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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Telephone Bills: Charges on Local Telephone Bills
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3493/
Health Care Fact Sheet: International Health Spending
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs69/
Malaysia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report analyzes U.S.-Malaysia relations and the economy, domestic politics, and diplomacy of Malaysia. It also provides background on current events and policy debates, as Congress has expressed interest in a variety of issues in U.S.-Malaysia relations, especially regarding trade, security cooperation, and human rights. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306544/
Malaysia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report analyzes U.S.-Malaysia relations and the economy, domestic politics, and diplomacy of Malaysia. It also provides background on current events and policy debates, as Congress has expressed interest in a variety of issues in U.S.-Malaysia relations, especially regarding trade, security cooperation, and human rights. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306496/
IRS Reform: Innocent Spouse Rule
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World Oil Production After Year 2000: Business As Usual or Crises?
Deficient productive capacity has not yet caused an oil crisis, but that does not mean it never will. Significant increases in world oil demand will have to be met primarily from Persian Gulf supplies. This is a region with a history of wars, illegal occupations, soups, revolutions, sabotage, terrorism, and oil embargoes. To these possibilities may be added growing Islamist movements with various antipathies to the West. If oil production were constrained, oil prices could rise abruptly along with adverse world economic repercussions. If the IEA and EIA are correct on the demand side, deficient world oil productive capacity could cause an oil crisis within 15 years and political disruptions in Saudi Arabia could cause one sooner. However, if the increases in world oil demand were more moderate, and there is long-term relative peace in the Middle East, with increasing foreign participation in upstream oil activities, a business as usual world oil demand and supply situation would be a likely scenario for much of the next century. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs191/
Border and Transportation Security: Possible New Directions and Policy Options
There is consensus that Border and Transportation Security (BTS) is a pivotal function in protecting the American people from terrorists and their instruments of destruction. The issue for Congress is how to achieve desired levels of security, while not compromising other important values in the process. This report addresses possible new approaches and policy options that might be explored by Congress to attain these goals. It is one of three CRS reports in a series that make use of analytical frameworks to better understand complex problems in BTS and to facilitate consideration of alternative policies and practices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6328/
2012-2013 Presidential Election Period: National Security Considerations and Options
This report discusses historical national security-related presidential transition activities, provides a representative sampling of national security issues a new Administration may encounter, and offers considerations and options relevant to each of the five phases of the presidential election period. Each phase has distinct challenges and opportunities for the incoming Administration, the outgoing Administration, and Congress. This report is intended to provide a framework for national security considerations during the current election period and will be updated to reflect the election outcome. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122266/
Al Qaeda and Affiliates: Historical Perspective, Global Presence, and Implications for U.S. Policy
The focus of this report is on the history of Al Qaeda, known (or attributed) actions, suspected capabilities of the organization and non-aligned entities, and an analysis of select regional Al Qaeda affiliates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103077/
Post-911 National Threat Notification Efforts: Issues, Actions, and Options for Congress
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"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications
Report that reviews the history of the Gang of Four intelligence notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227648/
Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues
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Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7633/
International Terrorism and Transnational Crime: Security Threats, U.S. Policy, and Considerations for Congress
This report provides a primer on the confluence of transnational terrorist and criminal groups and related activities abroad. It evaluates possible motivations and disincentives for cooperation between terrorist and criminal organizations, variations in the scope of crime-terrorism links, and the types of criminal activities--fundraising, material and logistics support, and exploitation of corruption and gaps in the rule of law--used by terrorist organizations to sustain operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463206/
Terrorism and Transnational Crime: Foreign Policy Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of transnational security issues related to patterns of interaction among international terrorist and crime groups. In addition, the report discusses the U.S. government's perception of and response to the threat. It concludes with an analysis of foreign policy options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461989/
