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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Results 401 - 450 of 15,578
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Trends in Conventional Arms Transfers to the Third World by Major Supplier, 1980-1987
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9620/
Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Programs: Reauthorization Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9075/
Civil Rights Legislation: Responses to Grove City College v. Bell
This report discusses how broad should the coverage of Federal civil rights laws be? This was the central issue in the debate over legislation introduced in response to the February 1984 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Grove City College v. Bell. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9068/
Private Health Insurance Continuation Coverage
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9199/
Drug Control
How to prevent the non-medical use of dependency-producing drugs has been a public policy concern for at least a century. A large part of the responsibility for controlling such substances has been assumed by the Federal Government. Historically based on decision to restrict availability through a system of close regulation, including selective prohibition, the current Federal anti-drugs strategy lives on activities and programs in five major areas: 1) regulation and other “enforcement” efforts; 2) support for international control and for control efforts of individual drug-producing and drug-transiting countries; 3) education and other prevention activities; 4 ) treatment and rehabilitation for drug-dependent persons; and ( 5 ) research on drugs , drug dependency, and prevention and treatment methods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8518/
Mandated Employer Provided Health Insurance
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U.S. Trade Policy Towards Japan: Where Do We Go From Here?
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Japan: Prospects for Greater Market Openness
Japan has made considerable progress in opening its economy to imports, but significant obstacles remain. This report analyzes the underlying causes of Japan's market protection and assesses the prospects for Japan moving in the direction of greater market openness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5/
Compendium of Precedents Involving Evidentiary Rulings and Applications of Evidentiary Principles from Selected Impeachment Trials
At the present time, there are no binding rules of evidence or set of evidentiary principles to be applied in Senate impeachment trials. Rather, recourse is taken to the evidentiary rules and principles applicable in contemporaneous court proceedings and to precedents from past impeachment trial to provide guidance for Senate Impeachment Trial Committees or for the full Senate on evidentiary questions which arise in the impeachment context. This report compiles evidentiary precedents from the Senate impeachment trials of Judges Harry E. Claiborne, Halsted Ritter, Harold Louderback, and Charles Swayne. The evidentiary rulings and principles gleaned from this examination are arranged in subject matter categories, and within those categories, in reverse chronological order by trial. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3/
The Japanese Health Care System
This report provides (1) a description of the coverage, benefits, financing and administration of the Japanese health insurance plans; (2) a discussion of the way in which reimbursement levels for health care providers are determined; and (3) an analysis of the way in which the provision of health care system is organized in Japan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2/
Fish and Wildlife Service: Compensation to Local Governments
The Refuge Revenue Sharing Fund (RRSF) was enacted in response to the concern of local governments regarding losses to their tax base due to the presence of federally owned land under the jurisdiction of the Fish and Wildlife Service. This report outlines recent history of RRSF payment levels. It examines the RRSF and describes how the fund differs in its treatment of reserved and acquired lands under the jurisdiction of FWS. The report also examines the Payment in Lieu of Taxes (PILT) program in detail. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26021/
The Unification of Germany: Background and Analysis of the Two-Plus-Four Talks
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7363/
Iraq-Kuwait: U.N. Security Council Resolutions -- Texts and Votes
The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 1-2, 1990, set into motion a series of actions by the United Nations Security Council. Between August 2 and December 4, 1990, the Council adopted 12 resolutions. The numbers and votes of those resolutions are listed and the full text of each resolution is included in the this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26022/
German Unification
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7364/
The Fair Labor Standards Act: Changes Made by the 101st Congress and Their Implications
Initially, in the 101st Congress, a measure to increase federal minimum wage (and to make numerous other changes in the FLSA) was passed by both the House and the Senate but, in June 1989, it was vetoed by President Bush. An effort by the House to override the President's veto was unsuccessful. Later, new legislation was introduced and approved both by the House and the Senate. On November 17, 1989, President Bush signed the bill (P.L. 101-107). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26025/
How to Follow Current Federal Legislation and Regulations
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China's Prospects After Tiananmen Square: Current Conditions, Future Scenarios, and a Survey of Expert Opinion
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs14/
Commercial Relations with the Soviet Union: Prospects for a Common United States Japanese Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10/
Military and Civilian Satellites in Support of Allied Forces in the Persian Gulf War
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7996/
Japan's World War II Reparations: A Fact Sheet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs13/
Japan: Resale Price Maintenance
Resale price maintenance occurs when manufacturers control the prices charged by wholesalers or retailers of their products. In Japan, such activities are prohibited, although certain exemptions are allowed. The U.S. concern over the practice is that it could allow Japanese firms to generate a secure profit base in their home market in order to finance aggressive price competition abroad. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6/
Lobbying by Foreign Interests: Japan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs11/
Japanese Companies and Technology: Lessons to Learn?
