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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Results 101 - 150 of 15,578
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Agent Orange: Veterans' Complaints Concerning Exposure to Herbicides in South Vietnam
From 1962 to 1971, the United States Air Force (USAF) sprayed various herbicide mixtures (chemicals that kill plants) in South Vietnam. The purpose of the spraying was to defoliate jungle growth to deprive the Communist forces of ground cover, and to destroy enemy crops to restrict food supplies. The most extensively used of these herbicide mixtures was known as Agent Orange, a 50:50 mix of two common herbicides called 1,4,5-T and 2,4-D (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). The third chemical present in the mixture in small amounts was TCDD, an inevitable by-product of the manufacture of 2,4,5-T. This chemical, called tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin or simply "dioxin," is highly toxic to laboratory animals when administered in its pure form. CRS has been unable to locate any report of a human death from exposure to pure TCDD. This report discusses the human health effects that have occurred from exposure to TCDD, as well as related Congressional concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8607/
The START Proposal: Verification Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8617/
Monetary Policy: Recent Changes and Current Conditions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8599/
Superfund: What It Is, How It Works
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8710/
Technology Transfer And National Security Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9232/
The NIH Recombinant DNA Guidelines: Brief History and Current Status
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8794/
Busing for School Desegregation
The mandatory transportation of school children to desegregate public elementary and secondary schools is an issue of deep contention throughout our society. The House of Representatives has approved language for the Department of Justice FY82 authorization bill (H.R. 3462) restricting the Department's involvement in actions requiring school busing. On Mar. 2, 1962, t h e Senate approved the version of the Department of Justice F Y 8 2 authorization Bill (S. 951) with language restricting the Justice Department's involvement in busing actions as well as imposing limits on the busing plans Federal courts can impose. S. 551 was then sent to the House for consideration. Hearings on S. 951 before a house Judiciary subcommittee began on June 1'7, 1982. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8601/
Copyright Law: Legalizing Home Taping of Audio and Video Recordings
Various Members of Congress have proposed amendments to the Copyright Act that would provide a blanket exemption for noncommercial home audio and video off-air recording. The major thrust of the copyright owners' opposing position is if you cannot protect what you own, or at least receive some compensation for its use, you own nothing. This is countered by those who feel the purpose of the copyright law is to promote broad public availability of artistic products and when the copyright owners decide to use the distribution mechanism of the public airwaves, they have to accept the premises of the public airwaves. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9043/
Equal Rights Amendment (Proposed)
The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was first introduced in 1923, and was passed by the Congress in 1972. In 1978, Congress extended the original deadline for ratification of the ERA. Thus, if it receives approval in the form of ratification by 38 States before June 30, 1982, the measure will become the 27th Amendment to the Constitution, and will require equal treatment under Federal and State laws and practices for all persons, regardless of sex. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8412/
The Insanity Defense: An Overview and Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8500/
Tuition Tax Credits
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8858/
Enterprise Zones: The Urban Jobs and Enterprise Zone Act of 1981
"Enterprise zones” as a concept originated in England in the late 1970s. The idea is to free specified urban areas of taxes and Government regulations to encourage private business investment and create new jobs. There is little in the way of direct empirical evidence to indicate whether and how such an approach would work. There is considerable interest in the concept, however, since other Federal urban assistance programs (such as Urban Renewal in the 1950s, Model Cities in the 1960s, and Urban Development Action Grant more recently -- since 1978) have not produced in sufficient amount the desired results in creating jobs for the unemployed in inner cities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8614/
U.S.-Soviet Negotiations to Limit Intermediate-Range Nuclear Weapons
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8501/
Solar Energy and the Reagan Administration
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8799/
A Comparison of Benefits Earned Under Social Security and Civil Service Retirement
This report provides a brief side-by-side comparison of Civil Service Retirement and Social Security benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8802/
Leasing of Energy and Mineral Resources on Federal Lands
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8792/
Gun Control
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8597/
Bankruptcy and Business Failure Data
The purpose of this report is to provide statistical data on the actual number of businesses that are filing for bankruptcy or ceasing operations. Tabular data of both a historical and current nature concerning business failures and bankruptcies is provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9037/
Salaries and Allowances: Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8596/
Balancing the Budget and Limiting Federal Spending: A Selected Bibliography
This selected bibliography lists articles and books on various issues concerning legislation to limit Federal spending and proposed constitutional amendments requiring a balanced budget, especially economic issues. The bibliography focuses mainly on literature of recent years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8163/
