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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
A Concise History of the Food Stamp Program

A Concise History of the Food Stamp Program

Date: November 16, 1979
Creator: Richardson, Joe
Description: The Food Stamp Program has undergone a number of major changes since its modern version was established in 1961. It is now one of the largest "welfare" programs and provides an income supplement to the food-purchasing power of more than 18 million persons each month, at a cost of nearly $7 billion annually. This report traces the history of the program from 1961 through 1979, with an emphasis on how program rules, philosophy, participation, and costs have changed over the years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Consumer Price Index: An Overview

The Consumer Price Index: An Overview

Date: December 14, 1979
Creator: Esenwein, Gregg A & Molefsky, Barry
Description: The consumer price index is probably the most widely used measure of inflation. Changes i n the index affect the incomes of a substantial portion of the U.S. population. This report provides background information on the history and concepts of the index. In addition, several factors which may produce biases in the index are analyzed. The objective is to provide an introduction to the CPI f o r the policy maker who wishes to acquire a working knowledge of the concept as an aid in examining economic policy alternatives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobiles Imported from Japan

Automobiles Imported from Japan

Date: March 12, 1980
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: In recent years, U.S. automotive imports from Japan have seen an increasing at an unusually rapid pace. Congress is considering measures that alleviate the situation and in June 1980 concurrently resolved to promote the competitiveness of U.S. industry in world automobile and truck markets. As a result of the restraint agreement, automobile imports from Japan dropped from 1.99 million units in 1980 to 1.91 million units in 1981 (calendar year).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Soviet Policy Toward the Third World

Soviet Policy Toward the Third World

Date: April 2, 1980
Creator: Cooper, William H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Soviet Invasion and U.S. Response

Afghanistan: Soviet Invasion and U.S. Response

Date: May 2, 1980
Creator: Afghanistan Task Force
Description: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan has raised a number of serious issues and choices for the United States. The train of events seem likely to have an important influence on overall American foreign policy in the 1980s. Reassessment of Soviet motives and of U.S. roles in the world are already in progress. Emerging American attitudes, in turn, will shape more specific policy decisions on several issues, which this issue brief discusses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Ownership of Property in the United States: Federal and State Restrictions

Foreign Ownership of Property in the United States: Federal and State Restrictions

Date: June 23, 1980
Creator: Zaritsky, Howard
Description: This report examines various legal issues raised by Federal and State laws restricting foreign ownership in U. S. property. The report examines the constitutional barriers to Federal and State laws restricting such ownership, and the possible constitutional predicates for Federal legislation regulating foreign ownership of property in the united States. The impact of treaties to which the United States is a party on both Federal and State restrictions on the rights of foreign persons to own U.S. property is also discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Commerical Television Broadcasting: An Economic Analysis of Its Structure and Competitive Alternatives

Commerical Television Broadcasting: An Economic Analysis of Its Structure and Competitive Alternatives

Date: June 30, 1980
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A
Description: This report analyzes the economic structure of both the conventional commercial television broadcasting industry as well as the significant commercial competitive alternatives. Federal Communications Commission policies and their effect on the competitive structure and development of the television industry are also discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
High Interest Rates: Causes and Effects

High Interest Rates: Causes and Effects

Date: June 30, 1980
Creator: Leisenring, Carol
Description: This report describes the major market and policy forces that determine the general level of interest rates. The discussion is related to the recent economic experience of high interest rates and inflation, but may be generally applied to any economic environment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Prayer and Religion in the Public Schools: What Is, and Is Not, Permitted

Prayer and Religion in the Public Schools: What Is, and Is Not, Permitted

Date: September 4, 1980
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Imported Automobiles in the United States: Their Rising Market Share and the Macroeconomic Impact of a Proposed Import Restriction

Imported Automobiles in the United States: Their Rising Market Share and the Macroeconomic Impact of a Proposed Import Restriction

Date: September 15, 1980
Creator: Nanto, Dick K & Elwell, Craig
Description: After two generations of almost unchallenged supremacy, the U.S. auto industry has recently faced plummeting sales, rising competition from imports, and mounting requirements for capital investment and structural change. This has resulted in massive spilling of red ink in the industry's profit and loss columns, further financial pressures on the ailing Chrysler Corporation, layoffs of nearly 250,000 workers (as of August 4, 1980 in the automotive industry alone according to the United Auto Workers Union) and soaring claims for unemployment compensation and trade adjustment assistance. This study focuses on import competition in the auto industry and the economic impact of proposals to limit such competition through either import quotas or agreements with foreign governments (Japan) to restrict automotive exports to the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Metropolitan School Desegregation

Metropolitan School Desegregation

Date: December 15, 1980
Creator: Jordan, K. Forbis & Dale, Charles V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Brief History of U.S. Immigration Policy

A Brief History of U.S. Immigration Policy

Date: December 22, 1980
Creator: Vialet, Joyce
Description: U.S. immigration policy has been shaped not only by the perceived needs of this country, but by the needs and aspirations of the immigrants themselves. This report reviews the major streams of immigration to the United States in the context of the country's changing views of immigration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Reserve Membership and Monetary Control

