisition programs for replacing and modernizing the service's aging fleet of deepwater-capable ships and aircraft. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103203/
Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2011 Appropriations
Report discussing the Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) Fiscal Year 2011 appropriations bill, which includes funding for the Department of the Treasury, the Executive Office of the President (EOP), the judiciary, the District of Columbia, and 26 independent agencies, including the Small Business Administration and the United States Postal Service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227677/
Military Uniform Procurement: Questions and Answers
Report that concerning how military uniforms are procured, legal authority for procurement, military uniform vendors, and new initiatives affecting uniform procurement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228095/
Navy Nuclear Aircraft Carrier (CVN) Homeporting at Mayport: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's proposal to homeport a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier (CVN) at Mayport, Florida. Economic and homeland security concerns are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227639/
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
Report that tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228044/
Adopting a Long-Term Budget Focus: Challenges and Proposals
Report concerning the current federal budget process, including criticisms of that process. Information is provided regarding the current horizons used in the budget process, including already existing long-term components; the rationale for increased focus on long term budgeting; general challenges to long-term budgeting; and an analysis of general proposals that have been made to increase the focus of long-term budgeting in the budget process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227689/
Committee on the Budget in the House of Representatives: Structure and Responsibilities
Report describing the structure and responsibilities of the Committee on the Budget in the House of Representatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227652/
F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
Report that details the Obama Administration's proposed Fiscal Year 2010 defense budget requests for F-35 program funding and outlines the issues that Congress must consider when deciding whether to approve, reject, or modify the administration's funding requests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227958/
Guantanamo Detention Center: Legislative Activity in the 111th Congress
This report analyzes relevant provisions in enacted legislation and selected pending bills relating to the U.S. Naval Station in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, a facility in which alleged enemy belligerents are detained. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227650/
Navy CG(X) Cruiser Program: Background for Congress
Report that provides background information on the U.S. Navy's CG(X) program as it existed prior to its proposed cancellation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228064/
VA-Home Loan Guaranty Program: An Overview
Report containing a summary of the VA Home Loan Guaranty Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228091/
Military Base Closures: Socioeconomic Impacts
This report explores the potential economic impact of military closures on communities, especially rural communities, which are more heavily affected by such closures and suffer from slower economic recovery times in such instances. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228140/
F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
The administration's proposal to terminate the alternate engine program for the F-35 Lightning II fighter is a significant issue for Congress in FY2012, with implications for the defense budget, military capability in the future, and the division of power between Congress and the executive branch. This report discusses these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31467/
Continuing Resolutions: Latest Action and Brief Overview of Recent Practices
Report that is divided into two segments. The first section provides the most recent information on the Fiscal Year 2011 continuing resolution (or CRs). The second segment focuses on: the history and recent trends, including the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the past 35 years; CR types by duration; major substantive legislative provisions included in some CRs; and funding gaps. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227955/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011
Report summarizing the 2011 Fiscal Year budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2010 budget. In addition, this report breaks down the various aspects of the President's FY2011 R&D funding request. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227658/
The Economic Implications of the Long-Term Federal Budget Outlook
Report that analyzes the long-run path of the federal budget in the face of a projected demographic shift as aging baby boomers retire, coupled with the 2007 financial crises. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228007/
Financial Services and General Government: FY2012 Appropriations
This report discusses government financial appropriations for the 2012 fiscal year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83984/
Adopting A Long-Term Budget Focus: Challenges and Proposals
This report focuses on the current federal budget process, including criticisms of that process. This report will provide information on (1) the current horizons used in the budget process, including already existing long-term components; (2) the rationale for increased focus on longterm budgeting; (3) general challenges to long-term budgeting; and (4) an analysis of general proposals that have been made to increase the focus of long-term budgeting in the budget process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31390/
The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction
This report discusses the following aspects of the congressional appropriations process: the annual appropriations cycle; types of appropriations measures; spending ceilings for appropriations associated with the annual budget resolution; and the relationship between authorization and appropriation measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31309/
Introduction to the Federal Budget Process
This report provides a detailed introduction to the federal budget process, which is an enormously complex process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31323/
Baselines and Scorekeeping in the Federal Budget Process
Baselines and scorekeeping are an integral part of the federal budget process, providing lawmakers with a framework for making and enforcing budgetary decisions. The baseline serves as a benchmark for federal budget decisions. Scorekeeping is the process by which the budgetary impact of proposed and enacted budget policies is measured; it assists Congress in making and enforcing budgetary decisions. This report provides a brief explanation of baselines and scorekeeping and their uses in the federal budget process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31320/
Entitlements and Appropriated Entitlements in the Federal Budget Process
Entitlements are programs that require payments to persons, state or local governments, or other entities if specific eligibility criteria established in the authorizing law are met. Entitlement payments are legal obligations of the federal government, and eligible beneficiaries may have legal recourse if full payment under the law is not provided. This report briefly discusses entitlements and entitlement procedures in the federal budget process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31433/
Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process
This report summarizes points of order under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended, and related points of order established in the budget resolutions adopted by Congress in 2007, 2008, and 2009, as well as the Rules of the House for the 111th Congress, the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990, and the Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Act of 2010. In addition, it describes how points of order are applied and the processes used for their waiver in the House and Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31310/
Allocations and Subdivisions in the Congressional Budget Process
This report very briefly discusses the allocations and subdivisions portions of the congressional budget process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31434/