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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Marine Protected Areas: An Overview
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are generally defined as areas reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. This report identifies a number of issues related to establishing MPAs in the United States. It begins by defining the concept and administrative actions taken to provide spatial protection in marine areas. It then considers some of the key issues and potential benefits and costs of designating additional MPAs. It concludes by considering potential areas of congressional interest for the 111th Congress. Existing federal laws related to the use of MPAs are summarized in the Appendix. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29650/
Coastal Zone Management: Background and Reauthorization Issues
This report provides an overview of the coastal population and costal environmental threats. The report discusses the implementation and reauthorization Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) that was first enacted in 1972. Congress has reauthorized or amended this act eight times since 1972, responding to changing issues combined with a continuing interest in assisting states to manage their coastal resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94133/
Commercial Fishery Disaster Assistance
This report discusses disaster relief for commercial fishery, which be provided by the federal government to assist the fishing industry when it is affected by a commercial fishery failure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94118/
The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and the Gulf of Mexico Fishing Industry
This report summarizes information related to damages caused by the Deepwater oil spill to Gulf fisheries and efforts to mitigate these damages. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103126/
Marine Protected Areas: An Overview
This report identifies a number of issues related to establishing MPAs in the United States. It begins by defining the concept and administrative actions taken to provide spatial protection in marine areas. It then considers some of the key issues and potential benefits and costs of designating additional MPAs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87274/
Ocean Commissions: Ocean Policy Review and Outlook
The 111th Congress is continuing to consider ocean policy and management recommendations of the two commission reports and the President's response. Comprehensive changes in ocean governance and administrative structure are proposed in the Oceans Conservation, Education, and National Strategy for the 21st Century Act (H.R. 21). Bills addressing specific topics such as coral reefs, marine sanctuaries, ocean acidification, ocean exploration and research, and shark conservation also have been introduced. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87316/
Open Ocean Aquaculture
This report discusses four general areas: (1) operational and business-related challenges; (2) potential economic impacts; (3) potential environmental impacts; and (4) the legal and regulatory environment. It summarizes recent executive and legislative branch actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93997/
Open Ocean Aquaculture
This report discusses four general areas related to open ocean aquaculture: (1) operational and business-related challenges; (2) potential economic impacts; (3) potential environmental impacts; and (4) the legal and regulatory environment. It summarizes recent executive and legislative branch actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98056/
Seafood Safety: Background and Issues
Although seafood consumption can contribute to a healthy diet, some fish and shellfish can cause foodborne illnesses or contain environmental contaminants. This report discusses whether current food safety programs are sufficiently protecting consumers, and if not, what changes should be considered. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31458/
Ocean Acidification
Report that discusses the increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and the extent of related effects on the ocean and marine resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227633/
Appropriations for FY1997: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies
The VA, HUD and Independent Agencies appropriations bill includes funding for the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and a number of independent agencies. This report describes some of the key issues affecting agency funding in FY1997. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs326/
Housing Authorization Bills: Overview of H.R. 2 and S. 462
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs714/
Housing for the Elderly: Legislation in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs995/
The Budget of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) FY1999
This report provides an overview of FY1999 budget request for the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Initially, the report is limited to the Administration’s budget request for HUD. The report is updated periodically as legislative action occurs on FY1999 appropriations for HUD and as action occurs on authorizing legislation to implement the budget proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs677/
Energy Projects on Federal Lands: Leasing and Authorization
The report first reviews the laws and regulations affecting leasing of federal lands for exploration and production of oil, natural gas, and coal, as well as the permits that lessees must obtain in order to explore for and produce these resources. The report also addresses existing laws and regulations that govern the use of federal lands for renewable energy projects, including geothermal, wind, and solar energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40081/
The Federal Government's Role in Electric Transmission Facility Siting
This report looks at the history of transmission siting and the reason behind the movement toward an increased federal role in siting decisions, explains the new federal role in transmission siting pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and discusses legal issues related to this and any potential future expansions of the federal role. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29571/
Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal Framework
