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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Committee Funding Resolutions and Processes, 106th Congress
This report describes the procedures under which committee funding resolutions are considered in the two chambers, and 106th Congress action to review and approve committee operating budgets. Also noted are changes in the Senate’s committee funding processes to move from a session-based biennial funding process to one more closely matched to a fiscal year cycle. Tables at the end of the report show funds approved for the 105th Congress, and the funds requested, recommended, and approved for the 106th Congress for each House and Senate committee. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs926/
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process
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Salaries and Allowances: The Congress
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Staff Depositions in Congressional Investigations
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The Use of Task Forces in the House
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Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill: Fact Sheet on Structure, Content, and Process
This report discusses the legislative branch appropriations bill, which is one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress normally enacts each year for the fiscal year beginning on October 1. The report provides budget authority, which is statutory authority to spend specified amounts of money, for expenditures of the legislative branch for the fiscal year, including salaries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs914/
Appropriations for FY2000: Legislative Branch
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Legislative Branch Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1116/
Going to Conference in the Senate
This report discusses the steps that the Senate must take, and one more step that it may take, as it arranges to send a bill to conference committee. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1112/
Senate Committees: Categories and Rules for Committee Assignments
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Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources
This report introduces selected basic sources that are useful in obtaining background information or specific facts on the status of federal legislative or regulatory initiatives. It includes telephone, online, and media sources are included, as well as pertinent directories, such as those of organizations that track areas of interest. Annotations describing each source's contents and organization are included so that researchers can select those that most closely fit their needs. Internet addresses usually provide information about the items, rather than access to them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1114/
Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources
This report introduces selected basic sources that are useful in obtaining background information or specific facts on the status of federal legislative or regulatory initiatives. It includes telephone, online, and media sources are included, as well as pertinent directories, such as those of organizations that track areas of interest. Annotations describing each source's contents and organization are included so that researchers can select those that most closely fit their needs. Internet addresses usually provide information about the items, rather than access to them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc819720/
Narcotics Certification of Drug Producing Trafficking Nations: Questions and Answers
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Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 106th Congress
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Hearings in the House of Representatives: A Guide for Preparation and Procedure
The report describes provisions of House rules that pertain to hearings, and citations to these rules are included for reference. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1115/
Disaster Mitigation Assistance Bills in the 106th Congress: Comparison of Provisions
The Administration initiative to shift federal emergency management policy away from a "response and recovery" emphasis has generated little congressional controversy, although some have raised concerns about the cost effectiveness of implementing a mitigation strategy. Greater attention, it is generally argued, should be given to mitigation (loss reduction) efforts before disasters occur in order to reduce future losses. Legislation (H.R. 707, S. 1691) pending before the 106th Congress would amend the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (the Stafford Act) which authorizes federal assistance when the President declares that a catastrophe has overwhelmed state and local resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1166/
Restructuring DOE and Its Laboratories: Issues in the 106th Congress
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Preventing Federal Government Shutdowns: Proposals for an Automatic Continuing Resolution
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United States' Withdrawal from the World Trade Organization: Legislative Procedure
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Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress
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U.S. Army School of the Americas: Background and Congressional Concerns
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Peacekeeping: Issues of U.S. Military Involvement
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Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 106th Congress
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Constitutional Constraints on Congress' Ability to Protect the Environment
Federal protection of the environment must hew to the same constitutional strictures as any other federal actions. In the past decade, however, the Supreme Court has invigorated several of these strictures in ways that present new challenges to congressional drafters of environmental statutes. This report reviews six of these newly emergent constitutional areas, with special attention to their significance for current and future environmental legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1186/
Appropriations for FY2001: Legislative Branch
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Legislative Branch Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1117/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 106th Congress
This report discuses issues such as Reforming Superfund, defense cleanup compliance, funding measures, beach assessment, air-related risk management plans, and research received congressional attention in the 106th Congress, first session. In the remaining days, there may be action related on water quality programs involving specific water bodies, and funding of environmental programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1184/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals in the 106th Congress
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Restructuring DOE and Its Laboratories: Issues in the 106th Congress
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The House Apportionment Formula in Theory and Practice
This report has four major purposes: to summarize the constitutional and statutory requirements governing apportionment; to explain how the current apportionment formula works in theory and in practice; to summarize recent challenges to it on grounds of unfairness; and to explain the reasoning underlying the choice of the equal proportions method over its chief alternative, major fractions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1119/
Executive Order 12919: Emergency Powers of the President
Executive Order 12919 concerns industrial preparedness during times of war and national emergency. This brief report uses simple language to describe what Executive Order 12919 does. It is intended to clarify common misunderstandings about the Order’s purpose and scope. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6974/
The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the House Floor
