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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
School Prayer
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Equal Rights Amendment (Proposed)
The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was first introduced in 1923, and was passed by the Congress in 1972. In 1978, Congress extended the original deadline for ratification of the ERA. Thus, if it receives approval in the form of ratification by 38 States before June 30, 1982, the measure will become the 27th Amendment to the Constitution, and will require equal treatment under Federal and State laws and practices for all persons, regardless of sex. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8412/
How the Food Stamp Program Works
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P.L. 97-320, Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982: A Brief Explanation
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Proposals for Revision of the Communications Act of 1934: Telecommunications Issues
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The Radwaste Paradox
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The Radwaste Paradox
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Martial Law in Poland
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Independent Truckers: The Effects of Recent Legislation on Earnings (Effects of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982 and the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1983, as they affect highway-related taxes, two trailers, length and width of vehicles, and weights and loads)
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Sex Discrimination in Education: Title IX
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Parental Notification for Family Planning Services: Title X Regulations
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Drunk Driving and Raising the Drinking Age
This brief report is prepared in response to numerous requests for information on the related issues of drunk driving and raising the drinking age. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8712/
Common Legal Questions and Answers Concerning Currency, Legal Tender and Money
This report answers common legal questions relating to currency, legal tender, and money. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9034/
Black and Hispanic Federal Judges: 1900 to Present
This report shows that in recent years, attention has increasingly focused upon the minority composition of the Federal judiciary, in apparent response to concerns that judges appointed to the Federal bench should more compositely reflect the U.S. population they serve. Two of the larger U.S. subpopulations served by the Federal judiciary are blacks and Hispanics. Accordingly, this mini brief lists chronologically and cumulatively the appointments of blacks and Hispanics to the Federal bench, which includes the U.S.Supreme Court, Circuit Courts of Appeals, and District courts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8861/
Article Packet: Background Information on Seatbelts in School Buses
This notice from the Department of Transportation, denies a petition for rule-making filed by Physicians for Automotive Safety (PAS), asking this agency to mandate the installation of seat belts on all school buses. NHTSA believes that the currently mandated occupant protections in school buses provide an adequate level of safety protection, and that seat belts would not raise the level of protection for the occupants unless States and local jurisdictions were willing to take steps to ensure that the seat belts were actually used. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9052/
Crime Control: Administration and Congressional Initiatives
The Reagan Administration announced its major crime Control proposals in 1981, shortly after the final report from the Attorney General's Task Force on Violent Crimes, and reiterated support for significant changes in Crime control legislation in 1983. Congressional initiatives and modifications of those proposals continue interest and controversy in crime control matters in the 98th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8826/
Deregulation of Transportation
Transportation has been substantially deregulated over the last 5 years and there is talk of enacting legislation during the 98th Congress to further deregulate transportation or to restore some of the regulation that recent legislation has removed. This mini brief gives an overview of the deregulation already enacted into law, and some of the ideas being considered for further legislation. The brief also refers to some sources for further reading. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9035/
Coordination of Federal Efforts to Control Illicit Drug Traffic
This report discusses how best to coordinate the Federal government's multi-agency efforts to curb illicit traffic in dangerous drugs has once again become an issue of major interest to the Congress. Critics of the Reagan Administration's anti-drug program contend that it lacks an overall strategy and that it suffers from the absence of a central mechanism for the formulation of general policy as well as for the broad direction of operations digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8840/
Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, October 1983 Term
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Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982
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Control of Illicit Traffic in Dangerous Drugs
Suppression of illicit traffic is only one aspect of the general Federal Government effort to prevent the abuse of narcotics and other dangerous drug;, but in political significance it is undoubtedly paramount. Various approaches to the problem have been suggested and tried since the first explicitly anti-opium law was enacted in 1887. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9042/
Summaries of Federal Environmental Laws Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency
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Political Broadcasts - Regulate or Deregulate?
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Compensation for Crime Victims
This report discusses the growing interest in recent years in providing compensation for the innocent victims of violent crime through programs financed by the Federal and/or State Governments. At issue have been the general propriety, desirability, and feasibility, as well as the cost, of Federal support of such programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9040/
Sport Hunting in Alaska
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Radio Marti
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Public Debt Ceiling: Its Current Status
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Constitutional Conventions: Political and Legal Questions
This report discusses the applications that have been passed by 32 of the necessary 34 State legislatures to convene a convention to propose an amendment prohibiting abortion. Because this process for amending the Constitution has never been used, several unresolved legal and policy questions arise governing the convening and the authority of such a convention. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9057/
Artificial Sweeteners
This report discusses the artificial sweeteners have been a source of controversy in the U.S. for over 73 years. One of the factors driving these issues has been an interplay of a large consumer demand for low calorie sweeteners and controversy concerning certain safety standards set forth in the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9053/
Advertising of Alcoholic Beverages: Should a Radio and TV Ban be Imposed?
