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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
APEC - Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation: Free Trade and Other Issues
As a result of an initiative by Australia in 1989, the United States joined with eleven other Asia/Pacific nations in creating APEC, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation organization. This report discusses the annual Ministerial Meeting of APEC in Seattle, held from November 17 - 19, 1993. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs83/
APEC and Free Trade in the Asia Pacific
This report discusses the summit held by President Bill Clinton and other leaders of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) on November 19, 1995. The report discusses the primary reason for the summit, an Action Agenda intended to lead to free and open trade and investment among its members. The report also discusses how APEC countries were divided on certain issues going into this summit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs261/
Green Payments in U.S. and European Union Agricultural Policy
This report compares current United States and European Union (EU) efforts in the area of green payments. Green payments refer to "payments made to agricultural producers as compensation for environmental benefits that accrue at levels beyond what producers might otherwise achieve under existing market and regulatory conditions" (summary). The report gives an overview of policies, programs, financing, and various other aspects of comparison related to the topic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9126/
WTO Dispute Settlement: Status of U.S. Compliance in Pending Cases
This report provides a summary of the status of U.S. compliance efforts in pending World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes that have resulted in adverse rulings against the United States. The report begins with an overview of WTO dispute settlement procedures, focusing on the compliance phase of the process, followed by a discussion of U.S. laws relating to WTO dispute proceedings. The report then lists pending WTO disputes in the compliance phase, with a brief discussion of major issues and the U.S. compliance history in each. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98049/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses the recent development in different programs administered by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) with the goal to promote agricultural exports and to provide food aid. These programs include direct export subsidies, export market development, export credit guarantees, and foreign food aid. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94058/
Agricultural Exports and the 2007 Farm Bill
This report assesses 2007 farm bill trade title provisions for U.S. agricultural export programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96790/
Agriculture in U.S. Free Trade Agreements: Trade with Current and Prospective Partners, Impact, and Issues
This report discusses the trade in agricultural products, which is one of the difficult issues negotiators face in concluding free trade agreements (FTAs). The report also deals with food safety and animal/plant health matters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96787/
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): Background and Issues
This report provides background information on the structure of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the enforcement of CITES in the United States, and implementing issues related to CITES. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98057/
Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the WTO
This report discusses the trade preferences and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) most-favored-nation (MFN) requirements, World Trade Organization (WTO) waivers for preferential trade agreements, and WTO waivers for U.S. preference programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94209/
U.S. Food and Agricultural Imports: Safeguards and Selected Issues
The report provides background information in the increase of food and agricultural imports and federal oversight responsibilities. It discusses international trade considerations, import refusals by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), administration, and legislative proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103216/
China's Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues
This report summarizes China's economic issues and its currency manipulation, intended to make its exports cheaper and imports into China more expensive than they would be under free market conditions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98117/
China-U.S. Trade Issues
This report provides an overview of U.S.-China economic relations, surveys major trade disputes, and lists major legislation in the 110th that seeks to address these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98070/
China's Currency: Economic Issues and Options for U.S. Trade Policy
This report starts out by describing China's policy of pegging its currency to the U.S. dollar at an exchange rate of roughly 8.28 yuan to the dollar. As a result, the exchange rate between the yuan and the dollar basically stayed the same. The report discusses most significant events concerning China's currency policy and its impact on U.S. trade deficit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93977/
Tax Treaty Legislation in the 110th Congress: Explanation and Economic Analysis
This report discusses the proposals that are designed to curb “treaty shopping” — instances where a foreign parent firm in one country receives its U.S.-source income through an intermediate subsidiary in a third country that is signatory to a tax-reducing treaty with the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96794/
Mad Cow Disease and U.S. Beef Trade
This report discusses the U.S. beef trade with its four major beef export markets, Canada, Mexico, Japan, and Korea. The 110th Congress has been monitoring U.S. efforts to regain foreign markets that banned U.S. beef when a Canadian-born cow in Washington state tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in December 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94196/
Mad Cow Disease and U.S. Beef Trade
This report discusses the international beef market and U.S. efforts to regain foreign markets that banned U.S. beef when a Canadian-born cow in Washington state tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in December 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98118/
Illegal Logging: Background and Issues
This report discusses illegal logging, which is addressed by Congress in the 2008 farm bill (P.L. 110-234). A provision in the law amends the Lacey Act to include plants traded in violation of foreign laws. This was primarily intended to deter imports of illegally-obtained timber from foreign countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96767/
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Rising Oil Prices