The House of Representatives follows a well established routine on the opening day of a new Congress. The proceedings include election of the Speaker, swearing in its members, election of administrative officers, and adoption of rules of procedure. Also, resolutions assigning its members to committees may be adopted. The House must take these actions at the beginning of each new Congress because it is not a continuing body. Article 1, Section 2 of Constitution sets terms for Members of the House at two years. Thus, the House ends at the conclusion of each two-year Congress and must reconstitute itself at the beginning of a new Congress. This report focuses on the floor activities of the House during its first formal session in a new Congress, and serves as a guide for participating in or watching those proceedings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1120/
The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the Senate Floor
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Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress
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Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes
The President’s veto is effective not only in preventing the passage of legislation undesirable to the President, but also as a threat, sometimes forcing Congress to modify legislation before it is presented to the President. However, as a veto threat is carried out, Congress is faced with choices: letting the veto stand, the difficult task of overriding the veto, meeting the President’s objections and sending a new bill forward, or resubmitting the same provisions under a new bill number. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1286/
The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure
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Clean Air Act Issues in the 106th Congress
The Clean Air Act and its 1990 amendments appear to have contributed to a marked improvement in air quality nationwide. Of nearly 100 metropolitan areas not meeting air quality standards for ozone in 1990, more than two-thirds now do so. Even greater progress has been achieved with carbon monoxide: 36 of 42 areas not in attainment in 1990 now meet the standard. Nevertheless, EPA remains concerned about air pollution. In 1997, the Agency promulgated major revisions to its air quality standards for ozone and particulates, an action that would require most states and urban areas to establish additional controls on a wide range of pollution sources. The revised standards were challenged by numerous parties and the courts have remanded the standards to EPA. Implementation is currently in limbo, pending resolution of appeals by the Supreme Court. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1185/
Prisons: Policy Options for Congress
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Congressional Authority to Standardize National Election Procedures
Recent events surrounding the Presidential election have led to increased scrutiny of voting procedures in the United States. This report focuses on the constitutional authority and limitations that might be relevant to attempts by Congress to standardize these and other procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1159/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 107th Congress
Revisions to the air quality standards for ozone and particulates, promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1997, may also command renewed attention in the 107th Congress. The standards were challenged in the courts, and implementation is currently in limbo, pending resolution of appeals to the Supreme Court. The Court heard oral arguments November 7, 2000, and a decision is expected in spring 2001. The decision is likely to stimulate congressional oversight, and perhaps legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1682/
Congressional Oversight
Congressional oversight of policy implementation and administration, which has occurred throughout the U.S. government experience under the Constitution, takes a variety of forms and utilizes various techniques. These range from specialized investigations by select committees to annual appropriations hearings, and from informal communications between Members or congressional staff and executive personnel to the use of extra congressional mechanisms, such as offices of inspector general and study commissions. Oversight, moreover, is supported by a variety of authorities—the Constitution, public law, and chamber and committee rules—and is an integral part of the system of checks and balances between the legislature and the executive digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1471/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 107th Congress
This report discuss issues that received congressional attention in the 107th Congress, such as The impact of air quality regulations, key water quality issues, superfund, solid/hazardous wastes, multibillion dollar cleanup and compliance programs, climate change, pesticides, EPA budget, and Science and Technology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1684/
IMF Reform and the International Financial Institutions Advisory Commission
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Legislative Research in Congressional Offices: A Primer
This report discusses the process of conducting legislative research: deciding the scope, collecting the information and evaluating sources. Members of Congress need many kinds of information and analysis to support their legislative, oversight, and representational work, including both quick facts, or information to improve their understanding of a complex set of issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824472/
Marine Mammal Protection Act: Reauthorization Issues for the 107th Congress
This report discusses the issues likely to be raised during any reauthorization debate, the reasons behind them, and possible proposals that could be offered to address these concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1407/
Clean Water Act Issues in the 107th Congress
Key water quality issues that may face the 107th Congress include: actions to implement existing provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA), whether additional steps are necessary to achieve overall goals of the Act, and the appropriate federal role in guiding and paying for clean water activities. Legislative prospects for comprehensively amending the Act have for some time stalled over whether and exactly how to change the law. If clean water issues receive attention in the 107th Congress, consideration of specific issues will depend in part on the CWA policy agenda of the new Bush Administration and on priorities of the key committees that have major jurisdiction over the Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1685/
Congressional Use of Funding Cutoffs Since 1970 Involving U.S. Military Forces and Overseas Deployments
This report provides background information on major instances, since 1970, when Congress has utilized funding cutoffs to compel the withdrawal of United States military forces from overseas military deployments. It also highlights key efforts by Congress to utilize the War Powers Resolution, since its enactment in 1973, to compel the withdrawal of U.S. military forces from foreign deployments. In this review, legislation expressing the “sense of the Congress” regarding U.S. military deployments is not addressed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1442/
Kosovo and U.S. Policy
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Membership of the 107th Congress: A Profile
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Internet Gambling: A Sketch of Legislative Proposals in the 106th Congress
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Senate Floor Procedure: A Summary
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Conservation and Reinvestment Act (CARA) (H.R. 701) and a Related Initiative in the 106th Congress
This report compares existing law with H.R. 701, as passed by the House(HP) and H.R. 701, as reported by the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee (SCR). Both versions, also known as the Conservation and Reinvestment Act (CARA), would have created a new fund, the CARA Fund. Both bills would have created and funded a new coastal energy impact assistance program, amended and funded the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF), funded the Urban Park and Recreation Recovery Program and the Historic Preservation Fund, increased funding for wildlife conservation, funded land restoration and easement programs, and funded the Payment in Lieu of Taxes (PILT) Program.1 The SCR version would also have funded additional programs to protect natural and cultural resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1690/