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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The European Union: Leadership Changes Resulting from the Lisbon Treaty
EU foreign policy decisions of a political or security-related nature require unanimous intergovernmental agreement among the 27 member states. In many other issues which may relate to external affairs, however, EU members have agreed to pool their decision-making sovereignty. A number of additional EU actors often have particular relevance in these matters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40088/
Poland and Its Relations with the United States
Given its role as a close U.S. ally and partner, developments in Poland and its relations with the United States are of continuing interest to the U.S. Congress. This report provides an overview and assessment of some of the main dimensions of these topics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847642/
Poland and Its Relations with the United States: In Brief
This report provides an overview and assessment of the relationship between the Untied States and Poland over the last 25 years, including developmentents in Poland that are of interest to the U.S. Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795835/
Poland and Its Relations with the United States: In Brief
This report provides an overview and assessment of some of the main dimensions of the topic of developments in Poland and its relations with the United States, which are of continuing interest to the U.S. Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795418/
Scotland's Independence Referendum
This report examines varying opinion in regards to Scotland's Independence Referendum. The report also discusses U.S. views on the topic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463164/
The United Kingdom and the European Union: Stay or Go?
This report briefly discusses the vote on whether or not the UK should exit the EU, which is set to take place on June 23, 2016. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847503/
The United Kingdom and U.S.-UK Relations
This report discusses the relations between United Kingdom (UK) and the United States, including a sense of shared history, values, and culture, as well as extensive and long-established cooperation on a wide range of foreign policy and security issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306558/
The United Kingdom and U.S.-UK Relations
This report discusses the relations between United Kingdom (UK) and the United States, including a sense of shared history, values, and culture, as well as extensive and long-established cooperation on a wide range of foreign policy and security issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463071/
The United Kingdom and U.S.-UK Relations
This report discusses the relations between United Kingdom (UK) and the United States, including a sense of shared history, values, and culture, as well as extensive and long-established cooperation on a wide range of foreign policy and security issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462723/
The United Kingdom: Background and Relations with the United States
This report provides an overview of the U.S.-UK relationship, concerns about UK defense cuts and their potential effect on future security cooperation and assessment of some of the main dimensions of these topics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627152/
The United Kingdom: Background and Relations with the United States
This report provides an overview of the U.S.-UK relationship, concerns about UK defense cuts and their potential effect on future security cooperation and assessment of some of the main dimensions of these topics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700812/
The United Kingdom Election
This report is a brief primer on the United Kingdom's (UK) general election, which is set to take place May 7, 2015. The previous election, in 2010, resulted in a "hung Parliament," as no party won a majority of the 650 seats in the House of Commons. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626901/
The United Kingdom Election
This report briefly outlines the United Kingdom's recent election that was held on May 7, 2015 and resulted in a decisive victory for the Conservative Party. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627006/
The United Kingdom: Issues for the United States
This report discusses the relations between United Kingdom (UK) and the United States, including a sense of shared history, values, and culture, as well as extensive and long-established cooperation on a wide range of foreign policy and security issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501664/
The United Kingdom: Issues for the United States
This report discusses the relations between United Kingdom (UK) and the United States, including a sense of shared history, values, and culture, as well as extensive and long-established cooperation on a wide range of foreign policy and security issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501971/
The United States and Europe: Current Issues
This report examines the current state of the transatlantic relationship and discusses the key issues outlined above, which are likely to have implications for U.S. interests during the 112th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491224/
The United States and Europe: Current Issues
This report examines a number of issues that illustrate the cooperation of U.S.-European cooperation based on shared interests and present challenges. These issues include specifics topics in economics, foreign policy and international security, terrorism, cybersecurity, and energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462265/
The United States and Europe: Current Issues
This report examines a number of issues that illustrate the cooperation of U.S.-European cooperation based on shared interests and present challenges. These issues include specifics topics in economics, foreign policy and international security, terrorism, cybersecurity, and energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501562/
The United States and Europe: Current Issues
This report examines the current state of the transatlantic relationship and discusses the key issues outlined above, which are likely to have implications for U.S. interests during the 111th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505594/
The United States and Europe: Current Issues