This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the rising oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade deficit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94211/
Brazil's WTO Case Against the U.S. Cotton Program: A Brief Overview
This report provides a brief overview of Brazil's case against the U.S. cotton program, the evolution and current status of the case, and the potential role for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94210/
U.S. Food and Agricultural Imports: Safeguards and Selected Issues
This report discusses the food and agricultural imports, federal oversight responsibilities, international trade considerations, and legislative proposals. The report includes list of tables with leading suppliers of U.S. agriculture and seafood imports, and imported meat and poultry products presented for inspection. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94115/
International Illegal Trade in Wildlife: Threats and U.S. Policy
This report focuses on the international trade in terrestrial fauna, largely excluding trade in illegal plants, including timber, and fish. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98098/
U.S. - EU Poultry Dispute
This report discusses the European Union (EU) refusal to accept U.S. imports of poultry treated with antimicrobial rinses. Prior to 1997, when the prohibition took effect, U.S. exports of broiler and turkey meat to the 15 countries that then constituted the EU were reported to total nearly 32,000 MT with a value of $44.4 million. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87130/
Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues
This report discusses the Export-Import Bank (Ex-In Bank), the chief U.S. government agency that helps finance American exports of manufactured goods and services with the objective of contributing to the employment of U.S. workers. This report discusses the Bank's budget and related legislation, including the Omnibus Appropriations Act of 2009, signed by President Barack Obama and authorizing spending limitations for the Bank. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29544/
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices
This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade deficit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87383/
U.S.-Latin America Trade: Recent Trends and Policy Issues
Trade is one of the more enduring issues in contemporary U.S.-Latin America relations. Latin America is far from the largest U.S. regional trade partner, but it is the fastest growing one, with the current exception of Africa. Over the last 15 years, the United States has implemented multiple free trade agreements with the region, which are more comprehensive than those that include only Latin American countries. This report looks at the status, implications, and alternatives to current free trade agreements in the region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83864/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. The congressional-executive agreement has been the vehicle for implementing Congress's long-standing policy of seeking trade benefits for the United States through reciprocal trade negotiations. This report discusses this topic in brief. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29527/
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices
This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade deficit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31452/
Trade Preferences: Economic Issues and Policy Options
Since 1974, Congress has created multiple trade preference programs designed to foster economic growth and development in less developed countries. Congress conducts regular oversight of these programs, often revising and extending them. This report discusses the major U.S. trade preference programs, their possible economic effects, stakeholder interests, and legislative options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31379/
U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts
This report discusses the U.S. trade deficit in light of the 2008 global financial crisis, with emphasis on international trade and U.S. trade policy, most recent developments in trade of goods and service, trade forecasts for the future, and how issues such as the U.S. trade deficit and international trade, particularly with China, are commonly perceived. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29678/
Tariff Modifications: Miscellaneous Tariff Bills
This report discusses the current process by which duty suspension bills and other provisions are introduced, reviewed by several government agencies and committee staff, made available for public comment, and finally included in omnibus miscellaneous trade and technical corrections bills (MTBs) legislation reported out by the committees of jurisdiction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29692/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
This report discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Original members of the TPP were Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore. The United States, Australia, Peru, and Vietnam have committed themselves to joining and expanding this group. This report discusses similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29567/
U.S. Government Agencies Involved in Export Promotion: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of the federal agencies that participate in U.S. export promotion efforts and the issues that they raise for Congress. It proceeds first by discussing the coordination, budgets, and functions of federal government agencies involved in promoting exports. Next, the report provides an overview of the missions and activities of key federal government agencies that support exports. The last section of the report discusses agency-related issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29636/
U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts
This report discusses the U.S. trade deficit in light of the 2008 global financial crisis, with emphasis on international trade and U.S. trade policy, most recent developments in trade of goods and service, trade forecasts for the future, and how issues such as the U.S. trade deficit and international trade, particularly with China, are commonly perceived. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31414/
Seafood Safety: Background and Issues
Although seafood consumption can contribute to a healthy diet, some fish and shellfish can cause foodborne illnesses or contain environmental contaminants. This report discusses whether current food safety programs are sufficiently protecting consumers, and if not, what changes should be considered. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31458/
Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives
This report describes and assesses the principal prescriptions that have been offered for broad reform of the current U.S. system for taxing international businesses. The report begins with an overview of current law and of possible revisions. It then sets the framework for considering economic efficiency as well as tax shelter activities. Finally, it reviews alternative approaches to revision in light of those issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31427/