Federal Reserve Membership and Monetary Control

Date: January 12, 1981
Creator: White, Roger
Description: This report discusses the current state of monetary policy. Questions about the continued capability of the Federal Reserve System (FRS) to exercise effective monetary control were raised in connection with several developments over recent years that diminished, in relative terms, the deposit component of the stock of money over which the FRS maintained reserve requirement controls. The Monetary Control Act, Title 1 of P.L. 96-221 was designed to ensure that the FRS as ability to conduct monetary policy is not diminished. This Act, signed into law on Mar. 31, 1980, is one of the few major amendments to the original Federal Reserve Act of 1913.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Summary of Prevailing Views on the Sources of Inflation

A Summary of Prevailing Views on the Sources of Inflation

Date: January 30, 1981
Creator: Cashell, Brian W
Description: It is the purpose of this paper to present the range of viewpoints concerning the causes of inflation. Inflation is defined and distinguished from changes' in relative prices. The Monetarist, Post-Keynesian, and neo-Keynesian positions are discussed to illustrate the variety of perceptions as to the sources of sustained increases in the general price level.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Soft Versus Hard Energy Paths: An Analysis of the Debate

Soft Versus Hard Energy Paths: An Analysis of the Debate

Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Marcus, Gail H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Lobby Act Reform

Lobby Act Reform

Date: March 19, 1981
Creator: Sachs, Richard C
Description: This report discusses the methods to achieve effective accountability form lobbyists groups and individuals who seek to influence the governmental decision-making process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Enterprise Zones as a Concept

Enterprise Zones as a Concept

Date: March 26, 1981
Creator: Breckenridge, Charlotte
Description: "Enterprise zones" as a concept originated in England in the late 1970s. The idea is to free certain specified urban areas of taxes and government regulations to encourage private business investment and create new jobs. Empirical evidence to support the concept is lacking. This paper contains a discussion of the concept of enterprise zones, without reference to any legislative proposals in the United States. Analyses of legislation will appear as prime sponsors introduce new bills.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Balanced Budget and Spending Limitations: Proposed Constitutional Amendments in the 97th Congress

Balanced Budget and Spending Limitations: Proposed Constitutional Amendments in the 97th Congress

Date: April 3, 1981
Creator: Schick, Allen & Strickland, Daniel P
Description: Expenditures and revenue limitation proposals link Federal spending and taxation to some measure of economic performance, such as the rate of economic growth or percentage levels of GNP or national income. The report presents this issue brief reviews, the various approaches to balance the budget and to impose spending limitations offered as constitutional amendments’ in the 97 congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Warfare: A Primer on Agents, Munitions, and Defensive Measures

Chemical Warfare: A Primer on Agents, Munitions, and Defensive Measures

Date: April 27, 1981
Creator: Kallis, E.M.
Description: The recent Department of Defense proposal to develop a capability to modernize and expand the current U.S. chemical warfare munition stocks with binary nerve agent munitions has focused attention on the subject of chemical warfare. This paper provides a brief introductory discussion of modern chemical warfare, describing the types of agents, delivery methods, and defense against chemical agents. It does not discuss policy, strategy, tactics, or disarmament aspects of chemical warfare. These issues w i l l be covered i n CRS Issue Brief IB 8l08l .
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Busing for School Desegregation: The Debate on Selected Issues

Busing for School Desegregation: The Debate on Selected Issues

Date: April 30, 1981
Creator: Stedman, James B
Description: This paper explores selected questions involving the busing of elementary and secondary school students for desegregation. On each of the selected questions a general analysis of the issue involved is presented, followed by two subsections entitled A Critic's Position and An Advocate's Position. In these subsections, an attempt is made to show how a critic of busing for desegregation and an advocate of such busing might fashion arguments on this issue in opposition to, or in support of, busing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trilateral Commission

Trilateral Commission

Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Congressional Reference Division
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Functional Analysis of Congressional Member Office Operations

A Functional Analysis of Congressional Member Office Operations

Date: May 14, 1981
Creator: Carlile, Judy
Description: This report presents a general analysis of personal staff functions in a congressional office. Because there is little specific information from Congress and other sources regarding staff job descriptions and because congressional office organization patterns very significantly, this report focuses on the staff functions that are common to all offices regardless of organizational structure or job title: office management; mail; projects; casework; legislation; schedulng and personal services; press and public relations; and political functions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Closing a Congressional Office: A Brief Overview

Closing a Congressional Office: A Brief Overview

Date: May 18, 1981
Creator: Carlile, Judy
Description: This paper sets forth questions that a congressional office needs to consider in the process of closing down. These include statutory and non-statutory matters such as staff, the franking privilege, retirement benefits for Members and staff, allowances, and the disposition of congressional papers, and other office items.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Increased U.S. Military Sales to China: Arguments and Alternatives

Increased U.S. Military Sales to China: Arguments and Alternatives

Date: May 20, 1981
Creator: Sutter, Robert G
Description: The report examines the current debate in the United States over proposals for increased U.S. military sales to China. The study first examines the background of U.S.-China security ties since the Nixon Administration, and then sets forth the parameters of the current debate by noting a number of issues concerning U.S. military transfers to China on which all sides generally agree. It shows that Americans familiar with the issue tend to identify with different groups of opinion or "schools of thought" on the question of U.S. military transfers to China, and provides a detailed pro-con analysis of the issue. It concludes by noting cross pressures that are likely to greet U.S. policy makers as they grapple with this issue in the months ahead and offers an assessment of four policy options of possible use by U.S. policymakers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department