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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA): Congressional Interest and Executive Enforcement
This report briefly discusses the Foreign Corrupt Practice Act of 1977 (FCPA), which was intended to prevent corporate bribery of foreign officials. Criticisms of the act's operation and scope began almost immediately after its passage and have continued. This report discusses these criticisms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29622/
Foreign Investment in the United States: Major Federal Statutory Restrictions
Report that takes a look at some of the major federal statutes which presently restrict investment by foreigners. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228015/
Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Management Assessment of Internal Controls): Current Regulation and Congressional Concerns
This report discusses Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, which requires the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to issue rules requiring annual reports filed by reporting issuers to state the responsibility of management for establishing and maintaining an adequate internal control structure and procedures for financial reporting and for each accounting firm auditing the issuer's annual report to attest to the assessment made of the internal accounting procedures made by the issuer's management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491237/
Securities Fraud Class Action Certification: Halliburton Co. v. Erica P. John Fund, Inc.
This report discusses requirements for securities fraud class action certification. The report also specifically examines each of the decisions made in the Halliburton cases, which proceeded through two complete rounds in federal district court, court of appeals, and the Supreme Court. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462069/
Conflict Minerals and Resource Extraction: Dodd-Frank, SEC Regulations, and Legal Challenges
This report discusses the two sections of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Protection Act (Dodd-Frank) that require the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC or Commission) to issue regulations to make public the involvement of U.S. companies in conflict minerals and in resource extraction payments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491527/
Conflict Minerals and Resource Extraction: Dodd-Frank, SEC Regulations, and Legal Challenges
This report discusses the two sections of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Protection Act (Dodd-Frank) that require the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC or Commission) to issue regulations to make public the involvement of U.S. companies in conflict minerals and in resource extraction payments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462559/
Enron: Selected Securities, Accounting, and Pension Laws Possibly Implicated in its Collapse
This report takes a brief look at some of the federal statutes concerning finance that the Congress and the Executive branch may focus on in their investigations. The report considers three major areas: the federal securities laws, the federal pension laws, and accounting standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2816/
Andean-U.S. Free-Trade Agreement Negotiations
In November 2003, the Bush Administration announced that it intended to begin negotiations on a free-trade agreement (FTA) with these nations, which would reduce and eliminate foreign barriers to trade and investment, support democracy, and fight drug activity. This report briefly discusses this announcement, as well as the major issues and concerns relating to negotiation, and the Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), the FTA's predecessor. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7285/
Andean-U.S. Free-Trade Agreement Negotiations
In November 2003, the Bush Administration announced that it intended to begin negotiations on a free-trade agreement (FTA) with these nations, which would reduce and eliminate foreign barriers to trade and investment, support democracy, and fight drug activity. This report briefly discusses this announcement, as well as the major issues and concerns relating to negotiation, and the Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), the FTA's predecessor. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7286/
China's Most-Favored-Nation Status: U.S. Wheat, Corn, and Soybean Exports
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Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements (Trade Promotion Authority): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
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Trade Promotion Authority: Possible Vote on Two-Year Extension
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Trade Promotion (Fast-Track) Authority: A Comparison of H.R. 3005 as Approved by the House and by the Senate Finance Committee
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Trade Promotion (Fast-Track) Authority: A Comparison of H.R. 3005 as Approved by the House and by the Senate Finance Committee
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Trade Retaliation: The "Carousel" Approach
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Trade Retaliation: The "Carousel" Approach
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U.S.-Sub-Saharan Africa Trade and Investment: Programs and Policy Direction
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U.S.-Sub-Saharan Africa Trade and Investment: Programs and Policy Direction
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The World Trade Organization: Background and Issues
