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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The New Vacancies Act: Congress Acts to Protect the Senate's Confirmation Prerogative
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The Role of the President in Budget Development
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Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress
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The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections
The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs955/
Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election
The 12th Amendment to the Constitution requires that candidates for President and Vice President receive a majority of electoral votes (currently 270 or more of a total of 538) to be elected. If no candidate receives a majority, the President is elected by the House of Representatives, and the Vice President is elected by the Senate. This process is referred to as contingent election and is the topic of discussion in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs956/
Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments
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Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process
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President Clinton's South Asia Trip
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National Monuments and the Antiquities Act
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Presidential Elections in the United States: A Primer
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Presidential Authority to Create a National Monument on the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
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Authority of a President to Modify or Eliminate a National Monument
President Clinton created a number of new national monuments, using authority given the President under the Antiquities Act of 1906. Many of the designations were controversial and renewed discussion of that Act and whether a President can modify or eliminate a Presidentially created national monument. This report examines that question. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1288/
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
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President Clinton's Vetoes
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Executive Order 12919: Emergency Powers of the President
Executive Order 12919 concerns industrial preparedness during times of war and national emergency. This brief report uses simple language to describe what Executive Order 12919 does. It is intended to clarify common misunderstandings about the Order’s purpose and scope. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6974/
Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes
The President’s veto is effective not only in preventing the passage of legislation undesirable to the President, but also as a threat, sometimes forcing Congress to modify legislation before it is presented to the President. However, as a veto threat is carried out, Congress is faced with choices: letting the veto stand, the difficult task of overriding the veto, meeting the President’s objections and sending a new bill forward, or resubmitting the same provisions under a new bill number. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1286/
The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure
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Presidential Vetoes, 1789-Present: A Summary Overview
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Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
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National Monuments and the Antiquities Act: Recent Designations and Issues
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The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals
Following the closely contested presidential election of 2000, it is anticipated that Congress may revisit the issue of Electoral College reform. Although some reforms could be effected through federal or state statutes, most would require overcoming the considerable hurdles encountered by proposed constitutional amendments: two-thirds approval by both houses of Congress, followed by ratification by three-fourths (38) of the states, usually within a period of seven years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1631/
Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election
The 12th Amendment to the Constitution requires that candidates for President and Vice President receive a majority of electoral votes (currently 270 or more of a total of 538) to be elected. If no candidate receives a majority, the President is elected by the House of Representatives, and the Vice President is elected by the Senate. This process is referred to as contingent election and is the topic of discussion in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1635/
The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections
The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1634/
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process
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Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes
The President’s veto is effective not only in preventing the passage of legislation undesirable to the President, but also as a threat, sometimes forcing Congress to modify legislation before it is presented to the President. However, as a veto threat is carried out, Congress is faced with choices: letting the veto stand, the difficult task of overriding the veto, meeting the President’s objections and sending a new bill forward, or resubmitting the same provisions under a new bill number. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1908/
The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure
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Jonathan Pollard: Background and Considerations for Presidential Clemency
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The Vice Presidency: Evolution of the Modern Office, 1933-2001
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Presidential and Vice Presidential Terms and Tenure
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Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
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The Role of the President in Budget Development
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The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 107th Congress
Seven proposals to reform the Electoral College system have been introduced to date in the 107th Congress. H.J.Res. 3 (Representative Green of Texas), and H.J.Res. 5 (Representative Delahunt) would eliminate the electoral college, substituting direct popular election of the President. H.J.Res. 1 (Representative Clyburn), H.J.Res. 18 (Representative Engel), and H.J.Res. 37 (Representative Clement) would incorporate the “district” method of awarding electoral votes, and H.J.Res. 17 (Representative Engel) would provide for proportional award of electoral votes. H.J.Res. 25 (Representative Leach) is a hybrid plan. These measures have been referred to the House Judiciary Committee and await further action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1632/
The Pocket Veto: Its Current Status
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Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1642/
Congressional Access to Executive Branch Information: Legislative Tools
This report begins by reviewing the precedents established during the Washington Administration for withholding documents from Congress. Close examination reveals that the scope of presidential privilege is often exaggerated. Congress had access to more documentation than is commonly believed and might have had more had it pressed for it. Subsequent sections focus on various forms of congressional leverage: the power of the purse, the power to impeach, issuing congressional subpoenas, holding executive officials in contempt, House resolutions of inquiry, GAO investigations, and blocking nominations, all of which may force executive officials to release documents they would otherwise want to keep private and confidential. Even if Presidents announce perfectly plausible grounds for withholding documents, they may have to comply with the congressional will to achieve other more important goals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6983/
National Emergency Powers
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Export Administration Act of 1979 Reauthorization
The Export Administration Act of 2001 was introduced on January 23, 2001. Hearings were held by the Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee, and the bill was reported for consideration by the full Senate by a vote of 19-1 to March 22, 2001. A companion version in the House, H.R. 2581, was introduced by Rep. Gilmanon July 20, 2001. The House International Relations Committee reported the measure with 35 amendments on August 1. The Export Administration Act of 1979 expired on August 20, 2001, however the President extended export control authority and the Export Administration Regulations by invoking the International Emergency Economic Powers Act. During the 106th Congress, both houses held hearings on export control legislation and the Senate Banking Committee voted to adopt the Export Administration Act of 1999 (S. 1712, reported on October 8, 1999, S.Rept. 106-180). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1999/
Recess Appointments of Federal Judges
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War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
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National Emergency Powers
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National Emergency Powers
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The War Powers Resolution: After Twenty-Eight Years
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War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
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Trade Agreement Implementation: Expedited Procedures and Congressional Control in Existing Law
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Trade Promotion (Fast-Track) Authority: H.R. 3005 Provisions and Related Issues
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track): Labor Issues (Including H.R. 3005 and H.R. 3019)
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Social Security: Report of the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security
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Assassination Ban and E.O. 12333: A Brief Summary
This report offers a brief summary of the assassination ban contained in Executive Order (E.O.) 12333, Section 2.11. E.O. 12333 is the latest in a series of three executive orders which included assassination bans. The first, Executive Order 11905, Sec. 5(g),1 41 Fed. Reg. 7703, 7733 (President Gerald Ford, 2/19/76), was part of an executive order issued by President Ford in response to concerns raised in the 1970's with respect to alleged abuses by the U.S. intelligence community. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2392/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track): Labor Issues (Including H.R. 3005 and H.R. 3019)
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