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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
WTO Doha Round: Implications for U.S. Agriculture
The Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations began in November 2001. From an agricultural viewpoint, the goal of the negotiations was to make progress simultaneously across the three pillars of the World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) Agricultural Agreement—domestic support, market access, and export competition—by building on the specific terms and conditions established during the previous Uruguay Round of negotiations. This report reviews the current status of agricultural negotiations for domestic support, market access, and export subsidies, and their potential implications for U.S. agriculture. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821077/
Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process
This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party nations of such military items. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626905/
Proposed Import Restrictions on Milk Protein Concentrates (MPCs)
Low farm milk prices and declining dairy sector income in 2009 have renewed congressional interest in imposing new import barriers on milk protein concentrates (MPCs), which generally include casein, the main protein found in milk, and caseinates, a soluble form of casein. This report examines proposed import restrictions and potential trade policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc815210/
Globalization, Worker Insecurity, and Policy Approaches
This report discusses the trends driving global economic integration, sources of worker insecurity and policy approaches. There appears to be a range of views on the merits of each of these policy approaches and the extent to which they can be designed and implemented in a way that would reduce worker insecurity without undermining the benefits of globalization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505460/
U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones: Trade Agreement Parity (TAP) Proposal
This report provides an introduction to U.S. Foreign Trade Zones (FTZ). The report discusses the details of the Trade Agreement Parity (TAP) proposal, the potential winners and losers under the TAP proposal, economic studies on the TAP proposal, and policy analysis on the TAP proposal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505356/
ATPA Renewal: Background and Issues
The Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA) extends special duty treatment to certain U.S. imports from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru that meet domestic content and other requirements. The purpose of ATPA is to promote economic growth in the Andean region and to encourage a shift away from dependence on illegal drugs by supporting legitimate economic activities. This report outlines the impact and policy implications of the ATPA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505405/
Transatlantic Regulatory Cooperation: Background and Analysis
This report discusses commercial ties between the United States and the 27-member European Union. While ties between the U.S. and EU are substantial, growing, and mutually beneficial, differences in regulatory approaches limit an even more integrated marketplace from developing. To deal with this situation, a variety of government-to-government efforts have been created to dismantle existing regulatory barriers and to prevent new ones from emerging. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505507/
Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues
This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA; H.R. 5724 and S. 2830): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505439/
International Law and Agreements: Their Effect Upon U.S. Law
This report provides an introduction to the roles that international law and agreements play in the United States. International law is derived from two primary sources--international agreements and customary practice. Under the U.S. legal system, international agreements can be entered into by means of a treaty or an executive agreement. The Constitution allocates primary responsibility for entering into such agreements to the executive branch, but Congress also plays an essential role. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505426/
The German Economy and U.S.-German Economic Relations
This report discusses Germany's recent trends in economic performance and trade relations with the U.S. This report elaborates on these themes in three parts: historical economic performance; reform challenges facing German political leaders; and selected U.S.-German economic policy differences. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505431/
U.S. Trade Policy and the Caribbean: From Trade Preferences to Free Trade Agreements
This report reviews unilateral preference programs for the Caribbean, discusses how they have been affected by Free Trade Agreement (FTA) in the region, and considers trade policy options for dealing with countries still relying on trade preferences and that may be considering whether to negotiate an FTA with the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505408/
The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources
This report examines the original intent and purpose of the Berry Amendment and legislative proposals to amend the application of domestic source restrictions, as well as options for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503530/
WTO Dispute Settlement: Status of U.S. Compliance in Pending Cases
This report provides a summary of the status of U.S. compliance efforts in pending World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes that have resulted in adverse rulings against the United States. The report contains an overview of WTO dispute settlement procedures, a discussion of U.S. laws relating to WTO dispute proceedings, and a list of pending WTO disputes compliance phase, with a discussion of major issues and the U.S. compliance history in each. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503482/
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Implementation: The Future of Commercial Trucking Across the Mexican Border
This report discusses the implementation of trucking provisions set forth by NAFTA that would have opened the border states to cross-border trucking competition in 1995 and all of North America in 2000. The full implementation of the provisions has been stalled because of concern with the safety of Mexican trucks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490987/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress
This report covers the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and U.S.-Mexico drug trafficking. It also looks at migration, environmental issues, legislation in the 111th Congress, and the relationship between the Obama Administration and Mexico. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505469/
The 2009 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings and U.S. Trade Policy in Asia
This report discusses the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) approach to trade liberalization, results of the 2009 meetings in Singapore, APEC and U.S. trade policy in Asia as well as other issues regarding APEC. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505436/
Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea
This report discusses pending U.S. free trade agreements (FTAs) with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama. The bills to implement these agreements will now be debated under trade promotion authority, or fast-track rules, designed to expedite congressional consideration. The report includes an overview of agricultural issues regarding FTAs and pending FTA partners, as well as a closer breakdown of the specific issues for each of the countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505380/
