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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2008
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Navy Aegis Cruiser and Destroyer Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Aegis Cruiser and Destroyer Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: May 21, 2008
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Navy wants to modernize 84 Aegis cruisers and destroyers over a period of more than 20 years at a potential total cost of about $9.7 billion in today's dollars. The modernizations are intended to ensure that the ships can be operated cost-effectively throughout their entire intended service lives. The program poses several potential issue for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress

DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress

Date: May 22, 2008
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) in recent years has leased some foreign-built cargo ships for total periods, including options and renewals, of almost 10 years - a length of time that some observers argue effectively circumvents a legal requirement that U.S. military ships be built in U.S. shipyards. These observers, particularly the American Shipbuilding Association (ASA), have proposed reducing the current five-year legal limit on ship leases to two years for foreign-built ships. DOD has opposed the idea, arguing that its ship leases are the most cost-effective way to meet its needs for the ships in question.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: May 22, 2008
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The FY2006 budget completed the funding required in the Shipbuilding and Conversion, Navy (SCN) account for the Navy's program to refuel and convert four Trident ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) into cruise-missile-carrying and special operations forces (SOF) support submarines (SSGNs). Initial Operational Capability (IOC) for the program was declared on November 1, 2007. The total estimated cost of the program is about $4.0 billion.
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Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information

Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information

Date: May 27, 2008
Creator: Grasso, Valerie Bailey
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) through a Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) component called the Defense Utilization and Marketing Service (DRMS) has a policy for disposing of government equipment and supplies considered surplus or deemed unnecessary to the agency's currently designated mission. DRMS is charged with responsibility for property reuse (including resale), precious metal recovery, recycling, hazardous property disposal, and the demilitarization of military equipment.
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Defense Acquisition: Use of Lead System Integrators (LSIs) -- Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Defense Acquisition: Use of Lead System Integrators (LSIs) -- Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: June 6, 2008
Creator: Grasso, Valerie Bailey
Description: Some in Congress have expressed concern about the government's use of private-sector lead system integrators (LSIs) for executing large, complex, defense-related acquisition programs. LSIs are large, prime contractors hired to manage such programs. Supporters of the LSI concept argue that it is needed to execute such complex acquisition efforts, and can promote better technical oversight and innovation.
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Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 6, 2008
Creator: Feickert, Andrew
Description: In late 2007, the Department of Defense (DOD) launched a major procurement initiative to replace most uparmored High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWVs) in Iraq with Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) vehicles by FY2009. MRAPs have been described as providing significantly more protection against Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) than uparmored HMMWVs. the DOD's accelerated MRAP program, decisions on the number of MRAPs procured, and MRAP's performance in urban and counterinsurgency operations raise a number of potential policy issues for congressional consideration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Production Act: Purpose and Scope

Defense Production Act: Purpose and Scope

Date: June 23, 2008
Creator: Else, Daniel H.
Description: The Defense Production Act (DPA) was created at the outset of the Korean War to ensure the availability of the nation's industrial resources to meet the national security needs of the United States by granting the President powers to ensure the supply and timely delivery of products, materials, and services to military and civilian agencies. The DPA codifies a robust legal authority given the president to force industry to give priority to national security production and is the statutory underpinning of governmental review of foreign investment in U.S. companies. Since its enactment in 1950, the DPA has been time-limited, undergoing periodic amendment and reauthorization. In 2003, Congress reauthorized the DPA through September 30, 2008.
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Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: July 2, 2008
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Navy's proposed FY2009 budget requested $2,712 million in procurement funding for CVN-78, the first ship in the Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class of aircraft carriers, which was earlier known as the CVN-21 class. Although CVN-78 was procured in FY2008, the Navy's budget includes procurement funding for the ship in FY2009, FY2010, and FY2011. The Navy's proposed FY2008 budget also requested $1,214 million in advance procurement funding for CVN-79, the second ship in the class, which the Navy wants to procure in FY2012. The Navy's estimated procurement costs for CVN-78 and CVN-79 are about $10.5 billion and $9.2 billion, respectively.
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Department of Defense Fuel Costs in Iraq

Department of Defense Fuel Costs in Iraq

Date: July 23, 2008
Creator: Andrews, Anthony & Schwartz, Moshe
Description: Since the invasion of Iraq in 2003, the average price of fuels purchased for military operations in Iraq has steadily increased. The disparity between the higher price of fuel supplied to the United States Central Command compared to Iraq's civilian population has been a point of contention. Several factors contribute to the disparity, including the different types of fuel used by the military compared to Iraqi civilians, the Iraqi government's price subsidies, and the level pricing that the DOD's Defense Logistics Agency charges for military customers around the world. The Iraqi government has been pressured to reduce its fuel subsidy and black market fuel prices remain higher than the official subsidized price.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Costs of Major U.S. Wars

Costs of Major U.S. Wars

Date: July 24, 2008
Creator: Daggett, Stephen
Description: This CRS report provides estimates of the costs of major U.S. wars from the American Revolution through current conflicts in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere. It gives figures both in "current year dollars," that is, in prices in effect at the time of each war, and in inflation-adjusted "constant dollars" updated to the most recently available estimates of FY2008 prices. All estimates are of the costs of military operations only and do not include costs of veterans benefits, interest paid for borrowing money to finance wars, or assistance to allies. The report also provides estimates of the cost of each war as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during the peak year of each conflict and of overall defense spending as a share of GDP at the peak. This report will be updated periodically to reflect additional appropriations for ongoing conflicts and to adjust constant dollar figures to prices of the current fiscal year.
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