The World Trade Organization (WTO), which was established on January 1, 1995, is the principal organization for rules governing international trade. This report provides general background on the WTO: its establishment, principles, administrative bodies, and membership. It also includes a brief discussion of policy issues pertaining to the WTO agenda, U.S. sovereignty and membership in the WTO, the congressional role in U.S. participation in the WTO, and pursuit of U.S. trade goals in the WTO compared to other options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1835/
The World Trade Organization: Background and Issues
The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established on January 1, 1995, under an agreement reached during the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations. The Uruguay Round was the last of a series of periodic trade negotiations held under the auspices of the WTO’s predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Among the questions asked during debate on U.S. trade policy and the WTO are: To what extent should the United States meet its trade goals in theWTO versus other options? Can the United States maintain its sovereignty as a member of the WTO? Are U.S. interests served through the WTO dispute process? Should the WTO continue to cover traditional trade issues only, or should it be broadened to include nontraditional issues such as labor and the environment? What is the role of Congress in U.S. participation in the WTO? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1834/
The World Trade Organization: Background and Issues
The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established on January 1, 1995, under an agreement reached during the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations. The Uruguay Round was the last of a series of periodic trade negotiations held under the auspices of the WTO’s predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Among the questions asked during debate on U.S. trade policy and the WTO are: To what extent should the United States meet its trade goals in theWTO versus other options? Can the United States maintain its sovereignty as a member of the WTO? Are U.S. interests served through the WTO dispute process? Should the WTO continue to cover traditional trade issues only, or should it be broadened to include nontraditional issues such as labor and the environment? What is the role of Congress in U.S. participation in the WTO? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5061/
World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda
On November 9-14, 2001, trade ministers from WTO countries met in Doha, Qatar for their fourth Ministerial Conference. At that meeting, they agreed to a work program for a new round of multilateral trade negotiations to conclude by January 1, 2005. The work program folds on-going negotiations on agriculture and services into a broader agenda that includes industrial tariffs, topics of interest to developing countries, changes in WTO rules, and other provisions. Because of the influence that developing countries had in setting the work program, the round has become known as the Doha Development Agenda. Agriculture has been the linchpin in the Doha Development Agenda. U.S. goals were substantial reduction of trade-distorting domestic support; elimination of export subsidies, and improved market access. Industrial trade barriers and services are other market access topics in the negotiations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5989/
The World Trade Organization (WTO) Seattle Ministerial Conference
On November 30th to December 3rd, 1999, the highest decision-making body of the World Trade Organization (WTO), called the Ministerial Conference, will meet in Seattle to make broad policy decisions. The key issue for the trade ministers attending the meeting will be to decide on the structure and topics for the agenda of a new round of multilateral trade negotiations. Countries have committed to discuss agriculture and services trade in the new round. Other items that have been proposed for inclusion in the new round or for earlier consideration include tariff reductions, concessions for developing countries, labor issues and the environment, and the WTO decision-making process. Major labor, environmental, and consumer interest groups are expected to be present in Seattle to argue for more consideration of workers' rights and the environment within the WTO. This report provides a summary background on preparations for the Ministerial and related issues of congressional interest. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1002/
Trade Promotion (Fast-Track) Authority: Summary and Analysis of Selected Major Provisions of H.R. 3005
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Trade Promotion (Fast-Track) Authority: Summary and Analysis of Selected Major Provisions of H.R. 3005 and Title XXI of H.R. 3009
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The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States
The World Trade Organization (WTO) went into effect in 1995, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which had been in existence since 1948. Under the WTO, the governments of the 136 member countries agree on a set of rules and principles for trade, negotiate periodically to reduce trade barriers, and participate in the dispute settlement procedure. Economists believe that, over the past 50 years, the more predictable environment for trade as well as the reduction in trade barriers has contributed to unprecedented economic prosperity for the majority of countries. On the other hand, trade liberalization under the WTO has resulted in economic costs to those whose jobs have been adversely affected, although they are relatively few compared to total employment in the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1257/
Trade Promotion (Fast-Track) Authority: H.R. 3005 Provisions and Related Issues
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Colombia: Conditions and U.S. Policy Options
