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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Renewable Fuel Standard: In Brief
This report provides a basic description of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), including some of the widely discussed issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272064/
Battery Manufacturing for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles: Policy Issues
This report examines the nascent battery manufacturing industry and considers efforts to strengthen U.S. capacity to manufacture batteries and battery components for hybrid and electric vehicles. It addresses the concern about an electric vehicle supply chain in the United States since manufacturers have brought hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and fully-electric vehicles to market. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99028/
Why Some Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Are Not Sold Domestically
Report that discusses reasons why some fuel-efficient vehicles are not sold in the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227780/
Accelerated Vehicle Retirement Programs in Japan and South Korea: Background for Congress
This report discusses the accelerated vehicle retirement (AVR) programs initiated in 2009 by the United States, Japan, South Korea, and other industrial nations (commonly known in the U.S. as the "cash for clunkers" program). The U.S. program began in June 2009, when President Obama signed the Consumer Assistance to Recycle and Save (CARS) Act. The report discusses how these various AVR programs affected the automobile industries in the U.S., Japan, and South Korea, specifically. Neither Japan nor South Korea imports large numbers of foreign vehicles, a circumstance not much altered by AVR program implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29618/
Policy Issues in the General Motors Vehicle Recall
This report discusses the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) process by which vehicle safety defects are identified and vehicles are recalled, as well as the impact that the 2009 GM bankruptcy may have on liability for this defect. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332919/
General Motors' Initial Public Offering: Review of Issues and Implications for TARP
This report analyzes the progress General Motors Company has made since it was created from the sale of the bankrupt Old GM in July 2009 and the major issues related to its anticipated 2010 initial public offering (IPO). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29605/
EPA's Proposed Vessel General Permits: Background and Issues
This report covers two proposed permit drafts by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regarding Vessel General Permits (VGPs): one for large vessels to replace the 2008 VGP (draft VGP), and one for smaller vessels that currently are covered by a congressionally-enacted temporary moratorium (draft sVGP). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96715/
Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Technology Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report gives an overview of the federal incentives support the development and deployment of alternatives to conventional fuels and engines in transportation including tax deductions and credits for vehicle purchases and the installation of refueling systems; federal grants for conversion of older vehicles to newer technologies; mandates for the use of biofuels; and incentives for manufacturers to produce alternative fuel vehicles. It also addresses how these incentives relate to goals of reducing petroleum consumption and import dependence, improving environmental quality, expanding domestic manufacturing, and promoting agriculture and rural development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87244/
Federalism Issues in Surface Transportation Policy: Past and Present
This report provides an historical perspective on contemporary federalism issues in surface transportation policy that are likely to be addressed by Congress during the 112th Congress, including possible devolution of programmatic responsibility to states and proposals to change state maintenance-of-effort requirements and state cost matching requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40072/
Transportation Spending and "Buy America" Requirements
This report discusses the Buy America Act, the popular name for a group of domestic content restrictions that have been attached to funds administered by the Department of Transportation (DOT). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282269/
Maritime Territorial Disputes in East Asia: Issues for Congress
This report presents policy and oversight issues for Congress arising from maritime territorial disputes involving East Asia, East China Sea (ECS), and an additional dispute over whether China has a right under international law to regulate U.S. and other foreign military activities in its maritime Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306520/
Extraterritorial Application of American Criminal Law
Crime is ordinarily proscribed, tried, and punished according to the laws of the place where it occurs. American criminal law applies beyond the geographical confines of the United States, however, under certain limited circumstances. A surprising number of federal criminal statutes have extraterritorial application, but prosecutions have been few. This may be because when extraterritorial criminal jurisdiction does exist, practical and legal complications, and sometimes diplomatic considerations, may counsel against its exercise. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29483/
Extraterritorial Application of American Criminal Law
Crime is ordinarily proscribed, tried, and punished according to the laws of the place where it occurs. American criminal law applies beyond the geographical confines of the United States, however, under certain limited circumstances. A surprising number of federal criminal statutes have extraterritorial application, but prosecutions have been few. This may be because when extraterritorial criminal jurisdiction does exist, practical and legal complications, and sometimes diplomatic considerations, may counsel against its exercise. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83803/
Airport Body Scanners: The Role of Advanced Imaging Technology in Airline Passenger Screening
This report looks at privacy and health issues, as well as effectiveness, of advanced imaging technology (AIT) scanners at airports deployed by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122258/
Changes in Airport Passenger Screening Technologies and Procedures: Frequently Asked Questions
This report contains answers to numerous questions regarding airport passenger screening. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103113/
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Reauthorization: An Overview of Legislative Action in the 112th Congress
This report looks at issues faced by the 112th Congress in regards to reauthorization of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) programs. The House has passed a bill which would authorize programs through FY2014, while the Senate's bill would only last until FY2011. The Senate's bill also proposes an increase in jet fuel tax for general aviation and a new jet fuel surcharge for fractionally owned air crafts. The report covers key issues that need to be addressed for reconciliation between the two bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93870/
Federal Civil Aviation Programs: An Overview
