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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
A Concise History of the Food Stamp Program
The Food Stamp Program has undergone a number of major changes since its modern version was established in 1961. It is now one of the largest "welfare" programs and provides an income supplement to the food-purchasing power of more than 18 million persons each month, at a cost of nearly $7 billion annually. This report traces the history of the program from 1961 through 1979, with an emphasis on how program rules, philosophy, participation, and costs have changed over the years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8143/
A Concise History of the Food Stamp Program
The Food Stamp Program has undergone a number of major changes since its modern version was established in 1961. It is now one of the largest "welfare" programs and provides an income supplement to the food-purchasing power of more than 18 million persons each month, at a cost of nearly $7 billion annually. This report traces the history of the program from 1961 through 1979, with an emphasis on how program rules, philosophy, participation, and costs have changed over the years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8857/
How the Food Stamp Program Works
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Food Stamps: 1982 Legislation
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Aspartame: An Artificial Sweetener
Since 1973 when the Food and Drug Administration first approved the artificial sweetener, aspartame, for use in food products, some researchers have raised questions about possible health effects associated with its consumption. This paper provides an overview of the regulatory history and possible health problems associated with the use of aspartame. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8091/
Infant Formula: National Problems
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Cash and Non-Cash Benefits for Persons with Limited Income: Eligibility Rules, Recipient and Expenditure Data, FY1981-83
This report summarizes basic eligibility rules, as of May 1984, for more than 70 cash and non-cash programs that benefit primarily persons of limited income. It also gives funding formulas, benefit levels, and, for fiscal years 1981-1983, recipient numbers and expenditure data for each program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9041/
Chronology and Brief Description of Federal Food Assistance Legislation, 1935-1983
Since 1935 when Congress first approved the donation of agricultural surplus commodities to low-income populations and school lunch programs, some 57 laws have been passed creating and revising Federal food assistance programs. This report is a chronology of these laws. It briefly describes the major provisions which have led to the network of Federal food assistance programs we know today-- the food stamp program, school lunch and breakfast programs, summer food and child care food programs, special and commodity supplemental food programs for women, infants and children (WICa nd CSFP), elderly nutrition programs, and commodity donation programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8866/
Primer on P.L. 480 -- Program History, Description, and Operations: A Brief Compilation of Explanatory Documents
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9184/
African Famine: U.S. Response
This report discusses the 1985 African famine situation, especially regarding U.S. emergency assistance at a time of U.S. domestic budgetary restraints, the adequacy of U.S. measures for monitoring and anticipating food emergencies, and the scale and nature of U.S. agricultural development programs intended to prevent future famines. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9050/
Ethiopian Food Situation: International Response
The United States has donated the largest share of the world-wide relief effort. Members of Congress nave passed legislation, the African Famine Relief and Recovery Act of 1985 (2.L. 99-8), authorizing emergency relief assistance to Ethiopia and other famine-stricken countries. Some observers favor trying to remove restrictions that prohibit long-term agricultural development assistance and other forms of economic aid to Ethiopia, but many continue to believe that aid to this Marxist-oriented nation should be limited to humanitarian relief. The Ethiopian food situation will probably remain a central issue among U.S. lawmakers and relief officials during the 99th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9060/
Artificial Sweeteners
This report discusses the artificial sweeteners have been a source of controversy in the U.S. for over 73 years. One of the factors driving these issues has been an interplay of a large consumer demand for low calorie sweeteners and controversy concerning certain safety standards set forth in the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9053/
Advertising of Alcoholic Beverages: Should a Radio and TV Ban be Imposed?