This report examines the current state of the transatlantic relationship and discusses the key issues outlined above, which are likely to have implications for U.S. interests during the 112th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40265/
The United States and Europe: Current Issues
This report examines the current state of the transatlantic relationship and discusses the key issues outlined above, which are likely to have implications for U.S. interests during the 111th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700807/
The United States and Europe: Current Issues
This report examines the current state of the transatlantic relationship and discusses some key issues which may have implications for U.S. interests during the 111th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700776/
Congressionally Chartered Nonprofit Organizations ("Title 36 Corporations"): What They Are and How Congress Treats Them
This report discusses a category of congressionally chartered nonprofit organizations that have as their purpose the promotion of patriotic, charitable, educational, and other eleemosynary activities . Title 36 of the United States Code, where such corporate organizations are listed with their charters, was re-codified by law in 1998 (EL 105-225). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7367/
The Quasi Government: Hybrid Organizations with Both Government and Private Sector Legal Characteristics
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7707/
Federal Government Corporations: An Overview
This report provides an overview of federal government corporations, a category currently consisting of some 18 corporate agencies performing functions assigned to them in law. A government corporation, as defined in this report, is an agency of government, established by Congress to provide a market-oriented public service and intended to produce revenues that meet or approximate its expenditures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9156/
The Quasi Government: Hybrid Organizations with Both Government and Private Sector Legal Characteristics
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6224/
The Quasi Government: Hybrid Organizations with Both Government and Private Sector Legal Characteristics
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8656/
The President’s Reorganization Authority: Review and Analysis
This report addresses three specific issues: (1) the historical basis and use of the President’s reorganization authority; (2) the factors contributing to the lapse of the President’s reorganization authority in 1984,1 and (3) thoughts on the future of reorganization in the executive branch. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821067/
Broadband over Powerlines: Regulatory and Policy Issues
This report provides background information regarding broad band over powerlines. The report discusses the federal communications commission activity, the national communication and information administration activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700655/
The EMV Chip Card Transition: Background, Status, and Issues for Congress
This report describes the financial harm caused by data breaches and explains how those breaches are carried out. It provides information about the effect of the transition in selected foreign countries. The report also discusses resolved and remaining impediments to completing the EMV ( Europay, MasterCard Visa) transition in the United States and identifies areas of potential congressional interest. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503558/
The EMV Chip Card Transition: Background, Status, and Issues for Congress
This report describes the financial harm caused by data breaches and the impact of EMV (Europay, MasterCard, and Visa) chip cards on fraud. It provides information about the effect of the transition in selected foreign countries and discusses resolved and remaining impediments to completing the EMV transition in the United States. It also identifies areas of potential congressional interest. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743375/
The EMV Chip Card Transition: Background, Status, and Issues for Congress
This report describes the financial harm caused by data breaches and explains how those breaches are carried out, and discusses resolved and remaining impediments to completing the EMV transition in the United States and identifies areas of potential congressional interest. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795905/
The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape
The report discusses the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)-Related Congressional Actions in the 112th Congress. The policymakers, including some in Congress, have long called for varying degrees and types of reform to the FCC. Most proposals fall into two categories: (1) procedural changes made within the FCC or through congressional action that would affect the agency's operations or (2) substantive policy changes requiring congressional action that would affect how the agency regulates different services and industry sectors digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87287/
The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape
The report discusses the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)-Related Congressional Actions in the 112th Congress. The policymakers, including some in Congress, have long called for varying degrees and types of reform to the FCC. Most proposals fall into two categories: (1) procedural changes made within the FCC or through congressional action that would affect the agency's operations or (2) substantive policy changes requiring congressional action that would affect how the agency regulates different services and industry sectors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122288/
The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape
The report discusses the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)-Related Congressional Actions in the 112th Congress. The policymakers, including some in Congress, have long called for varying degrees and types of reform to the FCC. Most proposals fall into two categories: (1) procedural changes made within the FCC or through congressional action that would affect the agency's operations or (2) substantive policy changes requiring congressional action that would affect how the agency regulates different services and industry sectors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93991/