The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)
This report covers the background and recent history on the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS). This committee has recently emerged from obscurity due to concerns involving foreign investments in U.S. companies and national security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503365/
The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment
This report covers the recent background of the Exon-Florio provision with special regards to issues faced in the 112th Congress. The Exon-Florio provision grants the President the authority to block proposed or pending foreign acquisitions of "persons engaged in interstate commerce in the United States" that threaten to impair the national security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505570/
Foreign Investment, CFIUS, and Homeland Security: An Overview
This report gives a brief overview of P.L. 110-49, the Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007. Although both the President and Congress are directly involved in formulating the scope and direction of U.S. foreign investment policy, this law broadens Congress's oversight role; it also explicitly includes the areas of homeland security and critical infrastructure as separately-identifiable components of national security that the President must consider when evaluating the national security implications of a foreign investment transaction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505620/
Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy
This report examines the major features of economic models being used to estimate the effects of trade agreements. It assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the models as an aid in helping Congress evaluate the economic impact of trade agreements on the U.S. economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503387/
Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit
This report provides an overview of the U.S. balance of payments, an explanation of the broader role of capital flows in the U.S. economy, an explanation of how the country finances its trade deficit or a trade surplus, and the implications for Congress and the country of the large inflows of capital from abroad. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503506/
The U.S. Trade Deficit, the Dollar, and the Price of Oil
This report analyzes the relationship between the dollar and the price of oil and how the two might interact. It includes sections describing real and nominal oil prices, major currencies, oil exchanges, oil supply and demand and factors affecting the international exchange value of the dollar: capital flows, the U.S. financial balance, the foreign exchage market, and the U.S. trade deficit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503426/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
This report discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan (calling itself Republic of China (ROC)), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463428/
The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement
This report presents a summary of trade negotiations and the proposed U.S.-Panama free trade agreement (FTA). The proposed U.S.-Panama FTA is a comprehensive agreement. Some 88% of U.S. commercial and industrial exports would become duty-free upon implementation, with remaining tariffs phased out over a 10-year period. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505363/
Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy
This report provides background on free trade areas (FTAs) -- arrangements among two or more countries under which they agree to eliminate tariffs and nontariff barriers on trade in goods among themselves -- why countries form them, and how they relate to U.S. trade policy. It also discusses recent developments, the economic impact of FTAs, the relation of FTAs to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and debate points, as well as general conclusions and implications for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503531/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503303/
Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy
This report examines the major features of economic models being used to estimate the effects of trade agreements. It assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the models as an aid in helping Congress evaluate the economic impact of trade agreements on the U.S. economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503347/
Europe's Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications
The first section of this report describes the status and primary motivations of the EU's preferential trade agreements (PTAs) currently in place or under negotiation. The second compares the content and trade coverage of Europe's PTAs to U.S. PTAs. A third section assesses the implications of the EU's PTA program for the multilateral trading system and U.S. trade policy. A concluding section evaluates future directions for Europe's PTA policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503601/
The Future of U.S. Trade Policy: An Analysis of Issues and Options for the 111th Congress
This report provides analysis of U.S. trade policy including factors that make up the current economic and political climate, grade issues, the depate over U.S. trade policy. It concludes with an examination of some of the options available to Congress and the pros and cons of each. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503394/
The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years
This report provides an overview of the major trade and economic effects of the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (FTA) (P.L. 108-78), from the time that it went into effect (January 1, 2004) over the three years ending in 2006. It also includes detailed information on key provisions of the agreement and legislative action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501582/
U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications
This report provides an overview of U.S.-Mexico trade and economic trends, the Mexican economy, the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and major trade issues between the United States and Mexico. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503685/
U.S.-Russia Meat and Poultry Trade Issues
In December 2008, the United States and Russia signed a protocol aimed at resolving various emerging trade issues between the two countries in order to continue U.S. livestock and poultry exports to Russia through the end of 2009. This report examines the current trade relationship between the U.S. and Russia in regards to meat and poultry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821657/
Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S. Goals
The report provides a brief background section on the significance of trade in services to the U.S. economy. It then explains briefly the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the structure and agenda of the services negotiations in the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) round, including U.S. objectives in the negotiations. The report concludes with a status report on the negotiations and an examination of potential results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503539/
Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview
This report describes the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU), which is the World Trade Organization's (WTO) means of resolving disputes arising under WTO agreements. The report includes criticisms of certain flaws in the DSU, as well as WTO Members' suggestions for improvement. The report also describes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), which represents the United States in WTO disputes. Also discussed are pieces of legislation that dictate procedures for specifically the United States in instances of WTO disputes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503461/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
This report discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Original members of the TPP were Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore. The United States, Australia, Peru, and Vietnam have committed themselves to joining and expanding this group. This report discusses similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501700/
Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: An Overview of Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data
This report provides an overview of evidence based on roreign investment data that analyzes the extent of direct investment into and out of the economy, as well as the relationship between direct investment and the broader economic changes that are occurring in the U.S. economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503444/
Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data
This report addresses the issue of jobs outsourcing by analyzing the extent of direct investment into and out of the economy, the role such investment plays in U.S. trade, jobs, and production, and the relationship between direct investment and the broader economic changes that are occurring in the U.S. economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501615/
What's the Difference?--Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data
This report provides a comparison of U.S. and Chinese trade data. The U.S. trade deficit with the People's Republic of China (China) remains a major source of bilateral tension. Members of Congress and other U.S. government officials often point to the bilateral trade imbalance as evidence that China is not competing fairly in the global market. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503437/
Iran's Economic Conditions: U.S. Policy Issues
This report provides a general overview of Iran's economy, addresses related U.S. policy concerns, and discusses policy options for Congress. The purpose of this report is two-fold. First, it provides insight into important macroeconomic trends, policy reforms and objectives, key economic sectors, international trade patterns, and sources of foreign exchange. Second, in the context of U.S. economic sanctions imposed for national security and foreign policy reasons, it evaluates Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities and discusses issues and options for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503630/
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current state of Bahrain, which has undergone substantial political reforms since the late 1990s, but which still suffers from tension between the Shiite majority and the Sunni-led government. This report focuses particularly on Bahrain's relationship with Iran and Bahrain's relationship with the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29487/
Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data
This report addresses the issue of jobs outsourcing by analyzing the extent of direct investment into and out of the economy, the role such investment plays in U.S. trade, jobs, and production, and the relationship between direct investment and the broader economic changes that are occurring in the U.S. economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501812/
U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 111th Congress
This report will examine each of these trade issues, discussing their main elements and exploring their implications for the 111th Congress. This will be followed by an analysis of key trends in bilateral trade to discern any potential sources of trade friction in the future. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501603/
United States-Canada Trade and Economic Relationship: Prospects and Challenges
The United States and Canada conduct the world's largest bilateral trade relationship, with total merchandise trade (exports and imports) exceeding $429.7 billion in 2009. This report examines the various aspects of this trade partnership and presents several policy options for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501586/
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices
This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade balance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462389/
International Trade: Rules of Origin
This report deals with rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, we describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, we discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some CBP origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, we conclude with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491268/
Iran Sanctions
This report focuses on the United States' relationship with Iran and how the Obama Administration is handling prior administration's economic sanctions against Iran. The Obama Administration's policy approach toward Iran has contrasted with the Bush Administration's by attempting to couple the imposition of sanctions to an active and direct U.S. effort to negotiate with Iran on the nuclear issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501602/
U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts
The U.S. trade deficit was shrinking through June 2009 because of the global financial crisis but has begun to increase again. The crisis caused U.S. imports to drop faster than U.S. exports. The global simultaneous recession, however, implies that exporting countries cannot rely on increased foreign demand to make up for slack demand at home. Even though U.S. imports are down considerably from 2008, companies competing with imports still face diminishing demand as the domestic economy has been hit by recession. This report provides an overview of the international trade climate and U.S. trade policy. The report also discusses common perceptions about the deficit and trade balances. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501706/
Deferred Examination of Patent Applications: Implications for Innovation Policy
This report provides an overview of deferred patent examination. It begins by offering a brief review of patent acquisition proceedings as well as challenges faced by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The report then introduces the concept of deferred examination. The potential positive and negative consequences of deferred examination upon the environment for innovation within the United States are then explored. The report closes by identifying salient design parameters for deferred examination systems and reviewing congressional options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501596/
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Implementation: The Future of Commercial Trucking Across the Mexican Border
This report discusses the implementation of trucking provisions set forth by NAFTA that would have opened the border states to cross-border trucking competition in 1995 and all of North America in 2000. The full implementation of the provisions has been stalled because of concern with the safety of Mexican trucks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491422/
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