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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program: Highlights of Proposed Changes and Impacts on Agriculture
In August 1999 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed regulations to clarify and strengthen the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act. Section 303(d) requires states to identify surface waters for which wastewater discharge limits are not stringent enough to achieve water quality standards and to allocate further required pollutant reductions among sources in order to attain those standards. This report discusses the major changes in EPA's proposals, compared with existing regulatory program requirements, and potential impacts on agriculture and forestry sources, which have been controversial. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1125/
Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1346/
Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1067/
Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1188/
Overview of NEPA Requirements
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1189/
EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program: Highlights of the Final Revised Rule
This report discusses the final rule and the key modifications of the August 1999 proposal. The final rule builds on the current TMDL regulatory program and adds details, specific requirements, and deadlines. It retains the basic elements of the 1999 proposal for more comprehensive identification of impaired waters, schedules and minimum elements for TMDLs, and new public participation requirements. At the same time, dropped from the final rule are several provisions that were most controversial in the proposal, including some potentially affecting agriculture and forestry, one that would have required pollutant discharge offsets in some circumstances, and one that would have required states to identify waters threatened but not yet impaired by pollution digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1126/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2001
The Department of Defense operates six environmental programs: cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, acceleration of cleanup at military bases designated for closure, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to ongoing military operations, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition to these activities, the Department of Energy is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and remediating contaminated sites. This report discusses the federal laws that established these programs, describes their scope and purpose, provides a history of appropriations, indicates the President’s budget request for FY2001, examines authorization and appropriations legislation for FY2001, and discusses other relevant legislation considered in the 106th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1144/
Constitutional Constraints on Congress' Ability to Protect the Environment
Federal protection of the environment must hew to the same constitutional strictures as any other federal actions. In the past decade, however, the Supreme Court has invigorated several of these strictures in ways that present new challenges to congressional drafters of environmental statutes. This report reviews six of these newly emergent constitutional areas, with special attention to their significance for current and future environmental legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1186/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 106th Congress
This report discuses issues such as Reforming Superfund, defense cleanup compliance, funding measures, beach assessment, air-related risk management plans, and research received congressional attention in the 106th Congress, first session. In the remaining days, there may be action related on water quality programs involving specific water bodies, and funding of environmental programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1184/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 106th Congress
The Clean Air Act and its 1990 amendments appear to have contributed to a marked improvement in air quality nationwide. Of nearly 100 metropolitan areas not meeting air quality standards for ozone in 1990, more than two-thirds now do so. Even greater progress has been achieved with carbon monoxide: 36 of 42 areas not in attainment in 1990 now meet the standard. Nevertheless, EPA remains concerned about air pollution. In 1997, the Agency promulgated major revisions to its air quality standards for ozone and particulates, an action that would require most states and urban areas to establish additional controls on a wide range of pollution sources. The revised standards were challenged by numerous parties and the courts have remanded the standards to EPA. Implementation is currently in limbo, pending resolution of appeals by the Supreme Court. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1185/
Environmental Protection Agency: FY2001 Budget Issues
The request for state and local wastewater and drinking water capital needs was a key issue. The request of $2.91 billion for State and Tribal Assistance Grants, which fund these needs, was about one-half billion less than in FY2000. The House passed $3.18 billion, the Senate $3.32 billion, and the conferees $3.62 billion. The request included $800 million for Clean Water State Revolving Funds, $550 million less than in FY2000. The House passed $1.20 billion, the Senate $1.35 billion and the conferees $1.35 billion. Conferees approved the $825 million requested for Drinking Water State Revolving Funds. Congress denied the Administration's request for a new Clean Air Partnership program. EPA requested $100 million for Mexican border water projects and $15 million for State of Alaska projects. Conferees approved $75 million and $35 million respectively. For state and tribal administrative grants, the conferees approved roughly the requested amount of $1.0 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1075/
Clean Air Standards: The Supreme Court Agrees to Review
In May, 2000, the Supreme Court agreed to review this decision, raising the prospect of a major pronouncement on the non-delegation doctrine, the enforceability of the revised ozone standard, and the role of compliance costs in setting nationwide air quality standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1128/
Environmental Protection: New Approaches