This report focuses on Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Department of Transportation (DOT) civil aviation programs addressed in the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-95), enacted on February 14, 2012, which authorizes AATF taxes and revenue collections and civil aviation program expenditures through FY2015. Programs for these agencies are funded primarily through a special trust fund, the airport and airways trust fund (AATF), and, in part, through general fund contributions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122272/
Federal Civil Aviation Programs: In Brief
This report discusses the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) programs and activities are funded under four broad budget accounts: operations and maintenance (such as air traffic control and aviation safety functions); facilities and equipment (such as control towers and navigation beacons); grants for airport improvements under the airports improvement program (AIP); and civil aviation research and development conducted or sponsored by FAA. Additionally, aviation programs fund aviation programs administered by the Department of Transportation (DOT) Office of the Secretary, including the Essential Air Service Program that subsidizes airline service to certain small and isolated communities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272035/
Screening and Securing Air Cargo: Background and Issues for Congress
The October 2010 discovery of two explosive devices being prepared for loading on U.S.-bound all-cargo aircraft overseas has heightened concerns over the potential use of air cargo shipments to bomb passenger and all-cargo aircraft. This incident renewed congressional interest in air cargo security. This report discusses a number of policy issues that may arise regarding air cargo security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31389/
The Army's Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information on the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) and it discusses the Army's proposed replacement to the Vietnam-era M-113 personnel carriers, which are still in service in a variety of support capacities in Armored Brigade Combat Teams (ABCTs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272055/
The Army's Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information on the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) and it discusses the Army's proposed replacement to the Vietnam-era M-113 personnel carriers, which are still in service in a variety of support capacities in Armored Brigade Combat Teams (ABCTs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227939/
The Army's Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information on the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) and it discusses the Army's proposed replacement to the Vietnam-era M-113 personnel carriers, which are still in service in a variety of support capacities in Armored Brigade Combat Teams (ABCTs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306499/
Surface Transportation Funding and Finance
This report discusses changes in funding to the national surface transportation infrastructure, especially in light of the recession that began in 2007, which led to decreases in driving and fuel use. This report focuses on possible revenue sources for surface transportation infrastructure. It begins with a brief discussion of the problems associated with the trust fund financing system and then explores possible immediate and longer-term solutions to the financing problem. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29595/
Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund Expenditures
In 1986, the Harbor Maintenance Tax (HMT) was enacted to fund U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (USACE or the Corps) activities related to the routine operation and maintenance (O&M) of harbors, namely the dredging of harbor channels to their authorized depths and widths. Economic and equity issues related to HMT expenditures and collections are the main focus of this report. Before analyzing these issues, the report reviews the legislative history of the tax and legal challenges to it, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative funding mechanisms, and describes the commercial context of current dredging activity. The last section identifies legislation related to harbor maintenance funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31466/
Status of Mexican Trucks in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions
This report answers frequently asked questions regarding the current plan to permit Mexican trucks into the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40163/
U.S. Rail Transportation of Crude Oil: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the challenges in the transportation of oil, as refineries that once received crude oil principally from oceangoing tankers are now seeing increasing deliveries by domestic transport. It also outlines possible issues for Congress including rail transport of oil versus pipelines, and the possible increase of oil spills from rail transport. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276861/
U.S. Rail Transportation of Crude Oil: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the challenges in the transportation of oil, as refineries that once received crude oil principally from oceangoing tankers are now seeing increasing deliveries by domestic transport. It also outlines possible issues for Congress including rail transport of oil versus pipelines, and the possible increase of oil spills from rail transport. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306472/
F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the past four years of administration proposals to terminate the program to develop the General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136 engine as an alternative to the Pratt & Whitney F135 engine that currently powers the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF). These proposals have been continually rejected by Congress. The Obama Administration's FY2011 budget submission against proposes to terminate the program. This report explores both sides of the termination argument. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31353/
F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
The administration's proposal to terminate the alternate engine program for the F-35 Lightning II fighter is a significant issue for Congress in FY2012, with implications for the defense budget, military capability in the future, and the division of power between Congress and the executive branch. This report discusses these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31467/
F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
On December 2, 2011, General Electric and Rolls-Royce announced that they were ending development of the F136 alternate engine for the F-35, ending what had been a contentious and long-running battle of funding versus research and development. This report discusses issues of having only one engine supplier for the F-35, as well as funding issues for the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87152/
F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the past four years of administration proposals to terminate the program to develop the General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136 engine as an alternative to the Pratt & Whitney F135 engine that currently powers the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF). These proposals have been continually rejected by Congress. The Obama Administration's FY2011 budget submission against proposes to terminate the program. This report explores both sides of the termination argument. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83940/