With the civil conflict in Colombia worsening, in many analysts’ perception, some policymakers are again questioning the wisdom and scope of U.S. policy and assistance toward that country. This is the context for debate over future U.S. policy toward Colombia, in particular whether the current levels of U.S. assistance are sufficient, and whether U.S. assistance to the Colombia military is desirable. This report first discusses U.S. interests in Colombia. It then provides information on Colombia’s current conflict, with sections on the guerrillas, the paramilitaries, and President Pastrana’s efforts to deal with the conflict through the peace process, and the reform and rehabilitation of the Colombian military. The last section discusses possible policy options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1782/
Colombia: Plan Colombia Legislation and Assistance (FY2000-FY2001)
This report provides an overview of U.S. assistance before the Plan Colombia proposal, describes the Clinton Administration Plan Colombia proposal, and tracks Congressional action on it. It also covers the Bush Administration’s Andean Regional Initiative (ARI), which incorporated the Bush Administration’s Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI). Table 3 provides a breakdown of the ARI by country, purpose, and account. Table 1 provides an overview of U.S. assistance from FY1999-FY2001, and Table 2 provides an overview of Plan Colombia funding for Colombia and the Status of the commitment of funds provided in the State Department sections of P.L. 106-246, as of the spring of 2001. Tables 4 and 5 compare in detail the Clinton Administration’s Plan Colombia proposal with House, Senate, and conference action on it, and Table 6 charts U.S. assistance from FY1989-FY1998. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1734/
Colombia: Summary and Tables on U.S. Assistance, FY1989-FY2003
In early 2002, the Bush Administration requested $573.2 million for Colombia ($538.2 million in FY03 State Department foreign operations funds and $35.0 million in FY2002 emergency supplemental funds). This request builds on the programs developed during the Clinton Administration, whose centerpiece counternarcotics (CN) program was “Plan Colombia,” through which Congress provided funding of $860 million in FY2000 emergency supplemental funds and $257 million in related FY2001 funds. These programs were continued by the Bush Administration’s FY2002 Andean Regional Initiative (ARI). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2903/
Colombia: The Problem of Illegal Narcotics and U.S. - Colombian Relations
The United States has long been concerned with Colombia as a major producer and trafficker of the illegal narcotics entering this country: first marijuana, then cocaine, and now also heroin. Colombia's drug trafficking business has been dominated by two cartels during the two decades in which cocaine trafficking became a major activity: first the Medellin cartel, which dominated during the 1980s and then the Cali cartel, which dominated during the early 1990s. With the arrests of the major Cali cartel leaders in the mid-1990s, independent traffickers have filled the void. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs620/
Colombia: The Uribe Administration and Congressional Concerns
On August 7, 2002, President-elect, Alvaro Uribe Velez, age 49, is scheduled to take office amid an intensifying conflict. Uribe’s election has been widely attributed to his law-and-order campaign promises to pursue the guerrillas vigorously by increasing Colombia’s military budget, doubling the size of the military to 100,000, and creating a one-million man civilian militia to aid the Colombian military, as well as to the worsening security situation in Colombia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3330/
Colombia: U.S. Assistance and Current Legislation
This report provides an overview of U.S. assistance before the Plan Colombia proposal, describes the Clinton Administration Plan Colombia proposal, and tracks Congressional action on it. It also covers the Bush Administration’s Andean Regional Initiative (ARI), which incorporated the Bush Administration’s Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI). Table 2 provides a breakdown of the ARI by country, purpose, and account. Table 1 provides an overview of U.S. assistance from FY1999-FY2001, Tables 3 and 4 compare the Clinton Administration’s Plan Colombia proposal with House, Senate, and conference action on it, and Table 5 charts U.S. assistance from FY1989-FY1998. Discussion of conference action includes a list of certification and reporting requirements, and Clinton Administration responses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1733/
Combating Terrorism: Are There Lessons to Be Learned from Foreign Experiences?
As the United States braces for possible repeated incidents of international terrorism in the United States, there may be lessons to be learned from the experiences of other countries which have suffered prolonged onslaughts of terrorism. The utility of each approach, as well as of specific measures, can depend on a variety of factors, including the nature and organization of a terrorist group, public attitudes toward it, and the depth of support for it. This paper looks briefly at some cases where judgments have been made on the effectiveness of different policy measures, and raises questions relating those outcomes to the current situation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2541/
The Global Peace Operations Initiative: Background and Issues for Congress
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The Global Peace Operations Initiative: Background and Issues for Congress
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Peacekeeping and Related Stability Operations: Issues of U.S. Military Involvement
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Peacekeeping and Related Stability Operations: Issues of U.S. Military Involvement
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Peacekeeping and Related Stability Operations: Issues of U.S. Military Involvement
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