This report summarizes briefly a number of "new approaches," grouped under the following categories: Information: Approaches to improve the quantity and quality of information to enhance the knowledge base underlying environ- mental decisions (e.g., risk assessment, cost-benefit analysis).Public Sector Processes: Approaches to restructure governmental processes for making environmental decisions (e.g., devolution). Incentives: Approaches that emphasize incentives as opposed to regulatory or financial penalties for achieving environmental ends. Approaches that rely on markets and common law for environmental decisions to the extent possible. Approaches to inculcate environmental values in public or private managerial decisions (e.g., sustainability). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1187/
Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1347/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 107th Congress
Revisions to the air quality standards for ozone and particulates, promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1997, may also command renewed attention in the 107th Congress. The standards were challenged in the courts, and implementation is currently in limbo, pending resolution of appeals to the Supreme Court. The Court heard oral arguments November 7, 2000, and a decision is expected in spring 2001. The decision is likely to stimulate congressional oversight, and perhaps legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1682/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 107th Congress
This report discuss issues that received congressional attention in the 107th Congress, such as The impact of air quality regulations, key water quality issues, superfund, solid/hazardous wastes, multibillion dollar cleanup and compliance programs, climate change, pesticides, EPA budget, and Science and Technology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1684/
Clean Water Issues in the 107th Congress: An Overview
Key water quality issues that may face the 107th Congress include: actions to implement existing provisions of the Clean Water Act, whether additional steps are necessary to achieve overall goals of the Act, and the appropriate federal role in guiding and paying for clean water activities. This Act is the principal law that deals with polluting activity in the nation’s lakes, rivers, and coastal waters and authorizes funds to aid construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants. Legislative prospects for comprehensively amending it have been stalled over whether and exactly how to change the law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2041/
Superfund and Natural Resource Damages
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1934/
Clean Water Act Issues in the 107th Congress
Key water quality issues that may face the 107th Congress include: actions to implement existing provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA), whether additional steps are necessary to achieve overall goals of the Act, and the appropriate federal role in guiding and paying for clean water activities. Legislative prospects for comprehensively amending the Act have for some time stalled over whether and exactly how to change the law. If clean water issues receive attention in the 107th Congress, consideration of specific issues will depend in part on the CWA policy agenda of the new Bush Administration and on priorities of the key committees that have major jurisdiction over the Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1685/
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1391/
Global Climate Change
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1393/
Superfund and the Brownfields Issue
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1804/
Conservation and Reinvestment Act (CARA) (H.R. 701) and a Related Initiative in the 106th Congress
This report compares existing law with H.R. 701, as passed by the House(HP) and H.R. 701, as reported by the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee (SCR). Both versions, also known as the Conservation and Reinvestment Act (CARA), would have created a new fund, the CARA Fund. Both bills would have created and funded a new coastal energy impact assistance program, amended and funded the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF), funded the Urban Park and Recreation Recovery Program and the Historic Preservation Fund, increased funding for wildlife conservation, funded land restoration and easement programs, and funded the Payment in Lieu of Taxes (PILT) Program.1 The SCR version would also have funded additional programs to protect natural and cultural resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1690/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2001
The Department of Defense operates six environmental programs: cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, acceleration of cleanup at military bases designated for closure, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to ongoing military operations, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition to these activities, the Department of Energy is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and remediating contaminated sites. This report discusses the federal laws that established these programs, describes their scope and purpose, provides a history of appropriations, indicates the President’s budget request for FY2001, examines authorization and appropriations legislation for FY2001, and discusses other relevant legislation considered in the 106th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1584/
Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI): Research, Technology, and Related Programs
The Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI) was the Clinton Administration's package of R&D (to develop renewable energy sources and more energy efficient technologies), targeted tax credits (to encourage purchase and deployment of more efficient technologies), and voluntary information programs (to help businesses and schools be better informed when making purchasing and operating decisions that involve energy use and emissions). This report describes the R&D, voluntary information programs, and funding aspects of the CCTI. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1398/
The Supreme Court Addresses Corps of Engineers Jurisdiction Over "Isolated Waters": The SWANCC Decision
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2045/
Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress
