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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
War Funding and the Budget Control Act: In Brief
This report discusses the FY2016 debate over defense spending levels. Congress is considering how to stay within the spending limits, or caps, set by the Budget Control Act (BCA). Under the BCA, all defense spending for the defense base budget--excluding amounts designated for "Overseas Contingency Operations" (OCO) or emergencies--is subject to annual BCA caps. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689172/
Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC), which are special contracting mechanisms that Congress permits the Department of Defense (DOD) to use for a limited number of defense acquisition programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689416/
Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the LX(R) amphibious ship program, a Navy program to build a new class of 11 amphibious ships. The Navy wants to procure the first LX(R) in FY2020. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689199/
Navy Shipboard Lasers for Surface, Air, and Missile Defense: Background and Issues for Congress
This report focuses on potential Navy shipboard lasers for countering surface, air, and ballistic missile threats. It does not discuss the use of lasers on Navy aircraft or submarines, or the use of lasers by other military services. This report is based on unclassified, open-domain information from the Navy, industry, and research organizations such as RAND. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689149/
Train and Equip Program for Syria: Authorities, Funding, and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current debate over various aspect of the Syria Train and Equip program. These include U.S. efforts to combat the Islamic State and other terrorist organizations in Syria and setting the conditions for a negotiated settlement to Syria's civil war. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689135/
Congressional Action on FY2016 Appropriations Measures
This report provides information on the congressional consideration of the FY2016 regular appropriations bills. It also discusses the statutory and procedural budget enforcement framework for FY2016 appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689406/
Defense Spending and the Budget Control Act Limits
This report discusses the Budget Control Act, which sets limits on defense spending between FY2012 and FY2021. The current debate in Congress has centered on whether to adjust the BCA defense caps upward; move base budget spending to accounts designated for Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) that are not subject to spending limits; reduce the defense spending in the Administration's request to comply with BCA revised caps; or use some combination of these approaches, all in order to avoid a sequester. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689404/
Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of the FY2016 National Defense Authorization Act (H.R. 1735 and S. 1376)
This report provides selected highlights of pending versions of the FY2016 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA): H.R. 1735, passed by the House of Representatives on May 15, 2015, and S. 1376, reported by the Senate Armed Services Committee on May 19, 2015. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689343/
The Budget Reconciliation Process: Stages of Consideration
This report discusses the budget reconciliation process which allows Congress to use an expedited procedure when considering legislation that would bring existing spending, revenue, and debt limit laws into compliance with current fiscal priorities established in the annual budget resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689459/
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt
This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689238/
Earmark Disclosure Rules in the House: Member and Committee Requirements
This report outlines the major administrative responsibilities of Members and committees of the House of Representatives associated with the chamber's earmark disclosure rules. Earmark disclosure rules in both the House and Senate were implemented with the stated intention of bringing more transparency to congressionally directed spending. The administrative responsibilities associated with these rules vary by chamber. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689316/
Defense Spending and the Budget Control Act Limits
This report discusses the Budget Control Act, which sets limits on defense spending between FY2012 and FY2021. The current debate in Congress has centered on whether to adjust the BCA defense caps upward; move base budget spending to accounts designated for Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) that are not subject to spending limits; reduce the defense spending in the Administration's request to comply with BCA revised caps; or use some combination of these approaches, all in order to avoid a sequester. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689467/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2016 Budget and Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the FY2016 SFOPS request, a discussion of key issues and historic context, and account-by-account funding comparisons with FY2014 actuals and FY2015 estimates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689453/
Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of H.R. 1735, the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2016
This report includes a fact sheet based on the draft bill and committee report (H.Rept. 114-102) and is designed as a time-urgent product offering Members the best available information about the bill pending publication of a CRS report on the FY2016 Defense Authorization and Appropriations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626912/
FY2016 Military Construction Appropriations: President's Request and House Markup Compared
This report briefly discusses the financing of military construction. Military construction is normally funded through Title I of the Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies appropriations bill and provides funding for the planning, design, construction, alteration, and improvement of facilities used by active and reserve military components worldwide. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627201/
2014 Farm Bill Provisions and WTO Compliance
This report briefly describes the relevant World Trade Organization (WTO) rules governing domestic support programs under the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM). The report then reviews the current U.S. farm safety net programs in light of their potential for compliance with the AoA and SCM and their potential to affect the success of the current Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626945/
