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 Country: United States
 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Head Start: Background and Funding
This report examines the history of federal funding for Head Start, which has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children since 1965. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1108/
Child Welfare: Reauthorization of the Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program in the 107th Congress
This report discusses the reauthorization of the Promoting Safe and Stable Families Amendments of 2001. The new law maintains the FY2001 mandatory funding level, authorizes additional discretionary funding, and grants new program authority to provide mentoring services for children of prisoners. In addition, the enacted legislation allows states to use Promoting Safe and Stable Families funds for infant "safe haven" programs, provides for reallocation of unused program funds, clarifies language defining family support programs, and gives more explicit instructions to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regarding use of funds set aside for research, evaluation and technical assistance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855871/
Distribution of Child Support Collections
This report discusses child support distribution policy. The general rules in effect as of October 1, 2000 are that child support collected during the time a family receives cash welfare belongs to the state; current child support and arrearages (past-due payments) that are owed to a family that is no longer receiving welfare belongs to the family; and child support owed to a family that never received welfare belongs to the family. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821691/
The Child Care and Development Block Grant: Background and Funding
This report discusses several federal programs support child care for low-income families, the principal being a federal block grant program: The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG). The CCDBG is administered by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and provides allotments to states, according to a formula, which are used to subsidize the child care expenses of low-income families with children under age 13. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824491/
Missing and Exploited Children: Overview and Policy Concerns
This report presents an overview of two national incidence studies prepared by Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to determine annually the number of reported missing and recovered children in the nation. It also discusses the AMBER Alert System created to help recover reported missing children, legislation introduced in the 108th Congresses to address the missing children issue, and questions that remain regarding concerns about missing children. S. 151, the Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today (PROTECT) Act, which was signed into law (P.L. 108-21) by the President on April 30, 2003, contains provisions related to missing and exploited children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3896/
Head Start Issues in the 108th Congress
This report examines various legislative issues regarding Head Start, which is a federal program that has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low income children since 1965. The program is administered by the Administration for Children and Families of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3894/
Missing and Exploited Children: Overview and Policy Concerns
This report presents an overview of two national incidence studies prepared by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to determine annually the number of reported missing and recovered children in the nation. It also discusses the AMBER Alert System created to help recover reported missing children, legislation introduced in the 108th Congresses to address the missing children issue, and questions that remain regarding concerns about missing children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3897/
Missing and Exploited Children: Overview and Policy Concerns
This report presents an overview of two national incidence studies prepared by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to determine annually the number of reported missing and recovered children in the nation. It also discusses the AMBER Alert System created to help recover reported missing children, legislation introduced in the 108th Congresses to address the missing children issue, and questions that remain regarding concerns about missing children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3898/
Missing and Exploited Children: Overview and Policy Concerns
This report presents an overview of two national incidence studies prepared by Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to determine annually the number of reported missing and recovered children in the nation. It also discusses the AMBER Alert System created to help recover reported missing children, legislation introduced in the 108th Congresses to address the missing children issue, and questions that remain regarding concerns about missing children. S. 151, the Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today (PROTECT) Act, which was signed into law (P.L. 108-21) by the President on April 30, 2003, contains provisions related to missing and exploited children. Exploitation of Children Today (PROTECT) Act, which was signed into law (P.L. 108-21) by the President on April 30, 2003, contains provisions related to missing and exploited children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3899/
Child Welfare Issues in the 108th Congress
Child welfare services are intended to protect children who have been abused or neglected or are at risk of maltreatment. These services take various forms, ranging from counseling and other supports for parents — which are intended to improve child well-being and prevent child abuse and neglect — to removal of the children from their homes. At the most extreme, these services include termination of parental rights and placement of the children for adoption. This report describes child welfare legislative issues in the 108th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3907/
Head Start Issues in the 108th Congress
This report examines various legislative issues regarding Head Start, which is a federal program that has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low income children since 1965. The program is administered by the Administration for Children and Families of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3895/
Missing and Exploited Children: Overview and Policy Concerns
This report presents an overview of two national incidence studies prepared by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to determine annually the number of reported missing and recovered children in the nation. It also discusses the AMBER Alert System created to help recover reported missing children, legislation introduced in the 108th Congresses to address the missing children issue, and questions that remain regarding concerns about missing children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3900/
Supplemental Educational Services for Children from Low-Income Families Under ESEA Title I-A
This report discusses supplemental educational services in the general sense, which include educational activities provided outside of normal school hours that are designed to augment or enhance the educational services provided during regular periods of instruction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7578/
Early Childhood Education: Preschool Participation, Program Efficacy, and Federal Policy Issues
This report examines what we currently know about preprimary programs, including numbers of children served and their family characteristics; as well as data on the efficacy of preprimary programs in enhancing later learning and other life skills. Current federal programs that serve preschool age children are described, and policy issues which may arise as the federal role in early childhood education is debated are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463059/
Head Start: Background and Issues
