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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Sport Utility Vehicles, Mini-Vans and Light Trucks: An Overview of Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards
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Tax Incentives for Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles
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Climate Change: Comparison and Analysis of S. 1151 and the Draft "Climate and Economy Insurance Act of 2005"
Several proposals designed to address greenhouse gases have been introduced in the 109th Congress. Two proposals, S. 1151, introduced by Senators McCain and Lieberman, and a draft alternative, announced by Senator Bingaman, received increased scrutiny in preparation for the Senate’s debate on comprehensive energy legislation. During that debate, S. 1151, introduced as S.Amdt. 826, was defeated on a 38-60 vote. In contrast, the draft alternative remains a work-in-progress and has yet to be introduced. This report compares these two proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7793/
Climate Change Legislation in the 108th Congress
Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been an issue in the 108th Congress, as they have been over the past decade. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research (H.R. 1578 and S. 1164) to comprehensive emissions cap and trading programs for all six greenhouse gases (S. 139 and H.R. 4067). This report briefly discusses basic concepts on which these bills are based, and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, GHG reporting and registries, and cap and trade programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10056/
Climate Change Legislation in the 108th Congress
Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been an issue in the 108th Congress, as they have been over the past decade. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research (H.R. 1578 and S. 1164) to comprehensive emissions cap and trading programs for all six greenhouse gases (S. 139 and H.R. 4067). This report briefly discusses basic concepts on which these bills are based, and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, GHG reporting and registries, and cap and trade programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6136/
Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
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Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
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Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
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Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
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Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
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Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
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Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
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Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
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Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
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Advanced Vehicle Technologies: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues
This report provides an introduction to the research, development, and commercialization of alternative vehicle technologies, specifically electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. It provides a description of the technology, and discusses issues such as cost, maintenance and fueling infrastructure, and performance for each type of vehicle. The report also discusses current congressional action on issues affecting these vehicles, as well as actions by the Administration and state and local governments. It will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1176/
Advanced Vehicle Technologies: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues
This report discusses three major vehicle technologies — electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles — as well as advanced component technologies. Each technology is discussed in terms of cost, fueling and maintenance infrastructure, and performance. The report also discusses key legislation in the 108th Congress, as well as federal, state, and local activity relevant to these technologies. This report will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10035/
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress
This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86541/
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress
This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98072/
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress
This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles - issues discussed in further detail in other CRS reports referred to in each section. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31330/
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress
Alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles are seen by proponents as integral to improving urban air quality, decreasing dependence on foreign oil, and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, major barriers—especially economics—currently prevent the widespread use of these fuels and technologies. The 112th Congress has debated alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles directly and as it has addressed other key topics. On June 16, 2011 the Senate approved S.Amdt. 476 which would have eliminated the excise tax credit for blending ethanol in gasoline before its December 31, 2011 expiration date. Although the underlying legislation failed a cloture vote in the Senate, the amendment was approved 73-27. The prospects for further action increasing or extending biofuels and alternative fuels tax incentives may be limited in light of that vote. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87129/
Analysis of Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)
Report that outlines the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and the current Renewable Identification Numbers (RIN) system, discusses the current market for various RINs, and outlines policy considerations to address RIN fraud going forward. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227827/
Analysis of Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)
This report outlines the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and the current Renewable Identification Numbers (RIN) system, discusses the current market for various RINs, and outlines policy considerations to address RIN fraud going forward. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287979/
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards
This report discusses the current corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard of 35 miles per gallon (mpg), and the major issues on the CAFE debate. The report also offers an overview of Congressional interest in CAFE (1991-2005), and explains the CAFE and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94034/
Biofuels in the 2007 Energy and Farm Bills: A Side-by-Side Comparison
This report provides a side-by-side comparison of biofuels-related provisions in Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140) with prior law, and with comparable provisions in the House and Senate farm bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96793/
Biofuels Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report outlines federal programs that provide direct or indirect incentives for biofuels. For each program described, the report provides details including administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and expiration date. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94063/
Biofuels Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report outlines federal programs that provide direct or indirect incentives for biofuels. For each program described, the report provides details including administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and expiration date. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94064/
Biofuels Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report outlines federal programs that provide direct or indirect incentives for biofuels. For each program described, the report provides details including administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and expiration date. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83916/
Biofuels Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report outlines federal programs that provide direct or indirect incentives for biofuels. For each program described, the report provides details including the administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and expiration date. The Appendix provides summary information in a table format. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97967/