This report explains the nature of U.S. authority over offshore areas pursuant to international and domestic law. It also describes the laws, at both the state and federal levels, governing the development of offshore oil and gas and the litigation that has flowed from development under the current legal regimes. Also included is an outline of the recent changes to the authorities regulating offshore development wrought by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and subsequent legislation enacted by the 109th Congress prior to adjournment. Finally, this report discusses legislation under consideration by the 110th Congress that might also amend existing law in this area. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94031/
Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal Framework
This report explains the nature of U.S. authority over offshore areas pursuant to international and domestic law. It also describes the laws, at both the state and federal levels, governing the development of offshore oil and gas and the litigation that has flowed from development under these legal regimes. Also included is an outline of the changes to the authorities regulating offshore development wrought by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and subsequent legislation and executive action as well as a discussion of recent executive action and legislative proposals to encourage further offshore exploration and production. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94030/
Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal Framework
The development of offshore oil, gas, and other mineral resources in the United States is impacted by a number of interrelated legal regimes, including international, federal, and state laws. International law provides a framework for establishing national ownership or control of offshore areas, and domestic federal law mirrors and supplements these standards. This report discusses these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29669/
Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal Framework
The development of offshore oil, gas, and other mineral resources in the United States is impacted by a number of interrelated legal regimes, including international, federal, and state laws. International law provides a framework for establishing national ownership or control of offshore areas, and domestic federal law mirrors and supplements these standards. This report discusses these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40204/
Proposed Keystone XL Pipeline: Legal Issues
This report reviews those legal issues. First, it suggests that legislation related to cross-border facility permitting is unlikely to raise significant constitutional questions, despite the fact that such permits have traditionally been handled by the executive branch alone pursuant to its constitutional "foreign affairs" authority. Next, it observes generally that state oversight of pipeline siting decisions does not appear to violate existing federal law or the Constitution. Finally, the report suggests that State Department's implementation of the existing authority to issue presidential permits appears to allow for judicial review of its National Environmental Policy Act determinations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84012/
Regulation of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sequestration Pipelines: Jurisdictional Issues
This report reviews the history of pipeline regulation, including the limited history of interstate CO2 pipeline regulation, and examines the regulatory missions of FERC, the STB, and other agencies. The report discusses possible responses to perceived jurisdictional uncertainties under existing law as well as potential legislative steps intended to address any potential regulatory “gap” in interstate CO2 pipeline jurisdiction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94130/
Wind Energy: Offshore Permitting
This report discusses the disputes over Corps jurisdiction prior to enactment of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 as well as the current law applicable to siting offshore wind facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93994/
Wind Energy: Offshore Permitting
This report discusses the disputes over Corps jurisdiction prior to enactment of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 as well as the current law applicable to siting offshore wind facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93993/
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under the Oil Pollution Act
Report that examines the Natural Resources Damage Assessment (NRDA) process under the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) in the context of the Deepwater Horizon spill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227729/
Presidential Permits for Border Crossing Energy Facilities
This report discusses the executive orders regarding the construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities that cross the U.S.-Mexico or U.S.- Canada border, including the source of the executive branch authority to issue the orders, the standards set forth in the orders, and the projects approved pursuant to the orders. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267825/
Hydraulic Fracturing: Selected Legal Issues
This report focuses on selected legal issues related to the use of hydraulic fracturing. It examines some of the requirements for hydraulic fracturing contained in major federal environmental laws. It also provides an overview of issues involving state preemption of local zoning authority, as well as state tort law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227887/
In Brief: The September 2013 Terrorist Attack in Kenya
This report focuses on selected legal issues related to the use of hydraulic fracturing. It examines some of the requirements for hydraulic fracturing contained in major federal environmental laws. It also provides an overview of issues involving state preemption of local zoning authority, as well as state tort law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267822/
Federal Permitting and Oversight of Export of Fossil Fuels
This report reviews federal laws and the regulatory regime governing the export of natural gas, crude oil, and coal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227934/
