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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2005
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agriculture-Based Renewable Energy Production

Agriculture-Based Renewable Energy Production

Date: January 4, 2005
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: Since the late 1970s, U.S. policy makers at both the federal and state levels have enacted a variety of incentives, regulations, and programs to encourage the production and use of agriculture-based renewable energy. Motivations cited for these legislative initiatives include energy security concerns, reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and raising domestic demand for U.S.-produced farm products. This report provides background information on farm-based energy production and how this fits into the national energy-use picture. It briefly reviews the primary agriculture-based renewable energy types and issues of concern associated with their production, particularly their economic and energy efficiencies and long-run supply. Finally, this report examines the major legislation related to farm-based energy production and use.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ethanol Imports and the Caribbean Basin Initiative

Ethanol Imports and the Caribbean Basin Initiative

Date: January 6, 2005
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: Fuel ethanol consumption has grown significantly in the past several years. Most of the U.S. market is supplied by domestic refiners producing ethanol from American corn. However, imports do play a role, albeit small, in the U.S. market. One reason for the relatively small role is a 54-cent-per-gallon tariff on imported ethanol. This tariff offsets an economic incentive of 51 cents per gallon for the use of ethanol in gasoline. However, to promote development and stability in the Caribbean region and Central America, the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) allows the imports of most products, including ethanol, duty-free.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Date: January 7, 2005
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: This report reviews several issues relating to alternative fuels and vehicles, mainly to combat dependence on petroleum imports and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report discusses the advantages and drawbacks of various alternative fuels and vehicles, as well as related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Policy: Legislative Proposals in the 109th Congress

Energy Policy: Legislative Proposals in the 109th Congress

Date: January 21, 2005
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L & Behrens, Carl E
Description: While introduction of energy legislation in the 109th Congress is pending, it remains unclear what its course may be. Some believe that the results of the fall 2004 election have heightened prospects for opening up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to oil and gas development, and the Republican leadership has indicated that ANWR is to be included in the budget resolution that will come before Congress. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee Chairman Pete Domenici has indicated that the committee will mark up a comprehensive bill in February. However, Senator Domenici also expressed openness to considering individual bills; he and others are interested in legislation to establish a long-term leasing plan for natural gas resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gasoline Prices: New Legislation and Proposals

Gasoline Prices: New Legislation and Proposals

Date: January 26, 2005
Creator: Behrens, Carl E. & Glover, Carol
Description: This report discusses policy options for Congress regarding gas prices. The high price of gasoline was an important consideration during the debate on major energy legislation, which ended August 8 as the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005, H.R. 6 (P.L. 109-58). However, prices continued to surge, spiking at the end of August when Hurricane Katrina shut down refining operations in the Gulf of Mexico. The continuing crisis renewed attention to some issues that were dropped or compromised in the debate over P.L. 109-58. A large number of factors combined to put pressure on gasoline prices, including increased world demand for crude oil and U.S. refinery capacity inadequate to supply gasoline to a recovering national economy. The war and continued violence in Iraq added uncertainty and a threat of supply disruption that added pressure particularly to the commodity futures markets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Polygraph Use by the Department of Energy: Issues for Congress

Polygraph Use by the Department of Energy: Issues for Congress

Date: February 3, 2005
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Government Activities to Protect the Electric Grid

Government Activities to Protect the Electric Grid

Date: February 4, 2005
Creator: Abel, Amy
Description: This report provides a description of initiatives within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the Departments of Energy, Homeland Security, and Defense to protect the physical electrical utility infrastructure from outages caused by a range of activities including system operator errors, weather-related damage, and terrorist attacks. While the electric utility industry has primary responsibility, federal and state government agencies also have been addressing physical security concerns.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Power Plants: Vulnerability to Terrorist Attack

Nuclear Power Plants: Vulnerability to Terrorist Attack

Date: February 4, 2005
Creator: Behrens, Carl E & Holt, Mark
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Rising Energy Competition and Energy Security in Northeast Asia: Issues for U.S. Policy

Rising Energy Competition and Energy Security in Northeast Asia: Issues for U.S. Policy

