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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
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Health Insurance: The Pro-Competition Proposals
For more than a decade, Congress and the Executive Branch have tried to stem spiraling health care costs through various regulatory actions at the Federal and State levels. Planning laws, for example, focus regulatory attention on the capacity of the health care industry to provide health services. Other laws have created programs to monitor and control the use of services provided to individual patients. Direct wage and price controls were applied to the health industry in the early 1970's and in recent years Congress has debated whether to impose controls over hospital spending in the United States. This report discusses the debate surrounding various approaches to lower health care costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8608/
Nuclear Freeze: Arms Control Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8795/
Small Business and the 97th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8590/
Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8796/
Casework in a Congressional Office
This paper presents a general overview of congressional office procedures associated with handling casework, and the assistance provided by a Member of Congress to help constituents in their dealings with Federal agencies. It discusses options for assisting Member's constituents, and the role of staff and Members in providing casework services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8162/
Basic Reference Sources For Use by Congressional Offices: An Annotated Selection of Publications and Services
This is an annotated guide to publications and other sources of information useful to Members of Congress and their staffs, covering congressional office management, the organization and operation of Congress, legislative responsibilities, services to constituents, and other duties of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8506/
Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lands: Leasing for Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8610/
Congressional Pay
The question of a salary increase for Members of Congress was considered by both Houses numerous times during the 97th Congress. The issue was last considered during December in the FY83 Further Continuing Appropriations. As sent to the President, the measure provided for a 15% pay increase for Members of the House of Representatives and other senior Federal officials, but not for Senators. The resolution was signed into law by the President on Dec. 21, 1982. Previously, in September, Congress approved a pay cap through Dec. 17, 1982 for Members and other senior Federal officials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8594/
Japan-U.S. Trade Relations
This report discusses trade relations between the U.S. and Japan. Commercial aspects of the United States-Japan alliance, in recent years, have begun to dominate the dialogue between the two nations. In particular, friction points have developed over chronic U.S. bilateral trade deficits with Japan, allegations of Japanese protectionism, and rapid incursions into U.S. markets by Japanese export products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8612/
The Changing World of Financial Intermediaries and Related Institutions: Survey of Major Developments and Their Implications for Public Policy
Inflation, high and variable interest rates, and new electronic technology have had a profound impact on financial institutions throughout the world. This report surveys how the various kinds of financial institutions in the United States have been affected by these developments, how they have reacted, what major legislative action has been taken, and what policy issues remain. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8504/
Job Training Programs: Reauthorization and Funding Issues
This paper is divided into the following sections: (1) History of Federal Employment and Training Programs; (2) Reauthorization Issues; (3) Administration Legislative and Budget Proposals; and (4) Congressional Action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8828/
The Radwaste Paradox
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9571/
The Radwaste Paradox
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9569/
Food Stamps: 1982 Legislation
This report discusses legislative issues regarding food stamp appropriations. Authorization for food stamp appropriations was to have expired at the end of FY82; in addition, the FY83-85 budget resolution assumed substantial savings in food stamps. As a result, and with the potential of an FY82 food stamp funding shortfall averted by the appropriation of a $1 billion supplemental, Congress acted to reauthorize appropriations and limit program costs in the 1982 budget reconciliation process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8833/
Hospital Cost Containment
This report provides an overview of the dimensions of the problem of rising expenditures for hospital care, the reasons for rising hospital costs, general information on methods of controlling hospital costs and specific programs which have been developed, and some of the issues involved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8831/
Universal Social Security Coverage: Extending Mandatory Coverage
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8816/
Natural Gas Policy Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8817/
Martial Law in Poland
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8807/
NATO Nuclear Forces: Modernization and Arms Controls
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8822/
Social Security Financing
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8834/
Federal Real Property: Inventory and Disposal Initiatives
This report provides background and discusses the inventory and disposal of public lands and other Federal property. For many years the Federal Government has operated under a statutory policy of retaining public domain lands and has disposed of the proceeds from the sale of surplus property other than by the reduction of the national debt. Under the present system, the Government disposes of some types of land when it is determined to be surplus to Government needs, or, in the case of public lands, when it is determined that the national interest would best be served by the sale or exchange of particular tracts of land. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8830/
Synthetic Fuels Corporation and National Synfuels Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8823/
Independent Truckers: The Effects of Recent Legislation on Earnings (Effects of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982 and the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1983, as they affect highway-related taxes, two trailers, length and width of vehicles, and weights and loads)
Congress passed legislation late in 1982 that is expected to have a significant effect on the annual net earnings of independent truckers. About 90 percent of fresh produce, most used household goods, and from one-third to one-half of all fabricated steel and other commodities transported by truck are hauled by independent truckers. The legislation raised the Federal fuel tax by 5 cents per gallon and significantly raised a highway use tax that is based on the weight of the vehicle. The legislation also allowed truckers to use two trailers, longer and wider vehicles, and carry heavier loads. This CRS report discusses these 1982 changes in Federal legislation. It also contains an estimate of the upper and lower bound of the impact that these changes could have on the annual net earnings of independent truckers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8812/
Antisatellites (Killer Satellites)
This issue brief discusses "killer satellites," the unofficial moniker for antisatellite (ASAT) missiles possessed by the Soviet Union in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as U.S. efforts to develop ASAT systems and simultaneously limit their development and use. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8821/
Space Shuttle
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8814/
Selected Articles and Bibliography on the Military Uses of Space
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9177/
Caribbean Basin Initiative