Australia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report gives an overview of the relationship between the Commonwealth of Australia and the United States including the close alliance under the ANZUS treaty. The report includes information about the structure of the Australian government, political and domestic issues, economics, defense policies and security ties, counterterrorism, environmentalism, affairs in Asia and the Pacific Southwest, and an analysis of other specific events. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87298/
Australia: Background and U.S. Relations
The Commonwealth of Australia and the United States are close allies under the ANZUS treaty. Australia evoked the treaty to offer assistance to the United States after the attacks of September 11, 2001, in which 22 Australians were among the dead. Australia was one of the first countries to commit troops to U.S. military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. The Howard Government’s strong commitment to the United States in Afghanistan and Iraq and the recently negotiated bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between Australia and the United States have strengthened what were already close ties between the two long-term allies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9001/
Australia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report gives an overview of the relationship between the Commonwealth of Australia and the United States including the close alliance under the ANZUS treaty. The report includes information about the structure of the Australian government, political and domestic issues, economics, defense policies and security ties, counterterrorism, environmentalism, affairs in Asia and the Pacific Southwest, and an analysis of other specific events. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228014/
Bangladesh: Background and U.S. Relations
This report discusses the key issues regarding U.S.-Bangladesh Relations. U.S. policy toward Bangladesh emphasizes support for political stability and democracy; social and economic development; and improvement of human rights. The United States has long-standing supportive relations with Bangladesh and has viewed Bangladesh as a moderate voice in the Islamic world. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9527/
China-Southeast Asia Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications for the United States
This report explores what is behind this shift in China - ASEAN relations and how it may affect American interests in the region. The key policy issue for Congress is to assess how the United States should view China’s expanding posture in Southeast Asia and decide what is the best way to react to this phenomenon. This report may be of assistance to Congressional decision makers as they review legislation such as H.Res. 43 or H.Con.Res. 33 (109th Congress). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6247/
Indonesia: Domestic Politics, Strategic Dynamics, and American Interests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7163/
Indonesia: Domestic Politics, Strategic Dynamics, and American Interests
This report surveys key aspects of Indonesia's domestic politics and strategic dynamics in addition to provide general background information on Indonesia. It also provides an overview of the bilateral relationship between the United States and Indonesia. The report examines issues of ongoing congressional interest, including Indonesia's role in the struggle against violent Islamist extremists, security assistance, human rights, religious freedom, promotion of democracy and good governance, trade, foreign assistance, and regional geopolitical and strategic interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26216/
Indonesia: Domestic Politics, Strategic Dynamics, and U.S. Interests
This report explores the current political conditions of Indonesia, as well as its relationship with surrounding nations and its relationship with the United States, including a focus on U.S. policy regarding Indonesia. The report also focuses on how the election of President Barack Obama increased Indonesian expectations of an improved relationship with the U.S., as President Obama spent part of his childhood in Indonesia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103170/
Indonesia: Domestic Politics, Strategic Dynamics, and U.S. Interests
This report explores the current political conditions of Indonesia, as well as its relationship with surrounding nations and its relationship with the United States, including a focus on U.S. policy regarding Indonesia. The report also focuses on how the election of President Barack Obama increased Indonesian expectations of an improved relationship with the U.S., as President Obama spent part of his childhood in Indonesia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29653/
Indonesian Elections
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7226/
Malaysia: Political Transition and Implications for U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5240/
Nepal: Background and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6467/
Nepal: Background and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6670/
Nepal: Political Developments and Bilateral Relations with the United States
This report discusses the socio-economic and political situation in Nepal. The report talks about the government, politics, and regional tensions in Nepal, human rights concerns as well the Nepal's relations with the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40239/
New Zealand: Background and Bilateral Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7193/
New Zealand: Background and Bilateral Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6700/
Papua, Indonesia: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9213/
Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5239/
Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6928/
China-Southeast Asia Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications for the United States
This report explores what is behind this shift in China - ASEAN relations and how it may affect American interests in the region. The key policy issue for Congress is to assess how the United States should view China’s expanding posture in Southeast Asia and decide what is the best way to react to this phenomenon. This report may be of assistance to Congressional decision makers as they review legislation such as H.Res. 43 or H.Con.Res. 33 (109th Congress). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8771/
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade: Key Issues for the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7395/