In the 106th Congress, no comprehensive activity on reauthorizing the Clean Water Act occurred, although a number of individual clean water bills were enacted. Other issues have been debated recently, such as reforming the law to provide regulatory relief for industry, states and cities, and individual landowners. The debate over many of these issues highlights differing views of the Act and its implementation by some who seek to strengthen existing requirements and others who believe that costs and benefits should be more carefully weighed before additional control programs are mandated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1681/
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1392/
Global Climate Change: Market-Based Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gases
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1397/
MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1653/
The Liability Exemptions in the Senate Brownfields Bill (S. 350)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1807/
The Liability Exemptions in the Senate Brownfields Bill (S. 350)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10009/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 107th Congress
This report discuss issues that received congressional attention in the 107th Congress, such as The impact of air quality regulations, key water quality issues, superfund, solid/hazardous wastes, multibillion dollar cleanup and compliance programs, climate change, pesticides, EPA budget, and Science and Technology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10010/
Superfund and Brownfields in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1806/
Global Climate Change
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1394/
Clean Water Act Issues in the 107th Congress
Key water quality issues that may face the 107th Congress include: actions to implement existing provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA), whether additional steps are necessary to achieve overall goals of the Act, and the appropriate federal role in guiding and paying for clean water activities. Legislative prospects for comprehensively amending the Act have for some time stalled over whether and exactly how to change the law. If clean water issues receive attention in the 107th Congress, consideration of specific issues will depend in part on the CWA policy agenda of the new Bush Administration and on priorities of the key committees that have major jurisdiction over the Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1686/
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1528/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 107th Congress
In the early months of the 107th Congress, the most prominent air quality issue has been whether state and federal regulations designed to protect air quality have had a negative impact on energy production, and, if so, whether legislation should be enacted to temporarily or permanently relax such regulations. The early discussion focused primarily on California, but with the release of the Administration's energy policy recommendations in mid-May and subsequent congressional action, it has shifted to issues more national in scope. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1683/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1687/
Global Climate Change
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1395/
Climate Change: Federal Research, Technology, and Related Programs
A major focus of efforts to address possible global climate change has been on energy use, given that carbon dioxide, the major “greenhouse gas,” is added to the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned. Federal programs to increase energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy resources have a history that goes back well over two decades. While many of these efforts were aimed at reducing U.S. dependence on oil imports and addressing electricity needs, they also are relevant to environmental concerns, including climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1399/
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants
Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation was dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1524/
Arsenic in Drinking Water: Recent Regulatory Developments and Issues
This report discusses issues regarding the arsenic’s health effects and how to reduce the uncertainty in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the current standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb) in 1975. . This report reviews EPA efforts to develop a new arsenic rule and summarizes key provisions and subsequent events. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2047/
Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1409/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1688/
Global Climate Change
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1396/
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1400/
Clean Water Act Issues in the 107th Congress
Key water quality issues that may face the 107th Congress include: actions to implement existing provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA), whether additional steps are necessary to achieve overall goals of the Act, and the appropriate federal role in guiding and paying for clean water activities. Legislative prospects for comprehensively amending the Act have for some time stalled over whether and exactly how to change the law. If clean water issues receive attention in the 107th Congress, consideration of specific issues will depend in part on the CWA policy agenda of the new Bush Administration and on priorities of the key committees that have major jurisdiction over the Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6519/
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3604/
The Environmental Protection Agency's FY2002 Budget
On April 9, 2001, the President requested $7.3 billion in discretionary budget authority for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for FY2002, $512.0 million (or 7%) less than the FY2001 funding level of $7.8 billion. The request would not have continued funding of about $500 million for activities earmarked for FY2001, and contained provisions shifting more enforcement responsibilities to the states. Popular wastewater infrastructure funding, state roles, and the future of Superfund were some of the predominant topics. On July 17, the House Appropriations Committee recommended $7.545 billion,$229 million more than requested (H.R. 2620, H. Rept. 107-159). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2163/
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