This issue brief discusses the ongoing debate centered around television and radio advertising of alcoholic beverages, especially as it relates to the possible negative influence on the drinking habits of minors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9049/
Drunk Driving and the National Driver Register
At the 0.08 BAC level of alcohol, braking, steering, lane changing, and judgment are degraded and the driving performance of virtually all drivers is substantially impaired. During the debate on reauthorization of the federal surface transportation programs, an amendment that would require each state either to enact a 0.08 BAC law or face the loss of a portion of its Federal Highway Trust Fund monies passed the Senate and will likely be considered in the House. This proposal raises questions about the effectiveness and impacts of a 0.08 BAC law, the rights of states versus the federal government, and alternative ways to encourage the states to adopt stronger impaired driving countermeasures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9058/
Obscenity: A Legal Primer
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Explanation of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 -- Public Law 99-177 (The Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act)
The report explains briefly the major features of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-177), commonly referred to as the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act. Following a short overview of the deficit reduction process, the report outlines the deficit control timetable for each of fiscal years 1987-1991, and the accelerated timetable for fiscal year 1986, describes the procedures for eliminating excess deficits, discusses how to compute the required spending reductions, and summarizes the sequestration of funds for fiscal year 1986. The report also identifies the programs exempted from emergency deficit reduction procedures and those that have special rules for making reductions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8715/
Campaign Financing in Federal Elections: A Guide to the Law and Its Operation
This report provides an introduction to the laws governing the financing of Federal election campaigns and presents data on campaign finance activity in the 1980’s. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8170/
Tax Reform Act of 1986: Public Law 99-514
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Campaign Finance Reform: A Summary and Analysis of Legislative Proposals In the 98th and 99th Congresses
This report summarizes and analyzes on a conceptual basis the 108 bills and major amendments offered in the 98th and 99th Congresses which proposed changes in the campaign finance laws governing Federal elections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8171/
Sanctions Against South Africa: Activities of the 99th Congress
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Sanctions against South Africa: Activities of the 99th Congress
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The Liability Insurance Controversy
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The Liability Insurance Controversy
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South Africa: U.S. Policy After Sanctions
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Tax Reform Effects
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The Liability Insurance Crisis
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The Liability Insurance Crisis
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Products Liability: A Legal Overview
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Terrorism: U.S. Policy Options
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Bank Failures: Recent Trends and Policy Options
During the 1980s the U.S. banking industry has experienced a rapidly growing number of failures. Many factors have contributed to this trend including deregulation, technology, individual bank management, and economic conditions. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) handles insured bank failures. Congress has been monitoring the recent trend and is concerned with the FDIC’s ability to continue to perform its supervisory and insurance operations. The present situation, information on key factors affecting the banking industry, and the FDIC’s role when a bank fails is discussed in this report. The reference section of this issue brief contains a list of CRS products providing background on the FDIC and legislative issues relevant to the agency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9064/
Catastrophic Health Insurance: Comparison of the Major Provisions of the "Medicare Catastrophic Protection Act of 1987" (H.R. 2470, as passed by the House July 22, 1987) and the "Medicare Catastrophic Loss Prevention Act of 1987" (S. 1127, as passed by the Senate Finance Committee, July 27, 1987)
Catastrophic Health Insurance: Comparison of the Major Provisions of the “Medicare Catastrophic Protection Act of 1987” (H.R. 2470, as passed by t h e House July 22, 1987) and the "MEDICARE CATASTROPHIC LOSS PREVENTION ACT OF 1987" (S. 1127, as reported by the S e n a t e Finance Committee, July 27, 1987) digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8425/
Synopses of Reported Decisions of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit in which Judge Robert Heron Bork Authorized a Signed Opinion or Other Statement: 1982-1987
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Catastrophic Health Insurance: Medicare
Catastrophic medical costs are broadly defined as large unpredictable health care expenses; these are usually associated with a major illness or serious injury. The absence of catastrophic health insurance protection for the elderly is the subject of concern in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8717/