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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Army Drawdown and Restructuring: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the new defense strategy, which was unveiled by senior Department of Defense (DOD) leadership based on a review of potential future security challenges, current defense strategy, and budgetary constraints. This strategy will rebalance the Army's global posture and presence, emphasizing where potential problems are likely to arise, such as the Asia-Pacific region and the Middle East. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282331/
Grants Work in a Congressional Office
Congressional offices are often approached by constituents seeking funds for proposals of potential benefit to their State or district. This report discusses the grants process and varying approaches and techniques congressional offices have developed in dealing with grants requests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8708/
Guiding a Bill Through the Legislative Process
This report describes each stage of the legislative process that legislative assistants may find helpful as they seek to further the progress of a specific bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs99/
Investigative Oversight: An Introduction to the Law, Practice and Procedure of Congressional Inquiry
This report will provide an overview of some of the more common legal, procedural and practical issues, questions, and problems that committees have faced in the course of an investigation. Following a summary of the case law developing the scope and limitations of the power of inquiry, the essential tools of investigative oversight--subpoenas, staff interviews and depositions, grants of immunity, and the contempt power -- are described. Next, some of the special problems of investigating the executive are detailed, with particular emphasis on claims of presidential executive privilege, the problems raised by attempts to access information with respect to open or closed civil or criminal investigative matters, or to obtain information that is part of the agency deliberative process, and the effect on congressional access of statutory prohibitions on public disclosure. The discussion then focuses on various procedural and legal requirements that accompany the preparation for, and conduct of, an investigative hearing, including matters concerning jurisdiction, particular rules and requirements for the conduct of such proceedings, and the nature, applicability and scope of certain constitutional and common law testimonial privileges that may be claimed by witnesses. The case law and practice respecting the rights of minority party members during the investigative process is also reviewed. The report concludes with a description of the roles played by the offices of House General Counsel and Senate Legal Counsel in such investigations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs184/
House Administrative Reorganization: 104th Congress
This report discusses the management responsibility for financial, security, and legislative operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs305/
Grants Work in a Congressional Office
Members of Congress often get requests from constituents for information and help in obtaining funds for projects. Many state and local governments, nonprofit social service and community action organizations, private research groups, small businesses, and individuals approach congressional offices to find out about funding, both from the federal government and from the private sector. The success rate in obtaining federal assistance is not high, given the competition for federal funds. A grants staff’s effectiveness often depends on both an understanding of the grants process and on the relations it establishes with agency and other contacts. The following report does not constitute a blueprint for every office involved in grants and projects activity, nor does it present in-depth information about all aspects of staff activity in this area. The discussion is aimed at describing some basics about the grants process and some of the approaches and techniques used by congressional offices in dealing with this type of constituent service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs405/
How Measures Are Brought to the House Floor: A Brief Introduction
This report presents a brief description of the five methods used to bring proposed legislation to the House floor for consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs404/
Fast-Track Trade Authority: Which Environmental Issues are "Directly Related to Trade"?
This report discusses fast-track negotiating authority, which provides that Congress will consider trade agreements within mandatory deadlines, with limited debate, and without amendment. Trade negotiating objectives have generally been included in fast-track legislation to establish priorities for trade negotiators. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs409/
Fast-Track Trade Authority Proposals: Which Environmental Issues are Included in the Principal Negotiating Objectives?