Generalized System of Preferences: Agricultural Imports
The Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) provides duty-free tariff treatment for certain products from designated developing countries. Some in Congress have continued to call for changes to the program that could limit GSP benefits to certain countries, among other changes. Opinion within the U.S. agriculture industry is mixed, reflecting both support for and opposition to the current program. In the past few years, Congress has extended GSP through a series of short-term extensions. However, the 111th Congress did not extend the GSP in 2010, and it was set to expire December 31, 2010. The expiration of the GSP will likely become a legislative issues in the 112th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31496/
The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress
Russia, Kazakhstan, and a number of other former communist states are still subject to the provisions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, including section 402 (the Jackson-Vanik amendment). The Jackson-Vanik Amendment denies country eligibility for normal trade relations (NTR) status as long as the country denies its citizens the right of freedom of emigration. The 112th Congress could face the question of whether to enact legislation to repeal the application of Title IV to all of these countries, thereby authorizing permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) status to fulfill the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) obligation under the World Trade Organization (WTO), or to exercise other options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31492/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
This report discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Original members of the TPP were Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore. The United States, Australia, Peru, and Vietnam have committed themselves to joining and expanding this group. This report discusses similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31462/
International Trade: Rules of Origin
This report deals with Rules of Origin (ROO) in three parts: [1] a detailed description of the reasons that country-of-origin rules are important with brief descriptions of U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations; [2] a brief discussion of some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some CBP origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO; and [3] a description of some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122323/
Trade Promotion Authority and Fast-Track Negotiating Authority for Trade Agreements: Major Votes
Report that profiles significant legislation, including floor votes, that authorized the use of presidential Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) --previously known as fast-track trade negotiating authority --since its inception in 1974. The report also includes a list of floor votes since 1979 on implementing legislation for trade agreements that were passed under TPA fast-track procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228103/
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices
Report that provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade deficit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228141/
Trade Law: An Introduction to Selected International Agreements and U.S. Laws
This report is an introductory overview of the legal framework governing trade-related measures. The agreements and laws selected for discussion are those most-commonly implicated by U.S. trade interests, but there are U.S. trade laws and obligations beyond those reviewed in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103100/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. The congressional-executive agreement has been the vehicle for implementing Congress's long-standing policy of seeking trade benefits for the United States through reciprocal trade negotiations. This report discusses this topic in brief. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83844/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. The congressional-executive agreement has been the vehicle for implementing Congress's long-standing policy of seeking trade benefits for the United States through reciprocal trade negotiations. This report discusses this topic in brief. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31461/
ATPA Renewal: Background and Issues
The Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA) extends special duty treatment to certain U.S. imports from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru that meet domestic content and other requirements. This report outlines the various aspects of the ATPA, including significant dates and modifications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103242/
International Trade and Finance: Key Policy Issues for the 112th Congress
Report concerning a variety of issues faced by the 112th Congress. Topics include trade negotiations with South Korea, Panama, Colombia, and China, export controls and sanctions, and international financial institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227698/
Dispute Settlement Under the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement: An Overview
This report discusses the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA) and the two types of formal dispute settlement it contains: 1) State-State and 2) investor-State. The report also discusses how the PTPA differs from earlier U.S. Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103248/
Chinese Tire Imports: Section 421 Safeguards and the World Trade Organization (WTO)
This report covers the Chinese-filed World Trade Organization (WTO) complaint against the U.S. over Section 421 of the Trade Acts of 1941, which has been renewed several times since. Section 421 authorizes the President to impose safeguards—that is, temporary measures such as import surcharges or quotas—on Chinese goods if domestic market disruption is found. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103067/
Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis
Foreign direct investment in the United States declined sharply after 2000, when a record $300 billion was invested in U.S. businesses and real estate. [Note: The United States defines foreign direct investment as the ownership or control, directly or indirectly, by one foreign person (individual, branch, partnership, association, government, etc.) of 10% or more of the voting securities of an incorporated U.S. business enterprise or an equivalent interest in an unincorporated U.S. business enterprise. 15 CFR § 806.15 (a)(1).] digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84118/
Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy
This report examines the major features of economic models being used to estimate the effects of trade agreements. It assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the models as an aid in helping Congress evaluate the economic impact of trade agreements on the U.S. economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103162/
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