American companies are facing increased competitive pressures from foreign firms. Many observers feel that U.S. firms lag behind their foreign competitors in the development, application, and marketing of new technologies and techniques. The Japanese industrial enterprise is characterized by a large proportion of private sector financing and many other factors, which this report analyzes at length. The question being debated by Congress is whether or not U.S. government programs and policies are an acceptable and effective means of supporting the efforts of American industries to operate in a manner consistent with success in world markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7/
Desert Shield and Desert Storm Implications for Future U.S. Force Requirements
This preliminary assessment summarizes U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps performances during recent war, then relates it to past experience and potential threats in ways that might help decisionmakers determine the most suitable characteristics of U.S. armed forces for the rest of this decade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6962/
National Emergency Powers
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Persian Gulf War: Defense-Policy Implications for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6963/
Japan's Response to the Persian Gulf Crisis: Implications for U.S. -Japan Relations
This report provides information and analysis for use by Members of Congress as they deliberate on the Japanese response to the Gulf crisis and, perhaps more important, what it may mean for future U.S.-Japanese relations. The first chapter briefly reviews Japanese government actions in response to the crisis, from August 1990 to February 1991. A second section examines in detail the various factors and constraints that affected Japanese policy. The final section offers conclusions and examines implications of the episode for future U.S.-Japanese relations. Published sources for the report are cited in footnotes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8/
Japan-U.S. Trade: A Chronology of Major Events, 1980-1990
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs19/
Japanese and U.S. Industrial Associations: Their Roles in High-Technology Policymaking
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs18/
Treatment Technologies at Superfund Sites
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs16/
Japan-U.S. Trade and Economic Relations: Bibliography-In-Brief, 1990-1991
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs17/
Japan's Prime Minister: Selection Process, 1991 Candidates, and Implications for the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs15/
Allied Burdensharing in Transition: Status and Implications for the United States
This report describes recent changes in U.S. burdensharing relationships with NATO, Japan and South Korea and, in the process, identifies some implications for U.S. foreign policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9/
Iraq-Kuwait: United Nations Security Council Resolutions Test and Votes -- 1991
This report lists the 12 adopted United Nations Security Council resolutions relating to the Iraq-Kuwait situation through October 1991. The texts of these resolutions, along with the votes by members of the Council, are included in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26023/
Japan-U.S. Global Partnership: Implications of the Postponement of the President's November 1991 Trip to Japan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs12/
Women in the Armed Forces
Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8521/
Japan-U.S. Trade U.S. Exports of Negotiated Products, 1985-1990
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs20/
The European Community - Japan Automobile Agreement
The European Community (EC) and Japan reached an agreement on trade in automobiles in July 1991. The agreement restricts exports of automobiles from Japan to the EC to 1.23 million cars per year until the end of 1999. The Commission of the European Communities estimates that Japanese transplant production in the EC will amount to 1.2 million cars per year in 1999. The Japanese appear to concur with this estimate but do not agree that it constitutes a cap on transplant investment or production. Whether the agreement covers the export of U.S.-built Japanese transplants to the EC is unclear. If the agreement covers, or has the effect of discouraging, such exports, it would be a cause for concern for U.S. policymakers. U.S. trade officials have reportedly discussed the issue with Japanese counterparts. It is unknown whether U.S. concerns have been addressed to European Community (EC) officials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs40/
Japan and an East Asian Trading Bloc
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs37/
The Economics of Agricultural Policy
An English Act of 1663 imposed a duty on grain imported from abroad whenever the domestic price was below a legislatively set price floor. The English farmer enjoyed a virtual monopoly in the domestic market. By the same token, he was allowed to export grain whenever the domestic price exceeded the price floor, and, after 1673, was granted a bounty (subsidy) on grain exports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs21/
Basic Questions on U.S. Citizenship and Naturalization
U.S. citizenship is conferred at birth under the principle of jus soli (nationality of place of birth) and the principle of jus sanguinis (nationality of parents). The U.S. Constitution states as a fundamental rule of jus soli citizenship that "all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside." The exceptions to universal citizenship comprehended by the requirement that a person be born "subject to the jurisdiction thereof" include: (1) children born to a foreign sovereign or accredited diplomatic official; (2) children born on a foreign public vessel, such as a warship; (3) children born to an alien enemy in hostile occupation; and (4) native Indians. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26024/
Japan-U.S. Relations in a Post-Cold War Environment: Emerging Trends and Issues for U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs28/
Medicaid: Recent Trends in Beneficiaries and Spending
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8174/
Congress and Trade Policy Toward Japan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs38/
The U.S.-EC Japan Trade Triangle
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July 1992 Japanese Elections
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs25/
Japan-Taiwan Economic Relations: Implications for the U.S.
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs29/
National Wildlife Refuges: Places to Hunt?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs22/
Clearcutting in the National Forests
Congressional interest in clearcutting has increased in the past few years. Several bills have been introduced in the current and preceding Congresses to ban the use of clearcutting and/or all even-aged management systems in the national forests. The issue, however, transcends the use of clearcutting and focuses on how to assure the choice of a silvicultural system and the implementation of the management practices that will achieve the stated goals for public land and resource management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs34/
Commercial Relations with Russia: Prospects for a Common United States-Japanese Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs30/