This report discusses fast-track negotiating authority, which provides that Congress will consider trade agreements within mandatory deadlines, with limited debate, and without amendment. Environmental provisions are eligible for the fast-track procedure only if they meet at least one of the principal trade negotiating objectives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs412/
Fast Track for Trade Agreements: Procedural Controls for Congress and Proposed Alternatives
This report discusses the fast track trade procedures in the Trade Act of 1974 operate as procedural rules of the House and Senate, and the statute itself declares them to be enacted as an exercise of the constitutional authority of each house to determine its own rules. These procedures prevent Congress from altering an implementing bill or declining to act, but permit it to enact or reject the bill. By these means Congress retains authority to legislate in the areas covered, yet affords the President conditions for effective negotiation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs414/
Fiscal Year 1998 Continuing Resolutions
Congress annually considers 13 regular appropriations bills providing funding for agency operations. If any of these bills are not enacted by the start of the fiscal year (October 1), the nonessential activities of the agencies funded in the outstanding bills must cease. In those years in which all 13 bills are not enacted by the deadline, Congress adopts measures continuing funding until the regular bills are enacted. This report discusses these measures, which are referred to as continuing resolutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs394/
Fast-Track Trade Negotiating Authority: A Comparison of 105th Congress Legislative Proposals
This report provides a side-by-side comparison of the reported versions of H.R. 2621 and S. 1269, 105 Congress bills that would provide the President with trade negotiating authority and accord certain resulting agreements and implementing bills expedited -- or “fast-track” -- legislative consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs584/
Fast-Track Trade Negotiating Authority: A Comparison of 105th Congress Legislative Proposals
This report provides a side-by-side comparison of H.R. 2621 and S. 2400, as reported, 105th Congress bills that would provide the President with trade negotiating authority and accord certain resulting agreements and implementing bills expedited -- or "fast-track" -- legislative consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs585/
The House Amendment Tree
This report discusses the House amendment tree, a chart that depicts the maximum number and types of amendments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs595/
House Committee Markup: Amendment Procedure
This report briefly discusses committee markups in the House of Representatives. The essential purpose of a committee markup is to determine whether a measure pending before a committee should be altered, or amended, in any substantive way. Of course, committees do not actually amend measures; instead a committee votes on which amendments it wishes to recommend to the House. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs906/
House Committee Markup: Preparation
Markups provide Members on a committee an opportunity to change parts of a bill prior to its consideration by the full House. A number of administrative, procedural, and substantive steps must be undertaken in preparation for a markup, and other steps could or should be undertaken. Generally, the markup should be strategically planned to minimize controversy, provide Members with political dividends, and position the committee for future action. This report is intended as a guide for various tasks that could be accomplished by committee staff in order to prepare a smooth committee markup. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs900/
House Committee Markup: Reporting
At the end of the amendment process, the chair normally entertains a motion to report a measure favorably to the House. This report addresses the procedural options committees have regarding the form of reporting, such as what happens to amendments adopted in markup, as well as other considerations at the time of reporting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs904/
House Committees: Categories and Rules for Committee Assignments
This report briefly discusses the rules and procedure regarding House committee assignments, and outlines the various categories of committees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8719/
House Committee Jurisdiction and Referral: Rules and Practice
This report briefly discusses the factors that determine House committee jurisdiction and more specifically House Rule X. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs901/
House Committees: Assignment Process?
This report briefly discusses House Committee assignments, examining the process and assessing its effects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs908/
House Rules Governing Committee Markup Procedures
This report provides general guidance to committees for conducting meetings to mark up legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs905/
Instructing House Conferees
This report describes the process of reaching the final agreement between house and senate over the final version of a bill that the two houses have passes in different forms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs909/
Floor Consideration of Conference Reports in the House
This report explains the steps in the legislative process of the conference reports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs916/
House Rules Affecting Committees
House Rules, especially Rules X-XIII, govern the authority and operations of its committees and subcommittees. This report identifies and summarizes these and other rules and directives affecting committee powers, authority, activities, and operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs897/
House Committee Hearings: Scheduling and Notification
Each House committee has authority to hold hearings whether the House is in session, has recessed, or has adjourned (Rule XI, clause 2(m)(1)(A)). Regardless of the type of hearing, or whether a hearing is held in or outside of Washington, hearings share common aspects of planning and preparation. this report discusses the issues a committee faces in deciding whether to schedule a hearing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs907/
Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress
he United States Constitution divides foreign policy powers between the President and the Congress so that both share in the making of foreign policy. The executive and legislative branches each play important roles that are different but that often overlap. Both branches have continuing opportunities to initiate and change foreign policy, and the interaction between them continues indefinitely throughout the life of a policy. This report reviews and illustrates 12 basic ways that the United States can make foreign policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs928/
Introducing a House Bill or Resolution
This report discusses the primary steps for drafting a bill in the House. Ideas and recommendations for legislation may come from private sources, such as ordinary citizens or interest groups; executive branch agencies and the White House; state and local initiatives; and, of course, individual Members, committees and other work groups, and party and chamber leaders. Any or all of these entities may also participate in drafting legislation (resolutions as well as bills). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs910/
Going to Conference in the Senate
This report discusses the steps that the Senate must take, and one more step that it may take, as it arranges to send a bill to conference committee. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1112/
Hearings in the House of Representatives: A Guide for Preparation and Procedure
The report describes provisions of House rules that pertain to hearings, and citations to these rules are included for reference. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1115/
The House Apportionment Formula in Theory and Practice
This report has four major purposes: to summarize the constitutional and statutory requirements governing apportionment; to explain how the current apportionment formula works in theory and in practice; to summarize recent challenges to it on grounds of unfairness; and to explain the reasoning underlying the choice of the equal proportions method over its chief alternative, major fractions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1119/
The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the House Floor
The House of Representatives follows a well established routine on the opening day of a new Congress. The proceedings include election of the Speaker, swearing in its members, election of administrative officers, and adoption of rules of procedure. Also, resolutions assigning its members to committees may be adopted. The House must take these actions at the beginning of each new Congress because it is not a continuing body. Article 1, Section 2 of Constitution sets terms for Members of the House at two years. Thus, the House ends at the conclusion of each two-year Congress and must reconstitute itself at the beginning of a new Congress. This report focuses on the floor activities of the House during its first formal session in a new Congress, and serves as a guide for participating in or watching those proceedings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1120/
Floor Procedure in the House of Representatives: A Brief Overview
The House considers bills and resolutions on the floor under several different sets of procedures governing the time for debate and the opportunities for amendment. Some procedures allow 40 or 60 minutes for debate; others permit debate to continue until a majority of Members vote to end it. Some procedures prohibit most or all floor amendments; others allow Members to offer any amendments that meet the requirements of the House’s rules and precedents. Notwithstanding these differences, the rules, precedents, and practices of the House generally are designed to permit the majority to work its will in a timely manner. This report provides a brief overview of this procedure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1464/
House Schedule: Recent Practices and Proposed Options
Many Members have in recent years expressed dissatisfaction with the way the House arranges its work schedule. The chief complaints appear to be that existing practices make inefficient use of time and do not allow predictability, generating persistent scheduling conflicts and other time pressures. This report discusses how four types of House schedule that have been practiced or proposed during the past decade address these areas of dissatisfaction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1507/
House Voting Procedures: Forms and Requirements
This report discusses the procedural considerations suffuse voting and the methods of voting in both the House and in the Committee of the Whole. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1474/
House Committee Hearings: Preparation
Committee hearings afford Representatives an opportunity to gather information on, and draw attention to, legislation and issues within a committee's purview; conduct oversight of programs or agencies; and investigate allegations of wrongdoing. This report identifies many of the tasks that need to be performed by full committees and, in most cases, subcommittees in advance of a hearing. Some of these tasks are required by House or committee rules; others are common committee practice. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1480/
House Subcommittees: Assignment Process
This report addresses the subcommittee assignment process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1482/
House Committee Hearings: Arranging Witnesses
This report briefly discusses the process of selecting and arranging witnesses for House committee hearings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1477/
How Measures Are Brought to the House Floor: A Brief Introduction
This report presents a brief description of the five methods used to bring proposed legislation to the House floor for consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1511/
The House's Corrections Calendar
This report discusses the establishment of the “Corrections Day”, a concept credited to Michigan Governor John Englerwhich, which is a procedure for repealing “the dumbest things the federal government is currently doing and just abolish them.” digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1465/
House Rules Manual: Summary of Contents