This issue brief discusses the ongoing debate centered around television and radio advertising of alcoholic beverages, especially as it relates to the possible negative influence on the drinking habits of minors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9049/
The Delaney Clause: The Dilemma of Regulating Health Risk for Pesticide Residues
Under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for establishing tolerances for pesticide residues in or on foods and feeds. Tolerances are legal limits to the amount of pesticide residues that can be found on a raw agricultural commodity at the farm gate or in a processed food. The FFDCA has two sections, 408 and 409, which set up different and inconsistent criteria for setting tolerances for pesticide residues in foods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs27/
The Delaney Dilemma: Regulating Pesticide Residues in Foods -- Seminar Proceedings, March 16, 1993
A provision in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Delaney Clause, appears to lower risks in the setting of tolerances for pesticide residues. It prohibits any substance from being added to processed foods if it induces cancer in man or animals. In reality, the provision created a dilemma because the zero-risk statute makes it difficult to regulate pesticides. Because of the prescription of Delaney, tolerances (legal limits) are established differently for carcinogens and non-carcinogens and in raw and processed foods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs60/
Food Additive Regulations: A Chronology
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World Health Organization: A Fact Sheet
The World Health organization (WHO), established in 1948, is the United Nations system's authority on international public health issues. It assists governments in improving national health services and in establishing worldwide standards for foods, chemicals, and biological and pharmaceutical products. WHO concentrates on preventive rather than curative programs, including efforts to eradicate endemic and other widespread diseases, stabilize population growth, improve nutrition, sanitation, and maternal and child care. WHO is not an operational agency. It works through contracts with other agencies and private voluntary organizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26072/
Pesticide Legislation: Food Quality Protection Act of 1996
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The World Food Summit
Governments participating in the 1996 World Food Summit will examine how to deal with world hunger and malnutrition and achieve the goal of food security for all. There is broad agreement on the desirability of the Summit's goal, but controversy has developed over such issues as the relationship of trade liberalization and food security, the advisability of declaring a legal right to food, the link between population stabilization and reproductive health and food security, and responsibility within the UN system for Summit follow-up. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs331/
Food and Agriculture: Prospective Issues in the 105th Congress
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Food and Agriculture Provisions in the FY1997 Supplemental Appropriations Act
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FY1998 USDA Budget and Appropriations: Domestic Food Programs
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Food Safety Agencies and Authorities: A Primer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs694/
Food and Drug Administration: Selected Funding and Policy Issues
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Child Nutrition Issues in the 105th Congress
This report covers proposed and enacted legislative initiatives to change child nutrition programs (including the WIC program) during 1997 and 1998. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs533/
Food Stamp Benefits for Legal Immigrants in P.L. 105-185
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs693/
Organic Foods and the Proposed Federal Certification and Labeling Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs691/
U.S.-European Agricultural Trade: Food Safety and Biotechnology Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs518/
Science Behind the Regulation of Food Safety: Risk Assessment and the Precautionary Principle
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs990/
Federal Regulatory Structure for Egg Safety: Fact Sheet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs894/
Food and Drug Administration: Selected Funding and Policy Issues for FY2000
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1192/
Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods
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Meat and Poultry Inspection Issues
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Food Safety Issues in the 106th Congress
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Fruits and Vegetables: Ongoing Issues for Congress
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U.S. European Agricultural Trade: Food Safety and Biotechnology Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1368/
Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods
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Peanuts: Policy Issues
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Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods: Current Law and Proposed Changes
Federal law requires most imports, including many food items, to bear labels informing the “ultimate purchaser” of their country of origin. Various bills have been introduced to impose expanded country-of-origin labeling requirements on meats and on several other agricultural products. Such proposals have attracted attention for a number of reasons. One is that they are viewed (by some advocates) as a way to help U.S. producers dealing with low farm prices. Also, some perceive that food products from certain countries might pose greater risks than those from the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1722/
Sugar Policy Issues
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Nutrition Labeling: Fresh Meats
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8846/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2001, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1375/
Food Safety Issues in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1724/
The U.S.-European Union Banana Dispute
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8720/
Meat and Poultry Inspection Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2851/
Sugar Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2093/
Fruits and Vegetables: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2856/
Meat and Poultry Inspection Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2852/
Fruits and Vegetables: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2857/
Food Safety and Protection Issues in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2862/
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