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 Resource Type: Report
 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Afghanistan: Connections to Islamic Movements In Central and South Asia and Southern Russia
After several years of relative peace in Central Asia and southern Russia, Islamic extremist movements have become more active in Russia and in Central and South Asia, threatening stability in the region. Although numerous factors might account for the upsurge in activity, several of these movements appear to have connections to the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban regime in Afghanistan. These linkages raise questions about whether the United States, as part of a broader effort to promote peace and stability in the region, should continue to engage the Taliban regime, or strongly confront it. This report will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7705/
Kosovo: Greek and Turkish Perspectives
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs951/
The Russian Financial Crisis: An Analysis of Trends, Causes, and Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs989/
Electricity Restructuring Background: Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA)
This report provides background information on PUHCA, including its history and impact. It also discusses how PUHCA reform fits into the current electric utility industry restructuring debate. This report will be updated as events warrant. For related information on electricity restructuring, see the CRS Electronic Briefing Book. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs892/
Research and Development in Russia: An Important Factor for the Future
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs764/
Macedonia: Conflict Spillover Prevention
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Bosnian Muslim-Croat Federation: Key to Peace in Bosnia?
The Federation of Bosnia and Hercegovina was established in March 1994, with U.S. mediation. It aims to unite areas held by the largely Bosniak (Muslim) pre-war republic government with areas held by Croats. The Bosnian peace agreement, signed in Dayton in November 1995, recognized the Federation and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska as two largely autonomous entities within a weak, but sovereign Bosnia and Hercegovina union. Real political, economic and military integration of Bosniak and Croat-held areas has been slow to materialize. The United States has played a key role in setting up the Federation and in efforts to make it viable. The long term viability of the Federation is open to question, however, due to continued mistrust between the two sides and significant differences in their perceived interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs756/
Puerto Rico: A Chronology of Political Status History
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs759/
China's Changing Conditions: Possible Implications for US Interests
This report discusses possible outcomes and implications for U.S. interests vary. For example, increasingly effective political administration and reform with continued successful economic modernization would be generally compatible with U.S. interests in greater economic opportunity, foreign policy cooperation, and political liberalization in China. Alternatively, Chinese administration, economic vitality, and internal cohesion could degenerate, limiting U.S. economic opportunities, challenging U.S. interests in stability in East Asia, but also diminishing potential threats from a strong China. Finally, China could develop formidable economic power while retaining authoritarian political control, with China emerging as a world power less interested in accommodating U.S. interests than in opposing them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs766/
China: Pending Legislation in the 105th Congress
This report tracks pending human rights legislation, including bills concerning: prison conditions and prison labor exports (H.R. 2195, H.R. 2358); coercive abortion practices (H.R. 2570); China’s policies toward religion (H.R. 967, H.R. 2431); and more general human rights issues (H.R. 2095). Other bills concern Taiwan — in particular, Taiwan’s entry into the World Trade Organization (H.Res. 190) and the U.S. role in helping Taiwan with a theater missile defense system (H.R. 2386). Also, legislation is pending on China’s missile proliferation activities (H.Res. 188), Radio Free Asia broadcasting to China (H.R. 2232), China’s participation in multilateral institutions (H.R. 1712, H.R. 2605), and the activities of China’s military and intelligence services (H.R. 2647, H.R. 2190). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs760/
Kosovo and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs757/
Hong Kong After Its Return to China: Implications for US Interests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs765/
The Intersection Between the Former Presidents Act and the Impeachment Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7704/
Banking Acquisition and Merger Procedures
This report discusses in general terms the basic process and time line for banking industry acquisitions and mergers and briefly discusses the May 4, 1998 application by Travelers Group to merge with Citicorp. Among the issues discussed are: potential impact on consumers; whether the new entities would be too big to fail; and, whether competitive equity calls for financial modernization legislation with functional regulation of the securities, banking, and insurance sectors of companies offering customers a full range of financial products and services. Legislative developments on financial modernization issues in the 105th Congress are reported in CRS Issue Brief 97034, which is available on the Legislative Information System. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs686/
Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs758/
Indonesia: May 1998 Political Crisis and Implications for U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs763/
NATO Enlargement and Russia
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs610/
Lobbying Disclosure Technical Amendments Act of 1997, S. 758
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs761/
Iraq: International Support for U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs696/
Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 105th
The 104th Congress pursued efforts to reform environmental regulations on several fronts: (1) revising regulatory decision making processes; (2) attaching specific reforms to funding bills; (3) establishing a House corrections day calendar of bills addressing specific regulatory problems; and (4) incorporating regulatory reforms into individual program reauthorization bills. The 105th Congress has pursued regulatory reform in four primary directions: (1) proposals to establish a comprehensive cost-benefit/risk analysis framework for regulatory programs, (2) private property “takings” initiatives, (3) amendments and reforms directed at individual environmental statutes, and (4) oversight of environmental programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs645/
Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections
Federal election law has long prohibited corporate and union spending in federal elections, but distinctions in statutes and judicial rulings have opened avenues by which these groups have been able to spend money in the electoral process. Business groups make particular use of political action committee (PAC) donations to candidates and soft money donations to parties. Unions made prominent use of issue advocacy in 1996, but labor’s political strength lies in exempt activity communications with members. This report explains these tools and their use in today’s elections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs468/
Turkey: Situation Update
This report briefly discusses recent political, economic, and security issues in Turkey, especially relating to Turkey's relationship with Greece, the European Union, and the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29522/
Free and Reduced-Rate Television Time for Potential Candidates
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs427/
Internships and Fellowships: Congressional, Federal, and Other Work Experience Opportunities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs457/
English as the Official Language of the United States: An Overview
This report provides background on contemporary efforts to declare English the official language, a review of selected issues raised by official English proposals in Congress, and a summary of arguments that have been advanced in favor of and in opposition to such proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs403/
State Techniques to Blunt the Governor's Item-Veto Power
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs297/
China's Changing Conditions
Congressional interest in the leadership change and economic transformation underway in China has grown substantially over the past few years. Leading congressional concerns focus on how economic conditions in China pose opportunities for U.S. enterprise and how the evolution of conditions in China fosters U.S. security, economic, and political interests. Congressional concern with China grew in 1995 and 1996 as a result of reports of the serious decline in the health of senior Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. Present conditions in China include; A vibrant but sometimes overheated economy, A less divided central political leadership. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6359/
Hong Kong's Return to China: Implications for U.S. Interests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs351/
Legislative Research in Congressional Offices: A Primer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs349/
Japan's Uncertain Political Transition
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs350/
Hong Kong's Return to China: Implications for U.S. Interests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs253/
China's Changing Conditions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs247/
Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs249/
Japan's Uncertain Political Transition
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs250/
Hong Kong's Political Transition: Implications for U.S. Interests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs252/
Hong Kong's Political Transition: Implications for U.S. Interests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs251/
China's Changing Conditions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs246/
Hong Kong's Transition to Chinese Rule: Issues, U.S. Interests, U.S. Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs244/
Mongolia: Briefing Paper
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs243/
Singapore: Background and U.S. Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs242/
Taiwan: Recent Development and U.S. Policy Choices
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs248/
China's Changing Conditions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs245/
Haiti: Efforts to Restore President Aristide, 1991-1994
This report tracks the efforts to restore to office President Aristide of Haiti between the years 1991-1994. During this period, the main U.S. foreign policy concern was the restoration of the democratic process to Haiti. Closely related to this was the issue of Haitians attempting to flee to the United States by boat. Congressional concerns focused on human rights, Haitian migration, socioeconomic conditions, and drug trafficking. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26103/
Philippines: Briefing Paper
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs241/
China After Deng Xiaoping - Implications for the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs240/
Japan's New Era of Coalition Governance: Implications for U.S. Interests and Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs239/
Deregulation as Market Opening in Japan
Deregulation of Japan's economy is of interest to the United States because regulations may work as nontariff barriers to U.S. exports and contribute to the $60 billion U.S. bilateral merchandise trade deficit. Excessive regulations also may hamper the ability of the Japanese economy to recover from recession and to augment world wide economic growth. The United States has submitted a request of about 200 items that it would like Japan to deregulate. Negotiations are continuing under the Framework Talks, and some of the items will likely be included in the Japanese government's five-year plan to deregulate and liberalize its economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs238/
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Aid: Implementing the Assistance Program, 1992-1994
In fiscal year 1994, the new states of the former Soviet Union became collectively the second largest recipient of U.S. foreign assistance made available from all sources. Whether and how the assistance program is helping to bring about democratic systems and free market economies is increasingly a question of interest to Congress and the public at large. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26073/
Japan's Uncertain Political Transition
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs152/
Partnership for Peace
NATO's Partnership for Peace program seeks to encourage eligible states, above all the states of the former Warsaw Pact and the former Soviet Union, to build democracy and undertake greater responsibilities in international security. The program could open the door to, but does not promise, NATO membership. U.S. and NATO relations with Russia are likely to be the determining factor in deciding whether states move from Partnership to NATO membership. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26043/
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