The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape
The report discusses the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)-Related Congressional Actions in the 112th Congress. The policymakers, including some in Congress, have long called for varying degrees and types of reform to the FCC. Most proposals fall into two categories: (1) procedural changes made within the FCC or through congressional action that would affect the agency's operations or (2) substantive policy changes requiring congressional action that would affect how the agency regulates different services and industry sectors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93990/
The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape
The report discusses the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)-Related Congressional Actions in the 112th Congress. The policymakers, including some in Congress, have long called for varying degrees and types of reform to the FCC. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700857/
The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape
This report discusses current issues regarding the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), which is an independent federal agency charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. The mission of the FCC is to ensure that the American people have available--at reasonable cost and without discrimination--rapid, efficient, nation- and world-wide communication services, whether by radio, television, wire, satellite, or cable. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824516/
The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape
The report discusses the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)-Related Congressional Actions in the 112th Congress. The policymakers, including some in Congress, have long called for varying degrees and types of reform to the FCC. Most proposals fall into two categories: (1) procedural changes made within the FCC or through congressional action that would affect the agency's operations or (2) substantive policy changes requiring congressional action that would affect how the agency regulates different services and industry sectors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821708/
The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape
This report discusses current issues regarding the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), which is an independent federal agency charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847633/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
In the early 1990s, Congress recognized that several federal agencies had ongoing high performance computing programs, but no central coordinating body existed to ensure long-term coordination and planning. To provide such a framework, Congress passed the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 to enhance the effectiveness of the various programs. In conjunction with the passage of the act, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released Grand Challenges: High-Performance Computing and Communications. Current concerns are the role of the federal government in supporting IT R&D and the level of funding to allot to it. This report also looks at federal budgets for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87315/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
This report discusses background and funding for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) program (previously known as the High-Performance Computing and Communications program, or HPPCC), which involves multiagency research and development (R&D) projects. It includes information about the program, background on federal technology funding, related activities in the 112th and 111th Congresses, and potential issues for Congress to address. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99100/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
Report discussing the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228042/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. Support of IT R&D began because the government had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770598/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. Support of IT R&D began because the government had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824595/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities
This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700806/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities
This report discusses federal funding for IT research and development. Proponents assert that federal support of IT R&D has produced positive outcomes for the country and played a crucial role in supporting long-term research into fundamental aspects of computing. Critics assert that the government, through its funding mechanisms, may be picking “winners and losers” in technological development, a role more properly residing with the private sector. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821428/
Promoting Global Internet Freedom: Policy and Technology
Report that provides information about federal and private sector efforts to promote and support global Internet freedom, a description of Internet freedom legislation from the 112th Congress, and suggestions for further reading on this topic. Two appendixes describe censorship and circumvention technologies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227721/
Promoting Global Internet Freedom: Policy and Technology
Report that provides information about federal and private sector efforts to promote and support global Internet freedom, a description of Internet freedom legislation from the 112th Congress, and suggestions for further reading on this topic. Two appendixes describe censorship and circumvention technologies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227720/
"Spam": An Overview of Issues Concerning Commercial Electronic Mail
This report discusses Spam, also called unsolicited commercial email (UCE) or "junk email." Not only can Spam be a nuisance, but its cost may be passed on to consumers through higher charges from Internet service providers who must upgrade their systems to handle the traffic. Proponents of UCE insist it is a legitimate marketing technique that is protected by the First Amendment. This report discusses this issue in detail, as well as related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700800/