NSA Surveillance Leaks: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the specifics of these two NSA collection programs. The first program collects in bulk the phone records--including the number that was dialed from, the number that was dialed to, and the date and duration of the call--of customers of Verizon and possibly other U.S. telephone service providers. The second program targets the electronic communications, including content, of foreign targets overseas whose communications flow through American networks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227879/
U.S. Citizens Kidnapped by the Islamic State
This report briefly discusses the Islamic State's (IS, or alternatively, Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, ISIL, or Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, ISIS) kidnapping of American citizens and the implications for congressional response. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462606/
Osama bin Laden's Death: Implications and Considerations
This report discusses issues and questions related to the killing of Osama bin Laden (OBL), which are multifaceted and may have operational, regional, and policy implications. Operational policy issues include congressional notification, legal considerations, and current and future military activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40152/
International Terrorism and Transnational Crime: Security Threats, U.S. Policy, and Considerations for Congress
This report provides a primer on the confluence of transnational terrorist and criminal groups and related activities abroad. It evaluates possible motivations and disincentives for cooperation between terrorist and criminal organizations, variations in the scope of crime-terrorism links, and the types of criminal activities--fundraising, material and logistics support, and exploitation of corruption and gaps in the rule of law--used by terrorist organizations to sustain operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462115/
Social Security Reform: Growing Real Ownerships for Workers (GROW) Act of 2005, H.R. 3304
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Social Security: What Would Happen if the Trust Funds Ran Out?
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Social Security Survivors Benefits
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Afghanistan: Drug Trafficking and the 2014 Transition
This report describes key U.S. counternarcotics programs in Afghanistan in the context of the 2014 transition and analyzes policy issues related to these programs for Congress to consider as policy makers examine the drug problem in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306535/
Congressional Review of Agency Rulemaking: A Brief Overview and Assessment After Five Years
This report will provide a brief explanation of how the review scheme was expected to operate and describe how it has in fact been utilized. The possible reasons for the limited use of the formal review mechanism thus far are assessed and congressional remedial proposals and other options are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1613/
Congressional Review of Agency Rulemaking: An Assessment After Nullification of OSHA's Ergonomics Standard
This report will provide a brief explanation of how the review scheme was expected to operate and describe how it has in fact been utilized. The possible reasons for the limited use of the formal review mechanism thus far are assessed and congressional remedial proposals and other options are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2566/
Congressional Review of Agency Rulemaking: An Update and Assessment After Nullification of OSHA's Ergonomics Standard
This report will provide a brief explanation of how the review scheme was expected to operate and describe how it has in fact been utilized. The possible reasons for the limited use of the review scheme thus far are assessed and congressional remedial proposals and other options are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4362/
Investigative Oversight: An Introduction to the Law, Practice and Procedure of Congressional Inquiry
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Investigative Oversight: An Introduction to the Law, Practice and Procedure of Congressional Inquiry
This report provides an overview of some of the more common legal, procedural, and practical issues, questions and problems that committees have faced in the courts of an oversight investigation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26092/
Line Item Veto: A Constitutional Analysis of Recent Proposals
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The New Vacancies Act: Congress Acts to Protect the Senate's Confirmation Prerogative
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs703/
Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments
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Border Security: Immigration Enforcement Between Ports of Entry
This report concludes by raising additional questions about future investments at the border, how to weigh such investments against other enforcement strategies, and the relationship between border enforcement and the broader debate about U.S. immigration policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84015/
Border Security: Immigration Enforcement Between Ports of Entry
This report reviews efforts to combat unauthorized migration across the Southwest border in the nearly three decades since the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) initiated the modern era in migration control, takes stock of the current state of border security, and considers lessons that may be learned about enhanced enforcement at U.S. borders. The report begins by reviewing the history of border control and the development of a national border control strategy beginning in the 1990s. The following sections summarize appropriations and resources dedicated to border enforcement, indicators of enforcement outcomes, metrics for estimating unauthorized migration flows, and possible secondary and unintended consequences of border enforcement. The report concludes by reviewing the overall costs and benefits of the current approach to migration control and raising additional questions that may help guide the discussion of these issues in the future.,5/ digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462138/