Parental Kidnapping
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8598/
Status of the Justice Department/American Telephone and Telegraph Company Antitrust Settlement: A Brief Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8591/
Women in the Armed Forces
Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. A third question is whether or not women should be included if the draft is reinstated? Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8513/
The Webster-Heise Valve: A Significant Improvement in the Internal Combustion Engine and Its Fuels?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8512/
The Child Support Enforcement Program
This report provides summary information on the child support enforcement program, established under title IV-D of the Social Security Act. It includes basic program statistics and a description of the administrative structure and major characteristics of the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8411/
How the Food Stamp Program Works
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8505/
Soviet Gas Pipeline: U.S. Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8790/
Electoral Votes by State: Changes Resulting from the 1980 Census
This report presents a chart and a U.S. map describing the electoral votes by state and the changes resulted from the 1980 census. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8600/
Foreign Investment in U.S. Industry
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8609/
Salaries and Allowances: The Executive Branch
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8798/
Soviet Pipeline
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9171/
P.L. 97-320, Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982: A Brief Explanation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8503/
Congressional Veto of Executive Actions
Statutory provisions by which Congress authorizes a Federal program to be administered by the Executive but retains the legal authority to disapprove all or part of the program before final implementation have become increasingly frequent in recent years. These statutory provisions which subject a variety of proposed executive actions to congressional review are commonly known as "congressional veto" devices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8593/
Energy and the 97th Congress: Overview
During his campaign, President Reagan called for a major shift in this country's energy policy. In particular, the President emphasized the need for more domestic production of energy and reliance on market forces to produce and distribute energy products. Now in office, the new Administration is employing executive, administrative, and legislative methods to implement these changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8604/
Information Services for Agriculture: The Role of Technology
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8510/
Proposals for Revision of the Communications Act of 1934: Telecommunications Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8789/
Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs): Tax Incentives for Retirement Savings
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8611/
Congressional Veto Legislation: 97th Congress
This report has two purposes: first, to describe briefly the main features of each kind of congressional veto procedure, and second, to list under appropriated categories all such provisions submitted in the current Congress that have been located. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8595/
Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8859/
Health Insurance: The Pro-Competition Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8608/
Nuclear Freeze: Arms Control Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8795/
Small Business and the 97th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8590/
Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8796/
Casework in a Congressional Office
This paper presents a general overview of congressional office procedures associated with handling casework, and the assistance provided by a Member of Congress to help constituents in their dealings with Federal agencies. It discusses options for assisting Member's constituents, and the role of staff and Members in providing casework services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8162/
Basic Reference Sources For Use by Congressional Offices: An Annotated Selection of Publications and Services
This is an annotated guide to publications and other sources of information useful to Members of Congress and their staffs, covering congressional office management, the organization and operation of Congress, legislative responsibilities, services to constituents, and other duties of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8506/
Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lands: Leasing for Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8610/
Congressional Pay
The question of a salary increase for Members of Congress was considered by both Houses numerous times during the 97th Congress. The issue was last considered during December in the FY83 Further Continuing Appropriations. As sent to the President, the measure provided for a 15% pay increase for Members of the House of Representatives and other senior Federal officials, but not for Senators. The resolution was signed into law by the President on Dec. 21, 1982. Previously, in September, Congress approved a pay cap through Dec. 17, 1982 for Members and other senior Federal officials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8594/
Japan-U.S. Trade Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8612/
The Changing World of Financial Intermediaries and Related Institutions: Survey of Major Developments and Their Implications for Public Policy
Inflation, high and variable interest rates, and new electronic technology have had a profound impact on financial institutions throughout the world. This report surveys how the various kinds of financial institutions in the United States have been affected by these developments, how they have reacted, what major legislative action has been taken, and what policy issues remain. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8504/
Job Training Programs: Reauthorization and Funding Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8828/