F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the past four years of administration proposals to terminate the program to develop the General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136 engine as an alternative to the Pratt & Whitney F135 engine that currently powers the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF). These proposals have been continually rejected by Congress. The Obama Administration's FY2011 budget submission against proposes to terminate the program. This report explores both sides of the termination argument. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40091/
F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program
This report provides background on the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program and discusses spending during FY2014 and the proposed budget for FY 2015. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306493/
Waste, Fraud, and Abuse in Agency Travel Card Programs
The Travel and Transportation Reform Act of 1998 required federal employees to use travel charge cards to pay for the expenses of official government travel. The dollar volume of travel card transaction has nearly doubled from FY1999 to FY2009. This report discusses card misuse committed by federal employees, and Congress's response, which has included hearings and legislation intended to enhance travel card management and oversight. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31337/
Waste, Fraud, and Abuse in Agency Travel Card Programs
This report discusses travel card misuse committed by federal employees, as well as Congressional response, which has included hearings and legislation intended to enhance travel card management and oversight. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103058/
Iran's Threat to the Strait of Hormuz
Some officials of the Islamic Republic of Iran have recently renewed threats to close or exercise control over the Strait of Hormuz. This report explains Iranian threats to the Strait of Hormuz, and analyzes the implications of some scenarios for potential U.S. or international conflict with Iran, which include: outright closure of the Strait, harassment and/or infrastructure damage, and continued threat. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87201/
Emergency Relief for Disaster Damaged Roads and Transit Systems: In Brief
This report describes Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) assistance for the repair and reconstruction of highways and bridges damaged by disasters (such as Hurricane Sandy in 2012) or catastrophic failures (such as the collapse of the Skagit River Bridge in 2013). It begins with a brief discussion of the legislative origins of federal assistance and then addresses eligibility issues and program operation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276855/
Emergency Relief Program: Federal-Aid Highway Assistance for Disaster-Damaged Roads and Bridges
Report that looks at the eligibility of major highways and bridges recently damaged by Hurricanes Sandy and Irene to receive Emergency Relief Program assistance from the Federal Highway Administration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227819/
Federal-Aid Highway Program (FAHP): An Overview
This report looks at how the Federal-Aid Highway Program (FAHP) works, including its funding and administration by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122276/
Funding and Financing Highways and Public Transportation
This report begins with a discussion of the problems associated with the trust fund financing system (which supports both federal highway and public transportation programs) and then explores possible options for financing surface transportation infrastructure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227843/
Highway Bridge Conditions: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the nation's transportation infrastructure in general, and in particular the federal role in funding, building, maintaining, and ensuring the safety of roads and especially bridges in the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272046/
Federal Public Transportation Program: An Overview
Report that provides an introduction to the Federal Public Transportation Program (FPTP). Includes a brief background of public transportation as well as FPTP's funding, expenses, and structure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227803/
Federal Public Transportation Program: In Brief
This report provides an introduction to the Federal Public Transportation Program (FPTP). Includes a brief background of public transportation as well as FPTP's funding, expenses, and structure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272032/
Federal Support for Streetcars: Frequently Asked Questions
This report answers some frequently asked questions about streetcars and federal involvement in their construction and operation. It concludes by laying out policy options for Congress in dealing with streetcars. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306475/
Highway and Public Transportation Infrastructure Provision Using Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)
This report discusses two broad policy options for Congress as it considers reauthorizing federal surface transportation programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284451/
Earthquake Risk and U.S. Highway Infrastructure: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses frequently asked questions about the risk from earthquakes to highway systems, including bridges, tunnels, pavements, and other highway components. Particular attention is given to highway bridges, which often are the most vulnerable highway structures. The report also discusses federal and nonfederal actions to reduce seismic risk to the U.S. highway system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99050/
Piracy: A Legal Definition
Pirate attacks in the waters off the Horn of Africa, including those on U.S.-flagged vessels, have brought continued U.S. and international attention to the long-standing problem of piracy in the region. A recent development in one of the piracy trials in Norfolk, VA, has highlighted a potential limitation in the definition of piracy under the United States Code. This report first examines the historical development of the offense of piracy, as defined by Congress and codified in the United States Code. The focus then turns to how contemporary international agreements define piracy. Finally, the report highlights a recent federal district court ruling that the offense of piracy under 18 U.S.C. ยง 1651 requires a robbery at sea. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29617/
Cars, Trucks, and Climate: EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases from Mobile Sources
As Congress and the Administration considered new legislation to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change over the last year and a half (a process that has now stalled), the Environmental Protection Agency simultaneously began to exercise its existing authority under the Clean Air Act to set standards for GHG emissions. The Administration has made clear that its preference would be for Congress to address the climate issue through new legislation. Nevertheless, it is moving forward on several fronts to define how the Clean Air Act will be used and to promulgate regulations. This report covers the steps that the Administration is taking on this topic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93816/
Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies (THUD): FY2013 Appropriations
This report looks at Congress's FY2013 budget allocations for the Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies (THUD) appropriations subcommittee. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93942/
Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's programs for procuring 8 National Security Cutters (NSCs), 25 Offshore Patrol Cutters (OPCs), and 58 Fast Response Cutters (FRCs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272030/
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