Date: February 9, 2005
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Date: February 28, 2005
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: This issue brief discusses the increasing attention being paid to alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles, the proponents of which point to their potential to improve urban air quality, decrease dependence on foreign oil, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The brief also discusses the major barriers currently preventing widespread use of such technologies, and discusses these technologies in the particular contexts of the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricanes and the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects

Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects

Date: March 4, 2005
Creator: Gelb, Bernard A
Description: There is a likelihood of large reserves of crude oil and natural gas in the Caspian Sea region, and a consequent large increase in oil and natural gas production from that area. Because diversity of energy sources is a consideration in Congressional deliberations on energy policy, this prospect could play a role in such discussions. However, there are notable obstacles to increases in Caspian Sea region production of oil and gas that may slow development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Counterintelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives

Counterintelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives

Date: March 8, 2005
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Description: Lapses in the Department of Energy’s (DOE) security and counterintelligence program have plagued DOE since 1977, when the Department was established through the merger of 40 government organizations, including the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Federal Energy Administration.1 Some policymakers expected the new agency to focus the government’s energy-related enterprises almost solely on the energy crisis. Others saw DOE as an unsuccessful attempt to fuse vastly diverse organizations, many with significantly different, if not conflicting missions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Date: March 11, 2005
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Gelb, Bernard A & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Energy Policy

Nuclear Energy Policy

Date: March 17, 2005
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq’s Trade with the World: Data and Analysis

Iraq’s Trade with the World: Data and Analysis

Date: March 25, 2005
Creator: Jones, Vivian C.
Description: This report provides detailed trade information and statistics on Iraq’s trade with the world from 2001 to 2003, highlighting its major trading partners. Data on U.S. trade with Iraq from 2002 to 2004 are also provided.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Policy: Legislative Proposals in the 109th Congress

Energy Policy: Legislative Proposals in the 109th Congress

Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L & Behrens, Carl E
Description: While introduction of energy legislation in the 109th Congress is pending, it remains unclear what its course may be. Some believe that the results of the fall 2004 election have heightened prospects for opening up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to oil and gas development, and the Republican leadership has indicated that ANWR is to be included in the budget resolution that will come before Congress. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee Chairman Pete Domenici has indicated that the committee will mark up a comprehensive bill in February. However, Senator Domenici also expressed openness to considering individual bills; he and others are interested in legislation to establish a long-term leasing plan for natural gas resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals

Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals

Date: April 7, 2005
Creator: Behrens, Carl E & Glover, Carol
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 109th Congress

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: April 12, 2005
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Description: This report reviews the status of energy efficiency and renewable energy legislation introduced during the 109th Congress. Action in the second session has focused on appropriations bills; the first session focused on omnibus energy policy bill H.R. 6 and several appropriations bills. this report describes several major pieces of legislation, including the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Transportation Equity Act. For each bill listed in this report, a brief description and a summary of action are given, including references to committee hearings and reports. Also, a selected list of hearings on renewable energy is included.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq Oil: Reserves, Production, and Potential Revenues

Iraq Oil: Reserves, Production, and Potential Revenues

Date: April 13, 2005
Creator: Kumins, Lawrence C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Production Issues

Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Production Issues

Date: April 14, 2005
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Energy Policy

Nuclear Energy Policy

Date: April 15, 2005
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Strategic Petroleum Reserve

Strategic Petroleum Reserve

Date: April 15, 2005
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues

Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues

Date: April 18, 2005
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Description: Energy security, a major driver of federal energy efficiency programs in the past, came back into play as oil and gas prices rose late in the year 2000. The terrorist attack in 2001 and the Iraq war have led to heightened concern for energy security and raised further concerns about the vulnerability of energy infrastructure and the need for alternative fuels. Further, the 2001 power shortages in California, the 2003 northeast-midwest power blackout, and continuing high natural gas prices have brought a renewed emphasis on energy efficiency and energy conservation to dampen electricity, oil, and natural gas demand.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals: Siting, Safety and Regulation

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals: Siting, Safety and Regulation

Date: April 20, 2005
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W & Flynn, Aaron M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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