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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2271/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2601/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
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Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2272/
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2180/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2433/
Export Administration Act of 1979 Reauthorization
The Export Administration Act of 2001 was introduced on January 23, 2001. Hearings were held by the Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee, and the bill was reported for consideration by the full Senate by a vote of 19-1 to March 22, 2001. A companion version in the House, H.R. 2581, was introduced by Rep. Gilmanon July 20, 2001. The House International Relations Committee reported the measure with 35 amendments on August 1. The Export Administration Act of 1979 expired on August 20, 2001, however the President extended export control authority and the Export Administration Regulations by invoking the International Emergency Economic Powers Act. During the 106th Congress, both houses held hearings on export control legislation and the Senate Banking Committee voted to adopt the Export Administration Act of 1999 (S. 1712, reported on October 8, 1999, S.Rept. 106-180). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5572/
Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications
This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8184/
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3812/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4400/
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 107th Congress
Seven proposals to reform the Electoral College system have been introduced to date in the 107th Congress. H.J.Res. 3 (Representative Green of Texas), and H.J.Res. 5 (Representative Delahunt) would eliminate the electoral college, substituting direct popular election of the President. H.J.Res. 1 (Representative Clyburn), H.J.Res. 18 (Representative Engel), and H.J.Res. 37 (Representative Clement) would incorporate the “district” method of awarding electoral votes, and H.J.Res. 17 (Representative Engel) would provide for proportional award of electoral votes. H.J.Res. 25 (Representative Leach) is a hybrid plan. These measures have been referred to the House Judiciary Committee and await further action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4393/
Presidential Directives: Background and Overview
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The President's State of the Union Message: Frequently Asked Questions
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Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
On February 3, 2003, President Bush transmitted his budget submission for FY2004, which again contained some proposals for reform of the budget process, including a reformulated line item veto for the President. This report discusses the history of the line item veto and examines the policy debate regarding the issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3813/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4183/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4184/
Presidential and Vice Presidential Succession: Overview and Current Legislation
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The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress
American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4402/
NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4319/
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3814/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4185/
Evolution of the Senate's Role in the Nomination and Confirmation Process: A Brief History
Over time, the Senate has developed a series of procedures to deal with the concerns of its Members on nominations. First is the custom of senatorial courtesy, whereby Senators from the same party as the President might influence a nomination or kill it by objecting to it. This tradition has not always been absolute, but it has allowed Senators to play a fairly large role, particularly in the selection of nominees within a Senator’s home state, such as for district court judgeships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7052/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4186/
Presidential Vetoes, 1789-Present: A Summary Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5246/
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3815/
Social Security Reform: Effect on Benefits and the Federal Budget of Plans Proposed by the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7714/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4187/
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3816/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4188/
The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections
The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4395/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4189/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4401/
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 107th Congress
Seven proposals to reform the Electoral College system have been introduced to date in the 107th Congress. H.J.Res. 3 (Representative Green of Texas), and H.J.Res. 5 (Representative Delahunt) would eliminate the electoral college, substituting direct popular election of the President. H.J.Res. 1 (Representative Clyburn), H.J.Res. 18 (Representative Engel), and H.J.Res. 37 (Representative Clement) would incorporate the “district” method of awarding electoral votes, and H.J.Res. 17 (Representative Engel) would provide for proportional award of electoral votes. H.J.Res. 25 (Representative Leach) is a hybrid plan. These measures have been referred to the House Judiciary Committee and await further action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4394/
Former Presidents: Federal Pension and Retirement Benefits
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5200/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5860/
Votes Other than Favorably on Judicial Nominations, 1939-2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8195/
The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure
This report provides a brief overview of procedures involved in vetoing a bill and the ways Congress can respond to a presidential veto. Presidential vetoes are a rejection of legislation approved by majorities in both houses of Congress. Vetoes and congressional efforts to override them are often the reason for, or a reflection of, conflict between Congress and the President. The threat of a presidential veto can prompt the modification of bills moving through the legislative process. Tabular data are provided on the number of presidential vetoes exercised by each President from George Washington to William Clinton. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824686/
The War Powers Resolution: After Thirty Years
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Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes
This report discusses Congress' power to override presidential vetoes. The President's veto authority is among his most significant tools in legislative dealings with Congress. It is effective not only in preventing the passage of legislation undesirable to the President, but also as a threat, sometimes forcing Congress to modify legislation before it is presented to the President. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824615/
President Clinton's Vetoes
This report provides a table outlining the bills vetoed by President William Jefferson Clinton's two terms in office. It includes an overview and the bill number, date, title, and override attempts for each veto. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824478/
Presidential Vetoes, 1789-Present: A Summary Overview
This report discusses the veto power vested in the President by Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution. It provides a general overview and a table of presidential vetoes from 1789-2004, listing the coincident Congresses, regular vetoes, pocket vetoes, total vetoes, and vetoes overridden for each president. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824807/
Presidential Advisers' Testimony Before Congressional Committees: An Overview
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The NATO Summit at Istanbul, 2004
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7109/
Executive Branch Power to Postpone Elections
Because of the continuing threat of terrorism, concerns have been raised about the potential for terrorist events to occur close to or during the voting process for the November 2004 elections. For instance, the question has been raised as to whether a sufficiently calamitous event could result in the postponement of the election, and what mechanisms are in place to deal with such an event. This report focuses on who has the constitutional authority to postpone elections, to whom such power could be delegated, and what legal limitations exist to such a postponement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5856/
The Mid-Session Review of the President’s Budget: Timing Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7384/
Elections Reform: Overview and Issues
This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results. Both sessions of the 107th Congress considered and debated federal election reform legislation, and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA, P.L. 107-252) was enacted in October 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5861/
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process
This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. When federal agencies and programs lack appropriated funding, they must cease operations, except in emergency situations. The failure of the President and Congress to reach agreement on funding measures has caused government shutdowns. It is necessary either to enact temporary funding legislation at the close of the fiscal year or to shut down the activities that are not funded at that time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824456/
Presidential and Vice Presidential Succession: Overview and Current Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7582/
The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections
The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5857/
Presidential Advisers' Testimony Before Congressional Committees: An Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7497/