ARPA-E and the FY2016 Budget Request
This budget and appropriations tracking report describes selected major items from the Administration's FY2016 budget request for ARPA-E and tracks legislative action on FY2016 appropriations to the agency. It also provides selected historical funding data. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505361/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2016 Budget and Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the FY2016 State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (SFOPS) request, a discussion of key issues and historic context, and account-by-account funding comparisons with FY2014 actuals and FY2015 estimates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626924/
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. The Navy's proposed FY2016 budget requests $5,340.1 million in procurement, advance procurement (AP), and Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) funding for the program. Decisions that Congress makes on procurement of Virginia-class boats could substantially affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626962/
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. The Navy's proposed FY2016 budget requests funding for the procurement of two DDG-51s. Decisions that Congress makes concerning destroyer procurement could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505623/
Mandatory Spending Since 1962
This report looks at mandatory spending and its growth over time relative to total federal spending and the size of the U.S. economy. It also analyzes future mandatory spending levels and how they are projected to impact the federal budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503604/
Community Development Block Grants: Funding Issues in the 113th Congress
This report is a review of the Community Development Fund (CDF) account's funding history from FY2000 to FY2014, as well as current funding in FY2015. It includes a discussion of the three primary components of the CDF account: CDBG formula grants; CDBG-related set-asides and earmarks; and CDBG-linked supplemental and special appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505577/
Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2015
This report is a research aid which lists the Department of Defense authorization bills and appropriations bills for FY1970-FY2015. This report includes all the pertinent information on the passage of these bills through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503495/
Congressional Action on FY2015 Appropriations Measures
This report provides information on the budget enforcement framework for the consideration of FY2015 appropriations measures, the status of the FY2015 regular appropriations bills as of the beginning of the fiscal year, and the enactment of FY2015 continuing appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503576/
The Federal Budget: Overview and Issues for FY2016 and Beyond
This report provides an overview of federal budget issues, focusing on recent fiscal policy changes. It also discusses the major policy proposals contained in the President's FY2016 budget and the House and Senate budget resolutions. Finally, it also addresses major short- and long-term fiscal challenges. This report tracks legislative events related to the federal budget and will be updated as budgetary legislation moves through Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503616/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program, a program to procure 52 LCSs and frigates. The first ship in the program was procured in FY2005, and a total of 23 have been procured through FY2015. The Navy's proposed FY2016 budget requests $1,437.0 million for the procurement of three more LCSs, or an average of $479.0 million each. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503509/
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments: A Historical Perspective on Contemporary Issues
This report provides a historical synopsis of the evolving nature of the federal grants-in-aid system, focusing on the role Congress has played in defining the system's scope and nature. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503336/
Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC), which are special contracting mechanisms that Congress permits the Department of Defense (DOD) to use for a limited number of defense acquisition programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503643/
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. The Navy's proposed FY2015 budget requests funding for the procurement of two DDG-51s. Decisions that Congress makes concerning these programs could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503625/
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including the definition of Navy IW activities and how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in future Navy budgets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503600/
Navy Shipboard Lasers for Surface, Air, and Missile Defense: Background and Issues for Congress
This report focuses on potential Navy shipboard lasers for countering surface, air, and ballistic missile threats. It does not discuss the use of lasers on Navy aircraft or submarines, or the use of lasers by other military services. This report is based on unclassified, open-domain information from the Navy, industry, and research organizations such as RAND. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503545/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and presents potential issues for Congress concerning the Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans. The planned size of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy's shipbuilding plans have been matters of concern for the congressional defense committees for the past several years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503677/
Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the LX(R) amphibious ship program, a Navy program to build a new class of 11 amphibious ships. The Navy wants to procure the first LX(R) in FY2020. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503710/
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. The Navy's proposed FY2015 budget requests $5,883.6 million in procurement, advance procurement (AP), and Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) funding for the program. Decisions that Congress makes on procurement of Virginia-class boats could substantially affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503402/