This report discusses the federal "Head Start" program that has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children since 1965. The Head Start program has received increases of varying levels over the past two decades. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824487/
Medicaid and SCHIP: The President’s FY2006 Budget Proposals
This report describes the proposal and provides an estimate of the cost or savings based on publicly available information. The report provides a brief background for the proposal and provides a listing of current Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports related to the proposal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821149/
Medicaid and SCHIP: The President's FY2006 Budget Proposals
This report describes the proposal and provides an estimate of the cost or savings based on publicly available information. The report provides a brief background for the proposal and provides a listing of current Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports related to the proposal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7591/
Child Care Issues in the 109th Congress
Federal support for child care comes in many forms, ranging from grant programs to tax provisions. Some programs serve as specifically dedicated funding sources for child care services (e.g., the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG)), while for others (e.g., Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)), child care is just one of many purposes for which funds may be used. This report discusses budget proposals in areas related to child care and early childhood development in the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821590/
Head Start: Background and Issues
This report discusses federal program called head start program that has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children since 1965. The Head Start program has received increases of varying levels over the past two decades. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700601/
Child Welfare: Program Reauthorizations and Recent and FY2006 Proposed Funding Levels
This report discusses current funding levels for child welfare programs, intended to protect children from abuse and neglect and to ensure their well-being. In FY2005 the federal government appropriated $7.8 billion for these purposes. Most of this funding is made available to states through open-ended entitlement programs or as formula grants and is authorized under Title IV-E and Title IV-B of the Social Security Act or under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824809/
Early Childhood Education: Preschool Participation, Program Efficacy, and Federal Policy Issues
This report examines what we currently know about preprimary programs, including numbers of children served and their family characteristics; as well as data on the efficacy of preprimary programs in enhancing later learning and other life skills. It also discusses federal programs that serve preschool age children are described, and policy issues which may arise as the federal role in early childhood education. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824559/
Side-by-Side Comparison of Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Provisions in the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005
From the summary: "This report provides a comparison of Medicare, Medicaid and State Child Health Insurance Program provisions contained in the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (S. 1932) as amended and passed by the Senate. The report compares the bill's provisions with current law." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9230/
Medicaid and SCHIP: FY2007 Budget Issues
This report provides information on Medicaid and State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8941/
Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Federal Assistance Programs
The impact on children of domestic violence was an issue of interest in the 109th Congress. The first session of the 109th Congress ended with the passage of the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-162), which contained new initiatives to address concerns about children and youth exposed to and victimized by domestic violence. This report discusses existing federal programs and initiatives that have been established to assist such children and youth, and new provisions enacted in P.L. 109-162. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821429/
Early Childhood Care and Education Programs in the 110th Congress: Background and Funding
This report provides an overview of federal child care, early education, and related programs, and their funding status in the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821430/
Child Welfare: Social Security and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Benefits for Children in Foster Care
This report begins with a discussion of the foster care system and the Social Security benefits available to eligible children, including those in foster care. It then describes the role of representative payees and their responsibilities. The report provides data on the use of Social Security benefits to reimburse states for child welfare, and includes a discussion of the Keffeler decision. Finally, the report concludes with proposals supported by some advocates to change the current practice of using SSI and other Social Security benefits to fund foster care, as well as with a discussion of state initiatives to screen all foster children for Social Security and to pass along some benefits to eligible children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820289/
Education for the Disadvantaged: Reauthorization Issues for ESEA Title I-A Under the No Child Left Behind Act
This report provides an overview of aspects of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I-A that are likely to be the focus of substantial debate as the 110th Congress considers the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) reauthorization legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821546/
Fatherhood Initiatives: Connecting Fathers to Their Children
This report discusses "responsible fatherhood" programs that promote the financial and personal responsibility of noncustodial fathers to their children and increase the participation of fathers in the lives of their children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505383/
The V-Chip and TV Ratings: Monitoring Children’s Access to TV Programming
This report discusses the V-Chip, created to assist parents in supervising the television viewing habits of their children, its rating system, and relevant legislation in the 109th and 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821458/
Social Security's Effect on Child Poverty
This report discusses Social Security (SS), which plays an important role in reducing poverty among the elderly and children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627103/
Child Welfare: Social Security and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Benefits for Children in Foster Care
This report begins with a discussion of the foster care system and the Social Security benefits available to eligible children, including those in foster care. It then describes the role of representative payees and their responsibilities. The report provides data on the use of Social Security benefits to reimburse states for child welfare, and includes a discussion of the Keffeler decision. Finally, the report concludes with proposals supported by some advocates to change the current practice of using SSI and other Social Security benefits to fund foster care (including legislation introduced in the 110th Congress), as well as with a discussion of state initiatives to screen all foster children for Social Security and to pass along some benefits to eligible children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc813581/
Child Welfare Issues in the 110th Congress
As the U.S. Constitution has been interpreted, states have the primary obligation to ensure child welfare. However, Congress provides significant federal funds to help states exercise this responsibility ($7.9 billion appropriated in FY2008). Most of this support is provided for children who are in foster care and who meet specific federal eligibility criteria. This report discusses the federal framework for child welfare policy; reviews the scope of activities, and children and families served, by state child welfare agencies; summarizes several child welfare-related hearings that were held in 2007; describes child welfare and related legislative proposals that have been introduced in the 110th Congress; and reviews child welfare programs for which funding authorization has expired or is set to expire on the last day of FY2008. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820957/
