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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2008
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs

Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs

Date: January 17, 2008
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: This report discusses the recent development in different programs administered by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) with the goal to promote agricultural exports and to provide food aid. These programs include direct export subsidies, export market development, export credit guarantees, and foreign food aid.
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Honduran-U.S. Relations

Honduran-U.S. Relations

Date: January 30, 2008
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P. &
Description: This report examines current political and economic conditions in Honduras as well as issues in Honduran-U.S. relations.
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AIDS in Africa

AIDS in Africa

Date: February 2, 2008
Creator: Cook, Nicolas
Description: This report discusses the AIDS issues in Africa and the Bush administration call to double U.S. international funding for AIDS.
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The Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative

The Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative

Date: April 1, 2008
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: In Juen 2005, G8 finance ministers proposed the new Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI). The MDRI proposes to cancel debts of some of the world's poorest countries owed to the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and African Development Bank. This report discusses MDRI's implementation and raises some issues regarding debt relief's effectiveness as a form of foreign assistance for possible congressional consideration.
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Trends in U.S. Global AIDS Spending: FY2000-FY2008

Trends in U.S. Global AIDS Spending: FY2000-FY2008

Date: April 10, 2008
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: This report describes how HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria are interlinked and exacerbate efforts to control each disease, but primarily addresses funding issues related to U.S. global HIV/AIDS initiatives. It provides background information on the key U.S. agencies that implement global HIV/AIDS programs, analyzes U.S. spending on HIV/AIDS by U.S. agency and department, and presents some issues Congress might consider, particularly as debate on the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) reauthorization ensues.
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The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Progress Report and Issues for Congress

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Progress Report and Issues for Congress

Date: April 14, 2008
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: This report discusses the Global Fund to Fight AIDS and its progress to date, describes the funding procedure, details U.S. contributions to the organization, and presents some issues regarding the level of U.S. contributions that Congress might consider.
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Foreign Aid Reform: Issues for Congress and Policy Options

Foreign Aid Reform: Issues for Congress and Policy Options

Date: April 22, 2008
Creator: Epstein, Susan B. & Veillette, Connie
Description: This report discusses the role of foreign assistance as a tool of foreign policy. There is also a growing recognition of the role that foreign assistance can play as a foreign policy tool that is equal to the role of diplomacy and defense within the current international environment characterized by regional conflicts, terrorist threats, weapons proliferation, concerns with disease pandemics, and the difficulty in overcoming poverty.
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U.S. Foreign Aid to East and South Asia: Selected Recipients

U.S. Foreign Aid to East and South Asia: Selected Recipients

Date: May 16, 2008
Creator: Lum, Thomas
Description: This report analyzes annual budget justifications and legislation for foreign operations appropriations and discusses U.S. foreign aid trends, programs, and restrictions in 16 East Asian and South Asian countries. It does not cover aid to Pacific Island nations, North Korea, and Afghanistan. Country tables do not include assistance from U.S. State Department programs funded outside the foreign operations budget, such as educational and cultural exchange programs, and assistance from other departments and agencies.
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Iraq: Reconstruction Assistance

Iraq: Reconstruction Assistance

Date: May 22, 2008
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: This report describes recent developments in the large-scale assistance program, the Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF), undertaken by the United States and the international community in an effort to rehabilitate economic infrastructure and introduce representative government to post-war Iraq, and examines key issues of potential interest to Congress.
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International Food Aid: U.S. and Other Donor Contributions

International Food Aid: U.S. and Other Donor Contributions

Date: May 29, 2008
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E. & Canada, Carol
Description: The United States is the world's major provider of international food aid to low-income developing countries. This report provides three indicators of the U.S. contribution to global food aid: (1) shipments of major donors compiled by the International Grains Council, (2) U.S. contributions to the United Nations World Food Program (WFP), and (3) the U.S. commitment under the Food Aid Convention (FAC).
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Millennium Challenge Account

Millennium Challenge Account

Date: June 2, 2008
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: This report discusses a proposal for a major new U.S. foreign aid initiative. The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) is managed by the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) and provides assistance, through a competitive selection process, to developing nations that are pursuing political and economic reforms in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom. If fully implemented, the initiative would represent one of the largest increases in foreign aid spending in half a century.
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Merida Initiative: Proposed U.S. Anticrime and Counterdrug Assistance for Mexico and Central America

Merida Initiative: Proposed U.S. Anticrime and Counterdrug Assistance for Mexico and Central America

Date: June 3, 2008
Creator: Cook, Colleen W.; Rush, Rebecca G. & Seelke, Clare Ribando
Description: In October 2007, the United States and Mexico announced the Mérida Initiative, a multi-year proposal for $1.4 billion in U.S. assistance to Mexico and Central America aimed at combating drug trafficking, gangs, and organized crime. This report outlines the various appropriations and other foreign aid measures outlined in the Mérida Initiative and what future actions regarding this ongoing effort will include.
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Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2006: A Fact Sheet on Department of Defense Authority to Train and Equip Foreign Military Forces

Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2006: A Fact Sheet on Department of Defense Authority to Train and Equip Foreign Military Forces

Date: June 3, 2008
Creator: Serafino, Nina M.
Description: Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2006 provides the Secretary of Defense with authority to train and equip foreign military forces. Thus far, the Department of Defense (DOD) has used Section 1206 authority primarily to provide counterterrorism support. Section 1206 obligations totaled some $100 million in FY2006 and $279 million in FY2007. Obligations for FY2008 total almost $25 million as of May 20, 2008. Funds may only be obligated with the concurrence of the Secretary of State. This authority expires at the end of FY2008.
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Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: June 6, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the Afghanistan's political transition, which was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005, but since then insurgent threats to Afghanistan's government have escalated to the point that some experts are questioning the future of U.S. stabilization efforts.
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Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: June 17, 2008
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report discusses the relationships between the United States and Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, as well as these three nations' political and economic conditions. The report also discusses key related issues in the second session of the 111th Congress, including the question of the United States' role in the South Caucasus, the significance of regional energy resources to U.S. interests, and other pertinent issues.
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Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E): Background, Status, and Selected Issues for Congress

Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E): Background, Status, and Selected Issues for Congress

Date: June 20, 2008
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report provides an overview of Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) design. The report discusses the legislative origins and policy debates prior to ARPA-E authorization and Bush administration response to ARPA-E authorization.
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International Food Aid Provisions

International Food Aid Provisions

Date: June 20, 2008
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: Provision of U.S. agricultural commodities for emergency relief and economic development is the United States' major response to food security problems in developing countries. Title III in the omnibus farm bill enacted in June 2008, the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, reauthorizes and makes a number of changes in U.S. international food aid programs. Farm bill debate over U.S. food aid programs focused generally on how to make delivery of food aid more efficient and more effective. This report explores this and related legislation, as well as the areas of this ongoing and international issue that are continually debated.
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State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2009 Appropriations

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2009 Appropriations

Date: July 1, 2008
Creator: Epstein, Susan B. & Nakamura, Kennon H.
Description: This report analyzes the FY2009 request and recent-year funding trends; it tracks major foreign policy issues Congress may consider and highlights congressional action throughout the appropriations process.
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Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy

Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy

Date: July 7, 2008
Creator: Seelke, Claire Ribando
Description: This report reviews and analyzes the situation, concerns, and activities of Afro-descendants in the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking nations of Latin America. It then discusses current U.S. foreign aid programs, as well as multilateral initiatives, that have directly or indirectly assisted Afro-Latinos. The report concludes with a discussion of potential policy options that have been proposed should the United States elect to provide further support for Afro-Latinos.
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Haiti: Legislative Responses to the Food Crisis and Related Development Challenges

Haiti: Legislative Responses to the Food Crisis and Related Development Challenges

Date: July 7, 2008
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando & Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: Haiti faces several interrelated challenges, the most immediate being a lingering food crisis that in April 2008 led to deadly protests and the ouster of Haiti's prime minister. Haiti also suffers from a legacy of poverty, unemployment, and under-development that is compounding security problems for its new and fragile democracy. This report describes in detail the amount and types of emergency food aid and other relief aid that the United States has sent and will continue to send to Haiti. This report also outlines relevant pieces of legislation.
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Merida Initiative: Proposed U.S. Anticrime and Counterdrug Assistance for Mexico and Central America

Merida Initiative: Proposed U.S. Anticrime and Counterdrug Assistance for Mexico and Central America

Date: July 7, 2008
Creator: Cook, Colleen W. & Seelke, Clare Ribando
Description: In October 2007, the United States and Mexico announced the Mérida Initiative, a multi-year proposal for $1.4 billion in U.S. assistance to Mexico and Central America aimed at combating drug trafficking, gangs, and organized crime. This report outlines the various appropriations and other foreign aid measures outlined in the Mérida Initiative and what future actions regarding this ongoing effort will include.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Assistance to North Korea

U.S. Assistance to North Korea

Date: July 7, 2008
Creator: Manyin, Mark E. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report summarizes U.S. assistance to the Democratic People's Republic of North Korea (DPRK, also known as North Korea). It will be updated periodically to track changes in U.S. provision of aid to North Korea.
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Global Health: Appropriations to USAID Programs from FY2001 through FY2008

Global Health: Appropriations to USAID Programs from FY2001 through FY2008

Date: July 8, 2008
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: This report details the funds Congress appropriated from FY2001 through FY2008 to the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) for global health programs. The report includes which key programs said appropriations supported and also discusses the role of other U.S. agencies and departments in this context, including the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).
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Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: July 10, 2008
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report provides an overview of U.S. policy concerns and relations with countries in central Asia. The report discusses issues such as Fostering Pro-Western Orientations, Obstacles to Peace and Independence, Democratization and Human Rights, Security and Arms Control, Trade and Investment, and provides an Aid Overview.
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