The Nunn-McCurdy Act: Background, Analysis, and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the debate regarding the effectiveness of the Nunn-McCurdy Act, which requires the Department of Defense (DOD) to report to Congress whenever a major defense acquisition program experiences cost overruns that exceed certain thresholds. The purpose of the act was to help control cost growth in major defense systems by holding the appropriate Pentagon officials and defense contractors publicly accountable and responsible for managing costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503557/
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. The Navy's proposed FY2015 budget requests funding for the procurement of two DDG-51s. Decisions that Congress makes concerning these programs could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503597/
Climate Change Adaptation by Federal Agencies: An Analysis of Plans and Issues for Congress
This report reviews current actions (as of January 2015) of selected federal departments and agencies to adapt their own missions, infrastructure, operations, and personnel to projected climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503379/
Social Security Administration (SSA): Budget Issues
This report provides an overview of the Social Security Administration's mandatory spending but largely focuses on discretionary appropriations for the agency's administrative expenses. The size of the annual appropriations for administrative expenses affects the agency's ability to effectively administer the SSA's benefit programs and conduct program integrity activities designed to ensure that only eligible persons receive federal benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505424/
USCIS Funding and Accountability to Congress
This report briefly discusses funding for U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), an agency within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). USCIS handles many immigration administration functions, the most prominent of which is processing and adjudicating immigrant petitions and applications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503353/
Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process
This report summarizes the points of order currently in effect under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended, as well as related points of order established in various other measures that have a direct impact on budget enforcement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503373/
The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget Authority and Request, FY2010-FY2016
This report serves as a brief overview of the Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI) and its structure, intents, and funding history. The GCCI aims to integrate climate change considerations into U.S. foreign assistance through a range of bilateral, multilateral, and private sector mechanisms to promote sustainable and climate-resilient societies, foster low-carbon economic growth, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and land degradation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503718/
Navy TAO(X) Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the TAO(X) oiler shipbuilding program, a program to build a new class of fleet oilers for the Navy. The Navy wants to procure the first TAO(X) in FY2016. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's funding requests and acquisition strategy for the TAO(X) program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503694/
Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview
This report presents figures showing trends in discretionary budget authority as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) by subfunction within each of 17 budget function categories, using data from President Obama's FY2016 budget submission. This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority from FY1977 through FY2014, estimates for FY2015 spending, and the levels consistent with the President's proposals for FY2016 through FY2020. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503380/
House Committee Funding Requests and Authorizations, 104th-113th Congresses
This report describes the House Committee funding process provides tables for each of the Congresses from the 104th through the 113th containing committee funding requests and authorizations as adopted pursuant to primary expense authorizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503529/
Biennial Budgeting: Options, Issues, and Previous Congressional Action
This report provides background on options, issues, and previous congressional action related to biennial budgeting. It includes descriptions of the types of biennial budgeting, general arguments favoring and opposing biennial budgeting, biennial budgeting at the state level, and relevant Congressional actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503554/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2015
This report begins with a discussion of the overall level of R&D funding requested in the President's budget, followed by analyses of requested R&D funding from a variety of perspectives and for selected multiagency R&D initiatives. The report concludes with discussion and analysis of the R&D budget requests of selected federal departments and agencies that, collectively, account for about 98% of total federal R&D funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501561/
Points of Order Limiting the Contents of Reconciliation Legislation: In Brief
This report discusses the Budget Act that provides an optional expedited procedure for considering legislation in the Senate, called reconciliation, which was first used in 1980. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503399/
Defense: FY2015 Authorization and Appropriations
This report discusses the Department of Defense (DOD) budget plan for FY2015. It includes an overview of the budget, historic context, and highlights in the base budget, as well as budget items that fall under the FY2015 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) and the FY2015 DOD Appropriations Bill (H.R. 4870; H.R. 83, Division C). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503458/
Changes in the Purposes and Frequency of Authorizations of Appropriations
This report discusses general principles in how the language concerning the purposes and frequency of authorizations of appropriations has changed over the past century. These general principles are illustrated through case studies on the authorizations of appropriations that were enacted during this period for three agencies: the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Peace Corps. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501981/
Tax-Exempt Bonds: A Description of State and Local Government Debt
This report provides information about state and local government debt. State and local governments often issue debt instruments in exchange for the use of individuals' and businesses' savings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501876/