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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: July 16, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: September 10, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: April 8, 2003
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Date: May 20, 2003
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect school aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent Supreme Court decisions, with particular attention to Zelman. It also summarizes the pending case of Davey v. Locke and other recent and ongoing state and lower federal court cases concerning vouchers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report addresses legal issues after the United States signed the Kyoto Protocol to the UnitedNations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The protocol is not yet in effect internationally and cannot be legally binding on the U.S. unless and until the Senate gives its advice and consent.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Date: March 29, 2001
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report addresses legal issues after the United States signed the Kyoto Protocol to the UnitedNations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The protocol is not yet in effect internationally and cannot be legally binding on the U.S. unless and until the Senate gives its advice and consent.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Date: January 10, 2001
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report addresses legal issues after the United States signed the Kyoto Protocol to the UnitedNations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The protocol is not yet in effect internationally and cannot be legally binding on the U.S. unless and until the Senate gives its advice and consent.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Law and the Preemptive Use of Force Against Iraq

International Law and the Preemptive Use of Force Against Iraq

Date: September 23, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Law and the Preemptive Use of Force Against Iraq

International Law and the Preemptive Use of Force Against Iraq

Date: April 11, 2003
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent

NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent

Date: May 2, 2003
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Public Aid and Faith-Based Organizations (Charitable Choice): Background and Selected Legal Issues

Public Aid and Faith-Based Organizations (Charitable Choice): Background and Selected Legal Issues

Date: February 20, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Response to Terrorism: Legal Aspects of the Use of Military Force

Response to Terrorism: Legal Aspects of the Use of Military Force

Date: September 13, 2001
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Suits Against Terrorist States

Suits Against Terrorist States

Date: January 25, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term

Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term

Date: July 12, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term

Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term

Date: November 26, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Withdrawal from the ABM Treaty: Legal Considerations

Withdrawal from the ABM Treaty: Legal Considerations

Date: December 31, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: On December 13, 2001, President Bush gave formal notice to Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and the Ukraine that the United States was withdrawing from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty because of the constraints it imposes on the testing of missile defense systems; and six months later, on June 13, 2002, the treaty effectively terminated. The ABM Treaty has been in force since 1972. Pertinent legal questions that have been raised about U.S. withdrawal concern whether the treaty allows it; if so, the procedure to be followed; and, finally, the constitutionality of the President doing so unilaterally without the involvement of the Senate or Congress. This report briefly discusses these issues, as well as the recent federal district court decision in Kucinich v. Bush dismissing a suit by 32 members of the House challenging the constitutionality of the President’s action.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Date: January 14, 2003
Creator: Ackerman, David M & Grimmett, Richard F
Description: This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Public Aid to Faith-Based Organizations (Charitable Choice): Background and Selected Legal Issues

Public Aid to Faith-Based Organizations (Charitable Choice): Background and Selected Legal Issues

Date: March 28, 2003
Creator: Ackerman, David M.
Description: This report provides background on ten selected questions related to public aid for faith-based organization. Despite the ongoing controversy about charitable choice, not until the 107th Congress were there full hearings and extended debates on its constitutionality, efficacy, and public policy implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's 2009 Presidential Elections

Iran's 2009 Presidential Elections

Date: July 6, 2009
Creator: Addis, Casey L.
Description: This report analyzes and discusses Iran's 2009 presidential election, particularly the campaigns of reformist candidate Mir Hussein Musavi and incumbent President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Allegations of vote rigging and election fraud have led to protests by supporters of candidate Musavi and have provoked international attention. This report also discusses the Obama Administration's reaction to the election results. This report also discusses briefly the current relationship between the U.S. and Iran, as well as U.S. concerns regarding Iran, such as Iran's efforts at building a nuclear weapons program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's 2009 Presidential Elections

Iran's 2009 Presidential Elections

Date: June 22, 2009
Creator: Addis, Casey L.
Description: This report analyzes and discusses Iran's 2009 presidential election, particularly the campaigns of reformist candidate Mir Hussein Musavi and incumbent President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Allegations of vote rigging and election fraud have led to protests by supporters of candidate Musavi and have provoked international attention.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Lebanon: Background and U.S. Relations

Lebanon: Background and U.S. Relations

Date: May 19, 2009
Creator: Addis, Casey L.
Description: This report provides an overview of Lebanese politics, recent events in Lebanon, and current issues in U.S.-Lebanon relations and will be updated to reflect major developments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Lebanon: Background and U.S. Relations

Lebanon: Background and U.S. Relations

Date: November 30, 2009
Creator: Addis, Casey L.
Description: This report provides an overview of Lebanese politics, recent events in Lebanon, and current issues in U.S.-Lebanon relations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Lebanon: Background and U.S. Relations

Lebanon: Background and U.S. Relations

Date: July 23, 2009
Creator: Addis, Casey L.
Description: This report provides an overview of Lebanese politics, recent events in Lebanon, and current issues in U.S.-Lebanon relations and will be updated to reflect major developments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department