Child Welfare Issues in the 110th Congress
As the U.S. Constitution has been interpreted, states have the primary obligation to ensure child welfare. However, Congress provides significant federal funds to help states exercise this responsibility ($7.9 billion appropriated in FY2008). Most of this support is provided for children who are in foster care and who meet specific federal eligibility criteria. This report discusses the federal framework for child welfare policy; reviews the scope of activities, and children and families served, by state child welfare agencies; summarizes several child welfare-related hearings that were held in 2007; describes child welfare and related legislative proposals that have been introduced in the 110th Congress; and reviews child welfare programs for which funding authorization has expired or is set to expire on the last day of FY2008. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc818731/
Protection of Children Online: Federal and State Laws Addressing Cyberstalking, Cyberharassment, and Cyberbullying
This report discusses Internet crimes, such as cyberbullying, cyberharassment, and cyberstalking, along with the limitations of such laws in the current environment. While Congress, under the Commerce Clause, has authority to regulate the Internet, Internet "harassment" presents new challenges for legislators in terms of defining and prosecuting such activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626872/
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Ace: Final Part B Regulations
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) provides federal funding for the education of children with disabilities and requires, as a condition for the receipt of such funds, the provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE). The statute also contains detailed due process provisions to ensure the provision of FAPE. On December 1, 2008, the Department of Education (ED) issued a final regulation to "clarify and strengthen current regulations" promulgated under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The regulations take effect on December 31, 2008. This report looks at the issues raised by changes from the regulations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83909/
CRS Issue Statement on Child Well-Being
The nation's future depends in large part on its children's ability to develop into contributing adult members of society. For that reason, and for what many would consider a society's moral responsibility to care for the young and vulnerable, Congress and the nation take an interest in promoting children's well-being. It can be argued that children are the nation's most valuable resource, constituting the next generation of workers, taxpayers, and parents. Their well-being and ability to develop into productive adults in an increasingly competitive global economy is influenced by a variety of factors, and public policies can affect these factors to varying degrees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83881/
V-Chip and TV Ratings: Monitoring Children's Access to TV Programming
This report discusses the V-Chip, created to assist parents in supervising the television viewing habits of their children, its rating system, and relevant legislation in the 108th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795533/
Medicaid and Schools
This report discusses the recent history and current issues facing Medicaid funding for certain health related costs under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795504/
State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP): A Brief Overview
This report discusses the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), which allows states to cover targeted low-income children with no health insurance in families with income above Medicaid eligibility levels. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700830/
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues
This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. The report also highlights issues for the 111th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on federal and state laws, U.S. sovereignty, parental rights, and U.S. family planning and abortion policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700811/
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues
This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child's (CRC) background and structure and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. It also highlights issues for the 112th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on federal and state laws, U.S. sovereignty, parental rights, and U.S. family planning and abortion policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505394/
Child Welfare: Recent and Proposed Federal Funding
This report provides an overview of the FY2010 President's budget request, and it discusses share of child welfare funding by general purpose. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505600/
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues
This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child's (CRC) background and structure and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. It also highlights issues for the 112th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on federal and state laws, U.S. sovereignty, parental rights, and U.S. family planning and abortion policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700621/
Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding
Several federal programs support child care, education, or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. This report includes an update on FY2010 funding developments and the status of FY2009 appropriations in the early childhood care and education arena. This report also provides a six-year funding history and brief descriptions of the various related programs and tax provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821825/
Amber Alert Program Technology
This report discusses Amber Alerts (also referred to as AMBER plans) which use technology to disseminate information about child abductions in a timely manner. Technologies used for alerts include the Emergency Alert System (EAS), highway messages boards, telephone alert systems, the Internet, text messaging, and email. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689331/
Protection of Children Online: Federal and State Laws Addressing Cyberstalking, Cyberharassment, and Cyberbullying
This report discusses Internet crimes, such as cyberbullying, cyberharassment, and cyberstalking, along with the limitations of such laws in the current environment. While Congress, under the Commerce Clause, has authority to regulate the Internet, Internet "harassment" presents new challenges for legislators in terms of defining and prosecuting such activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627192/
International Parental Child Abductions
This report discusses the applicability of the Hague Convention and current U.S. laws, both civil and criminal, which seek to address the quandary of children abducted by a parent to foreign nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627198/
The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA): Background, Programs, and Funding
This report begins with discussion of the issue and scope of child abuse and neglect, followed by a discussion of the manner and scope of the work of the child protective services (CPS) agency in receiving and responding to allegations of child abuse or neglect, and then looks at some identified risk factors for poor child and family outcomes among all children in families investigated for abuse or neglect. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627020/
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues
This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child's (CRC) background and structure and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627083/