On August 5, 1983, President Reagan signed Public Law 98-67, which provides duty-free entry into the United States for certain Caribbean exports and allows U.S. business people to take tax deductions for the expense of attending conventions in the Caribbean region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8605/
Pay Equity - The Comparable Worth Issue: Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value; By What Standards and By What Means?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9175/
Japan-U.S. Trade
This report provides background and current analysis of the Japan--U.S. trade situation, discusses the political and economic tensions which this imbalance has created, and outlines the problems involved in several current negotiations, such as the question of trade barriers to U.S. agricultural exports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8711/
Sex Discrimination in Education: Title IX
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8413/
Parental Notification for Family Planning Services: Title X Regulations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9174/
The Soviets' 5-Year Plan (1981-1985)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8818/
The Eighteen Year Old Vote: The Twenty-sixth Amendment and Subsequent Voting Rates of Newly Enfranchised Age Groups
This report traces the progress of proposals to expand the right to vote to citizens between the ages of 18 and 21, culminating in the ratification of the 26th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States in 1971. It also reviews the voting rates of the newly enfranchised age group and compares them to voting rates of other age groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8805/
Worker Relocation Assistance: Moving People to Jobs
One characteristic of the dislocated worker problem is that a mismatch exists between the number and kinds of jobs offered by employers and the number and kinds of skills possessed by workers in the same geographic area. At the same time, other geographic areas have unfilled job openings and relatively low unemployment rates. Government-assisted worker relocation is one tool of employment policy that might be used to reduce these regional imbalances in labor supply and demand. This report describes the U.S. experience with both unassisted and Government-assisted worker relocation. It examines the applicability of this experience to the current dislocated worker problem, as well. In addition, the report evaluates the feasibility of establishing a nationwide worker relocation program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8813/
Drunk Driving and Raising the Drinking Age
This brief report is prepared in response to numerous requests for information on the related issues of drunk driving and raising the drinking age. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8712/
The Effects of Indexation on Tax Revenues and Distributional Effects of the U.S. Individual Income Tax System: A Historical Simulation
This report compares the actual tax revenues and distribution of the tax burden under the Federal individual income tax from 1971 to 1981 with estimates of what they would have been under the 1971 tax structure if indexed for inflation and under the 1971 tax structure if left unchanged. Policy implications of the comparison are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8815/
Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs)
Recent changes in the Nation's tax laws have made Individual Retirement Accounts available to many people previously excluded. This report provides general information on IRAs including material explaining these recent changes and their consequences. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8165/
Reciprocity in International Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9176/
Speech Material -- Fourth of July
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9233/
Common Legal Questions and Answers Concerning Currency, Legal Tender and Money
This report answers common legal questions relating to currency, legal tender, and money. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9034/
Survey of State Statutes Affecting Voting by the Physically Handicapped
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8808/
The General Motors-Toyota Joint Venture and Its Competitive Implications
This report reviews the economics of joint ventures by focusing on their implication for market competition. It also reviews the legislative history of mergers and joint ventures with special emphasis on aspects of the law that are directed at reducing market concentration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8811/
Women in the United States Congress
This report identifies women who have served as Senators or as Members of the House of Representatives. It notes their party affiliation, the States they have represented, the dates of their appointment or election, the length of their service, their committee assignments, and their service in committee chairmanships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8860/
Large and Continuing Deficits: Their Influence on Macroeconomic Performance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8803/
Black and Hispanic Federal Judges: 1900 to Present
This report shows that in recent years, attention has increasingly focused upon the minority composition of the Federal judiciary, in apparent response to concerns that judges appointed to the Federal bench should more compositely reflect the U.S. population they serve. Two of the larger U.S. subpopulations served by the Federal judiciary are blacks and Hispanics. Accordingly, this mini brief lists chronologically and cumulatively the appointments of blacks and Hispanics to the Federal bench, which includes the U.S.Supreme Court, Circuit Courts of Appeals, and District courts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8861/
Merit Pay for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers: Background Discussion and Analysis of Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8809/
Caribbean Basin Initiative
The Reagan Administration has proposed legislation which would seek to use trade and aid to promote political stability and economic growth in the Caribbean Basin region. Among other things, it would create a one-way free trade zone, where the small nations of the region would have an opportunity for export-led growth through duty-free access to the U.S. market. It would also provide $350 million in economic aid for 1982 to El Salvador and other Caribbean countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8832/
Yellow Rain and Related Issues: Implications for the United States
The United States has charged that the Soviet Union is implicated in the use of chemical weapons in Afghanistan and of chemical and toxin weapons, including the toxin known as "Yellow Rain," in Laos and Kampuchea (Cambodia). These charges raise two significant sets of issues: First, issues surrounding the evidence that has been presented to show: (a) that such weapons have been used and (b) that the Soviet Union is implicated in this use. Second, issues connected with the implications of Soviet involvement, if proven, in chemical and toxin warfare. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8829/
The FTC's Used Car Rule
This report discusses the Federal Trade Commission's (FTC) used car rule, which aims to prevent and discourage oral misrepresentations and deceptive omissions of material facts by those selling used cars concerning warranty coverage and mechanical condition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8824/
Cost Overruns in Major Weapon Systems: Current Dimensions of a Longstanding Problem
This paper reviews the initiatives of the Reagan Administration to control cost overruns during the last 2 and a half years and the actions taken by the Congress to strengthen its oversight role. Particular attention is directed at the critical need to enhance management incentive and accountability at all level of the acquisition process. If recently instituted reform in the Department of Defense fail to control cost overruns, pressure may grow for a more sweeping and radical approach. Serious consideration in such an event might even be given to removing responsibility for weapons acquisition management for the military service and assigning it to a civilian-operated supply agency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8806/