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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Controlled Substances Act: Regulatory Requirements
This report highlights certain non-criminal regulatory requirements of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The CSA and its implementing regulations establish a framework through which the federal government regulates the use of controlled substances for legitimate medical, scientific, research, and industrial purposes, and prevents these substances from being diverted for illegal purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770587/
Foreign Ownership of Property in the United States: Federal and State Restrictions
This report examines various legal issues raised by Federal and State laws restricting foreign ownership in U. S. property. The report examines the constitutional barriers to Federal and State laws restricting such ownership, and the possible constitutional predicates for Federal legislation regulating foreign ownership of property in the united States. The impact of treaties to which the United States is a party on both Federal and State restrictions on the rights of foreign persons to own U.S. property is also discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8493/
Lobby Act Reform
This report discusses the methods to achieve effective accountability form lobbyists groups and individuals who seek to influence the governmental decision-making process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8403/
The Immigration and Nationality Act: Questions and Answers
The basic United States law governing immigration and naturalization is contained in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1101 -- et seq.). This report provides questions and answers to explain the way in which the Immigration and Nationality Act as amended through 1981 regulates the entry of aliens for permanent and temporary residence in the United States, and other major provisions of the law. Emphasis is placed on subjects which have been of particular interest to the Congress in recent years. This supersedes CRS Report No. 81-65 EPW. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8507/
The Insanity Defense: An Overview and Legislative Proposals
This report will discuss the insanity defense as used in the federal courts. It will briefly trace the history of the evolution of that defense from its earliest formulation to the version used in the John Hinckley case, and will provide, in summary form, descriptive analysis of various pieces of Legislation to change federal law with regard to the substantive definition of the defense, the allocation of the burden of persuasion when the defense is invoked, and procedures following the successful use of the defense. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8500/
How the Food Stamp Program Works
This report briefly describes the present operation of the Food Stamp program, reflecting legislative revisions through 1982. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8505/
Independent Truckers: The Effects of Recent Legislation on Earnings (Effects of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982 and the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1983, as they affect highway-related taxes, two trailers, length and width of vehicles, and weights and loads)
Congress passed legislation late in 1982 that is expected to have a significant effect on the annual net earnings of independent truckers. About 90 percent of fresh produce, most used household goods, and from one-third to one-half of all fabricated steel and other commodities transported by truck are hauled by independent truckers. The legislation raised the Federal fuel tax by 5 cents per gallon and significantly raised a highway use tax that is based on the weight of the vehicle. The legislation also allowed truckers to use two trailers, longer and wider vehicles, and carry heavier loads. This CRS report discusses these 1982 changes in Federal legislation. It also contains an estimate of the upper and lower bound of the impact that these changes could have on the annual net earnings of independent truckers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8812/
The Liability Insurance Controversy
This report discusses liability insurance, as the primary method of managing business related risks that has been recognized as one of the foundations of American commerce. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9598/
The Liability Insurance Controversy
This report discusses liability insurance, as the primary method of managing business related risks that has been recognized as one of the foundations of American comnerce. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9588/
The Liability Insurance Crisis
This report discusses liability insurance crisis, including complaints from businesses, professionals , and municipalities as well threat of lawsuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9589/
The Liability Insurance Crisis
This report discusses liability insurance crisis, including complaints from businesses, professionals , and municipalities as well threat of lawsuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9599/
Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994
This report summarizes provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994 and outlines this Act's implementation schedule for use by Members of Congress and their staff. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs97/
Implementing Acid Rain Legislation
This report discusses the broad-ranging provisions in Title IV of The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549), which raise myriad implementation issues, particularly with respect to the system of tradable "allowances." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs94/
General Overview of United States Antitrust Law
This report presents brief summaries of (1) the primary United States antitrust statutes, and (2) some of the activities which are generally considered to be violations of those laws. There is also some reference to the prohibition against unfair competition and the "unfairness" jurisdiction of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). There is not, however, any discussion of the extraterritorial reach of the United States antitrust laws. Further, the laws whose descriptions follow do not constitute all of the statutes which are applicable to antitrust issues, but rather, constitute those which are most often utilized. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs180/
Implementing Acid Rain Legislation
This report discusses the broad-ranging provisions in Title IV of The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549), which raise myriad implementation issues, particularly with respect to the system of tradable "allowances." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs177/
Habitat Modification and the Endangered Species Act: The Sweet Home Decision
This report discusses the Endangered Species Act, the regulation of the Fish and Wildlife Service defining "harm" for purposes of the "take" prohibitions of the Endangered Species Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs179/
Individual Transferable Quotas in Fishery Management
This report discusses individual transferable quota (ITQ), which is an allocated privilege of landing a specified portion of the total annual fish catch in the form of quota shares. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822583/
The Farm Bill: Soil and Water Conservation Issues
This report discusses resource conservation topics, which are a part of the farm bill debate. Debate on existing programs focuses on reauthorization of the Conservation Reserve Program and possible amendments to the reserve, swampbuster, and conservation compliance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs174/
Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996: A Summary
The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 is the product of legislative efforts stretching back well over a decade and stimulated to passage in part by the tragedies in Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. This report summarizes the six titles of the Act, its sources, and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs309/
Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations
This report is intended to provide a brief overview of the various potential restrictions upon or regulation of the lobbying activities of non-profit organizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820992/
Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays
This report discusses a recurring issue in environmental policy: the cost of pollution control imposed on individuals, businesses, and governments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822360/
Fast-Track Trade Authority: Which Environmental Issues are "Directly Related to Trade"?