Interior Immigration Enforcement: Programs Targeting Criminal Aliens
This report begins by defining and quantifying the criminal alien population, to the extent possible. The following sections describe current and historical programs designed in whole or in part to target this population, including CAP, Secure Communities, the § 287(g) program, and NFOP. After describing how these programs function and key differences among them, the report reviews their recent appropriations history and enforcement statistics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83991/
Interior Immigration Enforcement: Programs Targeting Criminal Aliens
This report begins by defining and quantifying the criminal alien population, to the extent possible. The following sections describe current and historical programs designed in whole or in part to target this population, including the Criminal Alien Program (CAP), Secure Communities, the §287(g) program, and the National Fugitive Operations Program (NFOP). After describing how these programs function and key differences among them, the report reviews their recent appropriations history and enforcement statistics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462963/
Comprehensive Immigration Reform in the 113th Congress: Short Summary of Senate- Passed S. 744
Report that summarizes major immigration reform provisions of S. 744, as passed by the Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227866/
Border Security: Understanding Threats at U.S. Borders
This report focuses on the first major step in managing border-related risks: assessing the risk posed by different types of threats at U.S. borders. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462032/
Mexican Migration to the United States: Policy and Trends
History and geography have given Mexico a unique status in the U.S. immigration system, and have made the Mexico-U.S. migration flow the largest in the world. Mexicans are the largest group of U.S. migrants across most types of immigration statuses—a fact that may have important implications for how Congress makes U.S. immigration policy. This report reviews the history of immigration policy and migration flows between the countries and the demographics of Mexicans within the United States. It also analyzes contemporary issues in U.S. immigration policy and the impact Mexico may have on U.S. immigration outcomes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87242/
The Labor Market of the 1980s: Unemployment Omens in a Growing Economy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9616/
The Labor Market of the 1980s: Unemployment Omens in a Growing Economy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9607/
Drunk Driving: Should Each State Be Required to Enact a 0.08 Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Law?
At the 0.08 BAC level of alcohol, braking, steering, lane changing, and judgment are degraded and the driving performance of virtually all drivers is substantially impaired. During the debate on reauthorization of the federal surface transportation programs, an amendment that would require each state either to enact a 0.08 BAC law or face the loss of a portion of its Federal Highway Trust Fund monies passed the Senate and will likely be considered in the House. This proposal raises questions about the effectiveness and impacts of a 0.08 BAC law, the rights of states versus the federal government, and alternative ways to encourage the states to adopt stronger impaired driving countermeasures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs622/
Hazardous Materials Transportation: Vulnerability to Terrorists, Federal Activities, and Options to Reduce Risks
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6997/
Pipeline Security: Industry and Federal Efforts and Associated Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2679/
Security Threat Assessments for Hazmat Drivers
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Synthetic Fuels Corporation and National Synfuels Policy
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Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety - Federal Program and Legislative Issues
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Pipeline Safety: Federal Program and Reauthorization Issues
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Pipeline Safety: Federal Program and Reauthorization Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2682/
Y2K Challenges and Transportation: Risks and Solutions
Many companies or governmental entities provide or use transportation systems that are heavily dependent on computers, software, and other technologies that do not have Y2K problems, e.g., they are Y2K compliant or ready. Some transportation systems, however, still use technologies with Y2K problems, which if left uncorrected, could pose safety risks or efficiency concerns on or after January 1, 2000. The extent and nature of those impacts are expected to vary among the modes of transportation and among various providers or users. In addition, Y2K-related problems occurring in the communications and energy industries could reduce the safety and efficiency of some transportation systems in early January 2000. Operations at some foreign ports and international air traffic control systems with Y2K problems also could adversely affect shipments and flights into and out of the United States. The total amount that has been spent to assess and fix Y2K problems affecting transportation is not known, but estimates suggest that at least $1 billion of private sector, transit authority, and federal funds have been or will soon be allocated for that purpose. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1029/
Federal Railroad Safety Program and Reauthorization Issues
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