Biofuels Provisions in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-140), H.R. 3221, and H.R. 6: A Side-by-Side Comparison
This report discusses the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and the key biofuels-related provisions of the final legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96788/
Calculation of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Renewable Fuel Standard
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140), significantly expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS) established in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005, P.L. 109-58). The RFS requires the use of 9.0 billion gallons of renewable fuel in 2008, increasing to 36 billion gallons in 2022. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87141/
Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress
Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a continuing issue in the 109th Congress. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research to comprehensive emissions cap-and-trade programs. Additional bills focus on GHG reporting and registries, or on power plant emissions of carbon dioxide, as part of wider controls on pollutant emissions. The bills vary in their approaches to climate change issues. This report briefly discusses the basic concepts on which these bills are based and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, technology deployment, GHG reporting and registries, and emissions reduction programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10374/
Ethanol Imports and the Caribbean Basin Initiative
This report discusses the fuel ethanol consumption that has grown significantly in the past several years. The report describes the standard that requires U.S. transportation fuels to contain a minimum amount of renewable fuel, including ethanol. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94205/
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicle R&D: FreedomCAR and the President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative
This report discusses the organization, funding, and goals of the FreedomCAR and Fuel partnerships, and issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94187/
Intermediate-Level Blends of Ethanol in Gasoline, and the Ethanol "Blend Wall"
This report discusses the growing interest in the potential for ethanol to displace petroleum as a transportation fuel, as well as related issues, including current Clean Air Act (CAA) limitation on ethanol content in gasoline; the requests of ethanol producers for an increase of this limitation; and the effects the limitation has upon vehicle and engine warranties and the infrastructures of the automobile and fuel industries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29564/
The Market for Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)
This report discusses the current market for biomass-based diesel (BBD) fuels and their corresponding RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) under the RFS. It examines the role that the RIN market may play as an economic incentive for the production of biodiesel and other BBD fuels in the future. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103121/
Natural Gas Passenger Vehicles: Availability, Cost, and Performance
Higher gasoline prices and concerns over U.S. oil dependence have raised interest in natural gas vehicles (NGVs). Use of NGVs for personal transportation has focused on compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative to gasoline. Consumer interest has grown, both for new NGVs as well as for conversions of existing personal vehicles to run on CNG. This report finds that the market for natural gas vehicles will likely remain limited unless the differential between natural gas and gasoline prices remains high in order to offset the higher purchase price for an NGV. Conversions of existing vehicles will also continue to be restricted unless the Clean Air Act (CAA) is amended or if the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) makes changes to its enforcement of the CAA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10808/
Waiver Authority Under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)
This report provides a brief overview of the renewable fuel standard (RFS) program and discusses the process and criteria for EPA to approve a waiver petition. Transportation fuels are required by federal law to contain a minimum amount of renewable fuel each year. The RFS, established by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct, P.L. 109-58) and amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140), requires that 15.2 billion gallons of renewable fuels be blended into gasoline and other transportation fuels in 2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122348/
Waiver Authority Under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)
This report provides a brief overview of the renewable fuel standard (RFS) program and discusses the process and criteria for EPA to approve a waiver petition. Transportation fuels are required by federal law to contain a minimum amount of renewable fuel each year. The RFS, established by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct, P.L. 109-58) and amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140), requires that 15.2 billion gallons of renewable fuels be blended into gasoline and other transportation fuels in 2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276939/
Calculation of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Renewable Fuel Standard
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) significantly expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS) established in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. EISA requires an increasing amount of the 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022 mandate be met with "advanced biofuels." This report defines the classification "biofuels," discusses the ongoing debate regarding several aspects of biofuels endeavors, and discusses related legislative efforts on climate change policy and low-carbon fuel standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26141/
Climate Change: Comparison of S. 2191 as Reported (now S. 3036) with Proposed Boxer Amendment
This report discusses S. 2191 (the Lieberman-Warner CLimate Security Act of 2008), which was reintroduced as S. 3036 with a deficit reduction amendment. In particular, it provides a comparison of five key differences between the bill and the proposed Boxer Amendment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98109/
Automobile and Truck Fuel Economy (CAFE) and Greenhouse Gas Standards
Report that looks at vehicle fuel costs, fuel consumption in the United States, and examines the estimated costs to new vehicles that may arise from the Obama Administration's new passenger vehicle fuel economy and greenhouse gas standards for vehicle model years (MY) 2017-2025. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227810/
Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations
This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1670/
Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations
This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1669/
Political Broadcasts - Regulate or Deregulate?
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Excited Utterances, "Testimonial" Statements, and the Confrontation Clause
The United States Supreme Court will hear oral argument this term in appeals from two state supreme court cases, Hammon v. Indiana and Davis v. Washington, concerning the admissibility of “excited utterance” statements made by non-testifying witnesses at criminal trials. In the landmark Crawford v. Washington case in 2004, the Court held that the Sixth Amendment’s Confrontation Clause forbids hearsay “testimonial” evidence from being introduced against the accused unless the witness is unavailable to testify and the defendant has had a prior opportunity to crossexamine the witness. However, the Crawford Court declined to provide a comprehensive definition of “testimonial,” leaving such task “for another day.” digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8256/
Gonzales vs. Oregon
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Influenza Antiviral Drugs and Patent Law Issues
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Safe Harbor for Preclinical Use of Patented Inventions in Drug Research and Development:
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USA PATRIOT Act Additional Reauthorizing Amendments Act of 2006 (S. 2271)
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USA PATRIOT Act Additional Reauthorizing Amendments Act of 2006 (S. 2271)
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