This report discusses fast-track negotiating authority, which provides that Congress will consider trade agreements within mandatory deadlines, with limited debate, and without amendment. Trade negotiating objectives have generally been included in fast-track legislation to establish priorities for trade negotiators. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs409/
Fast-Track Trade Authority Proposals: Which Environmental Issues are Included in the Principal Negotiating Objectives?
This report discusses fast-track negotiating authority, which provides that Congress will consider trade agreements within mandatory deadlines, with limited debate, and without amendment. Environmental provisions are eligible for the fast-track procedure only if they meet at least one of the principal trade negotiating objectives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs412/
Federal Advertising Law: An Overview
This report provides a brief overview of federal law with respect to five selected advertising issues: alcohol advertising, tobacco advertising, the Federal Trade Commission Act, advertising by mail, and advertising by telephone. There are numerous federal statutes regulating advertising that do not fit within any of these categories; as random examples, the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requires disclosures in advertisements for prescription drugs ; the Truth in Lending Act governs the advertising of consumer credit ; and a federal criminal statute makes it illegal falsely to convey in an advertisement that a business is connected with a federal agency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs580/
ISTEA Reauthorization: Highway and Transit Legislative Proposals in the 105th Congress, 2nd Session
This report discusses the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), programs which are continuing to operate on the basis of limited interim financing enacted in the closing moments of the 1st Session. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs541/
Promulgating Procedural Rules For the United States District Courts and Courts of Appeals
This report sketches the manner in which procedural rules for United States district courts and United States courts of appeals are adopted or modified and the participants in the process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822619/
Child Support Enforcement: New Reforms and Potential Issues
This report discusses the background, issues, enforcement and the reforms of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-193), signed into law on August 22, 1996, and the major changes made to the Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs680/
Patent Reform: Overview and Comparison of S. 507 and H.R. 400
H.R. 400 and S. 507 are similar but different omnibus patent reform proposals. Both bills generally transform the Patent and Trademark Office into a government corporation; require publication of patent applications 18 months after filing, subject to certain exceptions that differ in these bills; and extend the patent term for certain delays in patent issuance. S. 507 also contains provisions on patent reexamination reform. This report summarizes and compares the bills and reviews arguments for and against the proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820909/
The Law of Church and State: The Proposed Religious Freedom Amendment, H.J. Res. 78
This report summarizes legislative developments on the proposal and briefly analyzes its likely legal effect if added to the Constitution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs574/
Farm Commodity Programs: Sugar
This report discusses the federal sugar program, which authorized by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 seeks to ensure the viability of the U.S. sugar producing sector primarily by supporting the incomes of sugar beet and sugarcane producers and of those firms that process each crop into sugar. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs511/
Statutory Modifications of the Application of NEPA
From time to time, Congress has considered the operation of the National Environmental Policy Act. While Congress has amended the statute itself only twice since its enactment, Congress has often enacted provisions that modify the application of the Act or specify the extent of the documents that need be prepared in particular instances or contexts. This report collects and lists examples of such provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822681/
Immigration-Related Provisions of Selected Bills on Religious Persecution
This report analyzes immigration-related provisions of H.R. 2431, the “Freedom from Religious Persecution Act,” as passed by the House on May 14, 1998, and S. 1868, the “International Religious Freedom Act,” as introduced in the Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs573/
Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law
This report provides background on foreign policy sanctions and the events that might necessitate their use, criteria to consider when determining if sanctions are appropriate, approaches that might be effective, and aspects of the use of sanctions that are sometimes overlooked or not considered fully. The report also provides an uncomplicated map of where sanctions policies and options currently may be found in U.S. law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822512/
Air Quality and Transportation Enhancement Provisions in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991
This report describes how the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Program (CMAQ) and enhancement programs function, examines the policy issues surrounding them, and summarizes relevant provisions in major legislation to reauthorize ISTEA in the 105th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821528/
Immigration Fundamentals
This report describes the fundamentals of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), which was enacted in 1952 and significantly amended since, most recently by the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820980/
IRS Reform: Innocent Spouse Rule
