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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Fish and Wildlife Service: Compensation to Local Governments
The Refuge Revenue Sharing Fund (RRSF) was enacted in response to the concern of local governments regarding losses to their tax base due to the presence of federally owned land under the jurisdiction of the Fish and Wildlife Service. This report outlines recent history of RRSF payment levels. It examines the RRSF and describes how the fund differs in its treatment of reserved and acquired lands under the jurisdiction of FWS. The report also examines the Payment in Lieu of Taxes (PILT) program in detail. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26021/
The Unification of Germany: Background and Analysis of the Two-Plus-Four Talks
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7363/
Iraq-Kuwait: U.N. Security Council Resolutions -- Texts and Votes
The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 1-2, 1990, set into motion a series of actions by the United Nations Security Council. Between August 2 and December 4, 1990, the Council adopted 12 resolutions. The numbers and votes of those resolutions are listed and the full text of each resolution is included in the this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26022/
German Unification
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7364/
The Fair Labor Standards Act: Changes Made by the 101st Congress and Their Implications
Initially, in the 101st Congress, a measure to increase federal minimum wage (and to make numerous other changes in the FLSA) was passed by both the House and the Senate but, in June 1989, it was vetoed by President Bush. An effort by the House to override the President's veto was unsuccessful. Later, new legislation was introduced and approved both by the House and the Senate. On November 17, 1989, President Bush signed the bill (P.L. 101-107). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26025/
How to Follow Current Federal Legislation and Regulations
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China's Prospects After Tiananmen Square: Current Conditions, Future Scenarios, and a Survey of Expert Opinion
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs14/
Commercial Relations with the Soviet Union: Prospects for a Common United States Japanese Policy
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Military and Civilian Satellites in Support of Allied Forces in the Persian Gulf War
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Japan's World War II Reparations: A Fact Sheet
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Japan: Resale Price Maintenance
Resale price maintenance occurs when manufacturers control the prices charged by wholesalers or retailers of their products. In Japan, such activities are prohibited, although certain exemptions are allowed. The U.S. concern over the practice is that it could allow Japanese firms to generate a secure profit base in their home market in order to finance aggressive price competition abroad. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6/
Lobbying by Foreign Interests: Japan
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Japanese Companies and Technology: Lessons to Learn?
American companies are facing increased competitive pressures from foreign firms. Many observers feel that U.S. firms lag behind their foreign competitors in the development, application, and marketing of new technologies and techniques. The Japanese industrial enterprise is characterized by a large proportion of private sector financing and many other factors, which this report analyzes at length. The question being debated by Congress is whether or not U.S. government programs and policies are an acceptable and effective means of supporting the efforts of American industries to operate in a manner consistent with success in world markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7/
Desert Shield and Desert Storm Implications for Future U.S. Force Requirements
This preliminary assessment summarizes U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps performances during recent war, then relates it to past experience and potential threats in ways that might help decisionmakers determine the most suitable characteristics of U.S. armed forces for the rest of this decade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6962/
National Emergency Powers
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Persian Gulf War: Defense-Policy Implications for Congress
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Japan's Response to the Persian Gulf Crisis: Implications for U.S. -Japan Relations
This report provides information and analysis for use by Members of Congress as they deliberate on the Japanese response to the Gulf crisis and, perhaps more important, what it may mean for future U.S.-Japanese relations. The first chapter briefly reviews Japanese government actions in response to the crisis, from August 1990 to February 1991. A second section examines in detail the various factors and constraints that affected Japanese policy. The final section offers conclusions and examines implications of the episode for future U.S.-Japanese relations. Published sources for the report are cited in footnotes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8/
Japan-U.S. Trade: A Chronology of Major Events, 1980-1990
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Japanese and U.S. Industrial Associations: Their Roles in High-Technology Policymaking
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Treatment Technologies at Superfund Sites
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Japan-U.S. Trade and Economic Relations: Bibliography-In-Brief, 1990-1991
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Japan's Prime Minister: Selection Process, 1991 Candidates, and Implications for the United States
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Allied Burdensharing in Transition: Status and Implications for the United States
This report describes recent changes in U.S. burdensharing relationships with NATO, Japan and South Korea and, in the process, identifies some implications for U.S. foreign policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9/
Iraq-Kuwait: United Nations Security Council Resolutions Test and Votes -- 1991
This report lists the 12 adopted United Nations Security Council resolutions relating to the Iraq-Kuwait situation through October 1991. The texts of these resolutions, along with the votes by members of the Council, are included in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26023/
Japan-U.S. Global Partnership: Implications of the Postponement of the President's November 1991 Trip to Japan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs12/
Women in the Armed Forces
Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8521/
Japan-U.S. Trade U.S. Exports of Negotiated Products, 1985-1990
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs20/
The European Community - Japan Automobile Agreement
The European Community (EC) and Japan reached an agreement on trade in automobiles in July 1991. The agreement restricts exports of automobiles from Japan to the EC to 1.23 million cars per year until the end of 1999. The Commission of the European Communities estimates that Japanese transplant production in the EC will amount to 1.2 million cars per year in 1999. The Japanese appear to concur with this estimate but do not agree that it constitutes a cap on transplant investment or production. Whether the agreement covers the export of U.S.-built Japanese transplants to the EC is unclear. If the agreement covers, or has the effect of discouraging, such exports, it would be a cause for concern for U.S. policymakers. U.S. trade officials have reportedly discussed the issue with Japanese counterparts. It is unknown whether U.S. concerns have been addressed to European Community (EC) officials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs40/
Japan and an East Asian Trading Bloc
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The Economics of Agricultural Policy
An English Act of 1663 imposed a duty on grain imported from abroad whenever the domestic price was below a legislatively set price floor. The English farmer enjoyed a virtual monopoly in the domestic market. By the same token, he was allowed to export grain whenever the domestic price exceeded the price floor, and, after 1673, was granted a bounty (subsidy) on grain exports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs21/
Basic Questions on U.S. Citizenship and Naturalization
U.S. citizenship is conferred at birth under the principle of jus soli (nationality of place of birth) and the principle of jus sanguinis (nationality of parents). The U.S. Constitution states as a fundamental rule of jus soli citizenship that "all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside." The exceptions to universal citizenship comprehended by the requirement that a person be born "subject to the jurisdiction thereof" include: (1) children born to a foreign sovereign or accredited diplomatic official; (2) children born on a foreign public vessel, such as a warship; (3) children born to an alien enemy in hostile occupation; and (4) native Indians. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26024/
Japan-U.S. Relations in a Post-Cold War Environment: Emerging Trends and Issues for U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs28/
Medicaid: Recent Trends in Beneficiaries and Spending
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8174/
Congress and Trade Policy Toward Japan
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The U.S.-EC Japan Trade Triangle
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July 1992 Japanese Elections
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Japan-Taiwan Economic Relations: Implications for the U.S.
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National Wildlife Refuges: Places to Hunt?
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Clearcutting in the National Forests
Congressional interest in clearcutting has increased in the past few years. Several bills have been introduced in the current and preceding Congresses to ban the use of clearcutting and/or all even-aged management systems in the national forests. The issue, however, transcends the use of clearcutting and focuses on how to assure the choice of a silvicultural system and the implementation of the management practices that will achieve the stated goals for public land and resource management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs34/
Commercial Relations with Russia: Prospects for a Common United States-Japanese Policy
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Japan-U.S. Economic Relations: Selected References
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Japan-U.S. Economic Relations: Selected References
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Environmental Equity
More than 20 years of Federal pollution control programs notwithstanding, growing perception that minority and low-income communities remain at disproportionately high risk of exposure to toxic pollutants is focusing attention on "environmental equity" issues. Federal legislation has been introduced to ensure equal protection of environmental quality and public health. Equity legislation is opposed by people who are skeptical of its long-term prospects and believe that there is insufficient evidence of discrimination and that some inequities are inevitable in a free-market economy. Both sides agree there is a need to collect and analyze data on public health and exposure to environmental hazards and to compare health risks among racial and socio-economic groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs26/
Japanese Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations
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H.R. 5100: Major Trade Legislation of the 102d Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs41/
China/Asia Broadcasting: Proposals for New U.S. Surrogate Services
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs33/
Japan's Science and Technology Strategies and Policies
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Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress in the 1990s
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Deforestation: An Overview of Global Programs and Agreements
In recent years, global environmental concerns have figured prominently on the American political agenda. In particular, tropical deforestation and its implications for global climate change and biological diversity loss have prompted public outcry. Concerns have since grown to include other forest types as well. The Congress has considered a variety of legislation to stem the tide of increasing deforestation and the United States has supported a number of bilateral and multilateral initiatives to assist other countries in managing their forest resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs35/
The Delaney Clause: The Dilemma of Regulating Health Risk for Pesticide Residues
Under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for establishing tolerances for pesticide residues in or on foods and feeds. Tolerances are legal limits to the amount of pesticide residues that can be found on a raw agricultural commodity at the farm gate or in a processed food. The FFDCA has two sections, 408 and 409, which set up different and inconsistent criteria for setting tolerances for pesticide residues in foods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs27/
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