This report briefly discusses The House Rules and Manual, officially titled Constitution, Jefferson’s Manual and Rules of the House of Representatives, which contains the fundamental source material describing procedures in the House of Representatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1475/
House and Senate Rules of Procedure: A Comparison
This report compares selected House and Senate rules of procedure for various stages of the legislative process: referral of legislation to committees; scheduling and calling up measures; and floor consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1509/
Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements (Trade Promotion Authority): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
This report discusses one of the major trade issues in the 107th Congress: whether or not Congress approves authority for the President to negotiate trade agreements with expedited, or "fast track" procedures. Under this authority, Congress agrees to consider legislation to implement the nontariff trade agreements under a procedure with mandatory deadlines, no amendment, and limited debate. The President is required to consult with congressional committees during negotiation of nontariff trade agreements and notify Congress before entering into any such agreement. The President was granted fast-track authority almost continuously from 1974 to 1994, but the authority lapsed and has not been renewed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1494/
House and Senate Chaplains
This report discusses the two chaplains, one in the House, the other in the Senate, who are the official clergy of Congress. At the beginning of each Congress, the House chaplain is elected for a 2-year term. The Senate chaplain does not have to be reelected at the beginning of a new Congress. There have been 61 Senate chaplains and 59 House chaplains. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1513/
Grants Work in a Congressional Office
Members of Congress often get requests from constituents for information and help in obtaining funds for projects. Many state and local governments, nonprofit social service and community action organizations, private research groups, small businesses, and individuals approach congressional offices to find out about funding, both from the federal government and from the private sector. The success rate in obtaining federal assistance is not high, given the competition for federal funds. A grants staff’s effectiveness often depends on both an understanding of the grants process and on the relations it establishes with agency and other contacts. The following report does not constitute a blueprint for every office involved in grants and projects activity, nor does it present in-depth information about all aspects of staff activity in this area. The discussion is aimed at describing some basics about the grants process and some of the approaches and techniques used by congressional offices in dealing with this type of constituent service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2257/
House Sergeant at Arms: Fact Sheet on Legislative and Administrative Duties
This report discusses the chief law enforcement officer of the House, the Sergeant at Arms, responsible for security in the House wing of the Capitol, the House office buildings, and on adjacent grounds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2270/
Grants Work in a Congressional Office
Members of Congress often get requests from constituents for information and help in obtaining funds for projects. Many state and local governments, nonprofit social service and community action organizations, private research groups, small businesses, and individuals approach congressional offices to find out about funding, both from the federal government and from the private sector. The success rate in obtaining federal assistance is not high, given the competition for federal funds. A grants staff’s effectiveness often depends on both an understanding of the grants process and on the relations it establishes with agency and other contacts. The following report does not constitute a blueprint for every office involved in grants and projects activity, nor does it present in-depth information about all aspects of staff activity in this area. The discussion is aimed at describing some basics about the grants process and some of the approaches and techniques used by congressional offices in dealing with this type of constituent service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2258/
The Legislative Process on the House Floor: An Introduction
This report provides an introduction to the legislative process on the House floor, including limitations on debate, calendars and the order of business, modes of floor consideration, senate amendments and conference reports, voting and quorum procedures, and information about a typical day on the House floor. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795688/
Medal of Honor Recipients: 1979-2003
This report discusses changes in the list of recipients of the Medal of Honor (MoH). This report lists those changes by military action and provides the full text of their official citations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3994/
House and Senate Vacancies: How Are They Filled?
Vacancies in Congress occur due to the death, resignation, or declination (refusal to serve) of a Senator or Representative, or as the result of expulsion or exclusion by either house. The Constitution requires that vacancies in both houses be filled by special election, but in the case of the Senate, it empowers state legislatures to provide for temporary appointments by the state governor until special elections can be scheduled. This report describes this process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3948/
House and Senate Vacancies: How Are They Filled?
This report discusses how vacancies in Congress are filled when a Senator or Representative dies, resigns, declines to serve, or is expelled or excluded from either house. The Constitution requires that vacancies in both houses be filled by special election, but in the case of the Senate, it empowers state legislatures to provide for temporary appointments by the state governor until special elections can be scheduled. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795419/
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