Married couples filing joint tax returns are liable individually and as a couple for all taxes due on the return with a limited exemption for innocent spouses. This report discusses joint and several liability, which has been the subject of much criticism and calls for reform or elimination. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820985/
IRS Reform: Innocent Spouse Rule
Married couples filing joint tax returns are liable individually and as a couple for all taxes due on the return with a limited exemption for innocent spouses. This report discusses joint and several liability, which has been the subject of much criticism and calls for reform or elimination. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs791/
Banking and Finance: Legislative Initiatives in the 105th Congress, Second Session
This report reviews major banking and finance issues that are receiving congressional attention in the 2nd session of the 105th Congress. It will be updated periodically to reflect legislative developments. Relevant CRS products are referenced. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs690/
Banking and Finance: Legislative Initiatives in the 105th Congress, Second Session
This report reviews major banking and finance issues that are receiving congressional attention in the 2nd session of the 105th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820884/
Satellite Television License of the Copyright Act (17 U.S.C. Section 119) and the 1997 Rate Adjustment
This report summarizes the basic features of the television satellite compulsory license of the Copyright Act (17 U.S.C. 119), including the rate adjustment procedures; reviews the October 1997 rate adjustment setting the current 27-cent per signal per month per subscriber rate; and summarizes recent legislative proposals to stay further implementation of the 1997 rate adjustment, or to revise the section 119 license. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822642/
Campaign Financing
Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system. This report discusses the debate regarding campaign finance regulation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821433/
Food and Agriculture Issues in the 105th Congress
This report examines various budget issues regarding food and agriculture in the 105th Congress, examining recent developments and then taking a look a the context of those developments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs520/
The International Criminal Court Treaty: Description, Policy Issues, and Congressional Concerns
This report discusses the events leading to the creation of a permanent international criminal tribunal and U.S. perspectives on the Court including: problematic provisions in the ICC Treaty, congressional considerations, and potential implications for U.S. foreign policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822498/
Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law
The Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act has two basic aims: to regulate international ocean disposal of materials, into authorized related research. Permit and enforcement provisions of the law are often referred to as the Ocean Dumping Act. The basic provisions of the act have remained virtually unchanged since 1972, when it was enacted to establish a comprehensive waste management system to regulate disposal or dumping of all materials into marine waters that are within U.S. jurisdiction, although a number of new authorities have been added. This report represents a summary of the law, describing the essence of the statute. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1007/
Farm Commodity Legislation: Chronology, 1933-98
Farm commodity programs were a product of the Great Depression. This report discusses the history of farm commodity legislation. Since 1933, Congress has required the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) to administer a variety of programs providing price support and income protection for the nations farmers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs830/
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
This report gives an overview of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, which was intended to prohibit bribery of foreign officials by American corporations. It includes information about the original legislation, amendments in 1988, and amendments in 1998 that brought the legislation into conformance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's agreement on bribery. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1001/
Monopoly and Monopolization - Fundamental But Separate Concepts in U.S. Antitrust Law
This report illustrates the difference between the concepts of “monopoly” and “monopolization” by touching on the monopoly/monopolization thinking in the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice (DoJ) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), as illustrated in (1) statements on merger enforcement made by recent antitrust enforcement officials (generally indicative of the agencies’ concerns about competitive conditions and the effect of various market transactions), (2) the 1992 Horizontal Merger Guidelines 2 and (3) some observations on the Government actions against the Microsoft and Intel Corporations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs893/
Global Climate Change Policy: Domestic Early Action Credits
This report discusses the global climate change policy and proposals to allow credit for early actions to reduce emissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs847/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: House and Senate Amendments to Juvenile Justice Legislation
This report discusses legislative issues regarding the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which provides federal funds to the states to assist them in providing an education for children with disabilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822450/
H.R. 853, The Comprehensive Budget Process Reform Act: Summary of Provisions
This report discusses the Comprehensive Budget Process Reform Act of 1999, was introduced by Representative Jim Nussle on February 25, 1999, and referred to the Committee on the Budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs874/
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