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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program: Highlights of Proposed Changes and Impacts on Agriculture
In August 1999 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed regulations to clarify and strengthen the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act. Section 303(d) requires states to identify surface waters for which wastewater discharge limits are not stringent enough to achieve water quality standards and to allocate further required pollutant reductions among sources in order to attain those standards. This report discusses the major changes in EPA's proposals, compared with existing regulatory program requirements, and potential impacts on agriculture and forestry sources, which have been controversial. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1125/
Victims' Rights Amendment: Proposals to Amend the United States Constitution in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1127/
Sexual Harassment and Violence Against Women: Developments in Federal Law
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6973/
The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: The Use of the Military to Execute Civilian Law
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6972/
EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program: Highlights of the Final Revised Rule
This report discusses the final rule and the key modifications of the August 1999 proposal. The final rule builds on the current TMDL regulatory program and adds details, specific requirements, and deadlines. It retains the basic elements of the 1999 proposal for more comprehensive identification of impaired waters, schedules and minimum elements for TMDLs, and new public participation requirements. At the same time, dropped from the final rule are several provisions that were most controversial in the proposal, including some potentially affecting agriculture and forestry, one that would have required pollutant discharge offsets in some circumstances, and one that would have required states to identify waters threatened but not yet impaired by pollution digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1126/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2001
The Department of Defense operates six environmental programs: cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, acceleration of cleanup at military bases designated for closure, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to ongoing military operations, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition to these activities, the Department of Energy is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and remediating contaminated sites. This report discusses the federal laws that established these programs, describes their scope and purpose, provides a history of appropriations, indicates the President’s budget request for FY2001, examines authorization and appropriations legislation for FY2001, and discusses other relevant legislation considered in the 106th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1144/
Police and Law Enforcement: Selected Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1124/
Prisons: Policy Options for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1123/
Clean Air Standards: The Supreme Court Agrees to Review
In May, 2000, the Supreme Court agreed to review this decision, raising the prospect of a major pronouncement on the non-delegation doctrine, the enforceability of the revised ozone standard, and the role of compliance costs in setting nationwide air quality standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1128/
The Current Palestinian Uprising: Al-Aqsa Intifadah
Facing a September 13, 2000 deadline for concluding a comprehensive Israeli- Palestinian agreement on all permanent status issues, President Bill Clinton convened a trilateral summit with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Chairman Yasser Arafat at Camp David on July 11, 2000. The summit, which lasted until July 24, 2000, did not produce an agreement. Members of 106th Congress responded to the al-Aqsa Intifadah by introducing bills that supported Israel’s actions, encouraged the U.S. Administration to oppose any anti-Israel resolutions in the United Nations, called upon Palestinians to negotiate a resolution, and proposed cutting foreign assistance to the Palestinians if they did not stop the uprising. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1535/
Superfund and Natural Resource Damages
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1934/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1530/
Victims' Rights Amendment in the 106th Congress: Overview of Suggestions to Amend the Constitution
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1523/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2001
The Department of Defense operates six environmental programs: cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, acceleration of cleanup at military bases designated for closure, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to ongoing military operations, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition to these activities, the Department of Energy is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and remediating contaminated sites. This report discusses the federal laws that established these programs, describes their scope and purpose, provides a history of appropriations, indicates the President’s budget request for FY2001, examines authorization and appropriations legislation for FY2001, and discusses other relevant legislation considered in the 106th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1584/
Drug Control: International Policy and Options
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1525/
Crime Control: The Federal Response
Under the federal system in the United States, the states and localities traditionally have held the major responsibility for prevention and control of crime and maintenance of order. For most of the Republic’s history, “police powers” in the broad sense were reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. Many still hold that view, but others see a string of court decisions in recent decades as providing the basis for a far more active federal role. Several bills are discussed in this report that address issues related to crime, juvenile justice, and school violence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1529/
DNA Evidence: Legislative Initiatives in the 106th Congress
DNA evidence is a powerful forensic tool in criminal cases. Its use and capabilities have increased substantially since it was first introduced in the late 1980s. That growth has led to the emergence of the following issues that were considered by the 106th Congress in legislative initiatives: eliminating the nationwide backlog of unanalyzed DNA samples, expanding the kinds of offenders who are profiled, providing opportunities for post-conviction testing of DNA evidence, and continuing development of forensic science capabilities. This report discusses those and related issues and the legislation proposed and enacted to address them. It begins by describing provisions in prior federal law and then discusses issues and the legislation proposed, including the enacted DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (H.R. 4640, which became P.L. 106-546). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1871/
Terrorist Attack on USS Cole: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1541/
Jonathan Pollard: Background and Considerations for Presidential Clemency
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1540/
Mexico's Counter-Narcotics Efforts under Zedillo and Fox, December 1994-March 2001
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1537/
Terrorism and the Military's Role in Domestic Crisis Management: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1538/
Welfare Law and Domestic Violence
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2073/
Cyberwarfare
Cyberwarfare raises issues of growing national interest and concern. Cyberwarfare can be used to describe various aspects of defending and attacking information and computer networks in cyberspace, as well as denying an adversary’s ability to do the same. Some major problems encountered with cyber attacks, in particular, are the difficulty in determining the origin and nature of the attack and in assessing the damage incurred. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1536/
Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6982/
Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6517/
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1528/
Response to Terrorism: Legal Aspects of the Use of Military Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1542/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1531/
Terrorism: World Trade Center and the Pentagon – Applicable Federal Criminal Law
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6988/
Terrorism: Some Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities Following a Terrorist Attack
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6976/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1532/
Terrorism at Home and Abroad: Applicable Federal and State Criminal Laws
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6981/
"Terrorism" and Related Terms in Statute and Regulation: Selected Language
Congress is considering revised definitions of “terrorism” and related terms in the context of the proposed “Anti-Terrorism Act of 2001.” While the proposed definitions relate to criminal law and immigration law, hundreds of other federal statutes and regulations already define “terrorism” and related terms in a variety of other contexts. However, these statutes and regulations ultimately refer to an extremely small set of statutory definitions, current criminal law and immigration definitions being among them. This report provides the current text of these fundamental definitions. The report will be updated as action on new antiterrorism law proceeds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6992/
Terrorism Abroad: A Quick Look at Applicable Federal and State Laws
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6994/
Terrorism at Home: A Quick Look at Applicable Federal and State Criminal Laws
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6993/
Race-Based Civil Dentention for Security Purposes
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6995/
Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6837/
Latin America: Terrorism Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6979/
Operation Enduring Freedom: Foreign Pledges of Military and Intelligence Support
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1742/
Terrorism Funding: FY2002 Appropriations Bills
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1539/
Terrorism Legislation: Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6998/
Trying Terrorists as War Criminals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1543/
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants
Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation was dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1524/
Drug Control: International Policy and Options
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1526/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1533/
Juvenile Justice Legislation: Overview and the Legislative Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1452/
Trying Terrorists as War Criminals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6980/
Intelligence and Law Enforcement: Countering Transnational Threats to the U.S.
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1831/
Terrorism Risk Insurance: A Summary of Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1717/
Terrorism: Section by Section Analysis of the USA PATRIOT Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1651/
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