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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Numerical Limits on Employment-Based Immigration: Analysis of the Per-Country Ceilings
The report opens with brief explanations of the employment-based preference categories and the per-country ceilings governing annual admissions of LPRs. The focus is on the major employment-based preference categories. The report continues with a statistical analysis of the pending caseload of approved employment-based LPR petitions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83988/
Overview of Immigration Issues in the 112th Congress
This report synthesizes immigration issues as a multi-tiered debate. It breaks down the U.S. immigration law and policy into key elements: border control and visa security; legal immigration; documentation and verification; interior immigration enforcement; integration, status, and benefits; and refugees and other humanitarian populations. This report also delineates the debate in the 112th Congress for a range of issues, including border security, criminal aliens, and worksite enforcement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33030/
Overview of Immigration Issues in the 112th Congress
This report synthesizes immigration issues as a multi-tiered debate. It breaks down the U.S. immigration law and policy into key elements: border control and visa security; legal immigration; documentation and verification; interior immigration enforcement; integration, status, and benefits; and refugees and other humanitarian populations. This report also delineates the debate in the 112th Congress for a range of issues, including border security, criminal aliens, and worksite enforcement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87171/
Toward More Effective Immigration Policies: Selected Organizational Issues
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Toward More Effective Immigration Policies: Selected Organizational Issues
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U.S. Immigration Policy on Temporary Admissions
This report begins with a discussion of the policy tensions surrounding temporary admissions. It follows with a synthesis of the nonimmigrant categories according to the purpose of the visa. It discusses the periods of admission and length of stay and then summarizes grounds for inadmissibility and removal as well as reasons for termination of status. It also describes the circumstances under which nonimmigrants may work in the United States. The second portion of the report analyzes trends in temporary migration. It describes changes over time in nonimmigrant visas issued and nonimmigrant admissions. Various data on nonimmigrants who establish residence in the United States are also discussed. The report concludes with two detailed tables analyzing key admissions requirements across all nonimmigrant visa types. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99079/
Unauthorized Aliens Residing in the United States: Estimates Since 1986
This report discusses a rise in the unauthorized resident ("illegal") alien population from 1986 to 2010. It looks at reasons that illegal aliens stay resort to breaking the law and how illegal aliens affect the workforce in certain industries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94099/
Visa Issuances: Policy, Issues, and Legislation
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Visa Issuances: Policy, Issues, and Legislation
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Visa Issuances: Policy, Issues, and Legislation
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Visa Issuances: Policy, Issues, and Legislation
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Visa Issuances: Policy, Issues, and Legislation
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Visa Issuances: Policy, Issues, and Legislation
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Visa Issuances: Policy, Issues, and Legislation
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Runaway and Homeless Youth: Legislative Issues
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Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues
When civil unrest, violence, or natural disasters erupt in spots around the world, concerns arise over the safety of foreign nationals residing in the United States who are from these troubled places. Provisions exist in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) to offer temporary protected status (TPS) or relief from removal under specified circumstances. A foreign national who is granted TPS receives a registration document and an employment authorization for the duration of TPS. The United States currently provides TPS or deferred enforced departure (DED) to over 300,000 foreign nationals from a total of eight countries: El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Somalia, Sudan, and most recently Southern Sudan and Syria. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85481/
Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues
When civil unrest, violence, or natural disasters erupt in spots around the world, concerns arise over the safety of nationals from these troubled places who are in the United States. Provisions exist in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) to offer temporary protected status (TPS) or relief from removal under specified circumstances. The United States currently provides TPS to nationals from seven countries: Burundi, El Salvador, Honduras, Liberia, Nicaragua, Somalia, and Sudan. Under the INA, the executive branch grants TPS. Congress, however, has also granted TPS legislatively, and legislation pertaining to TPS has received action in the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10563/
The Availability of Judicial Review Regarding Military Base Closures and Realignments
The 2005 round of military base realignments and closures (BRAC) is now underway. The Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990 (Base Closure Act), as amended, establishes mandatory procedures to be followed throughout the BRAC process and identifies criteria to be used in formulating BRAC recommendations. However, judicial review is unlikely to be available to remedy alleged failures to comply with the Base Closure Act’s provisions. This report includes a synopsis of the relevant law regarding the availability of judicial review in this context. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7690/
Optional Federal Chartering for Insurers: Major Interest Groups
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Terrorism Risk Insurance: An Overview
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Costs of Government Interventions in Response to the Financial Crisis: A Retrospective
This report presents how much the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) ultimately cost (or benefited) the taxpayers based on straightforward cash accounting as reported by the various agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284480/
International Criminal Court and the Rome Statute: 2010 Review Conference
This report is a summary of the 2010 International Criminal Court (ICC) Review Conference in which several countries discuss political and legal ramifications of the ICC. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103148/
U.S. International Broadcasting: Background and Issues for Reform
This report discusses the United States International Broadcasting Act of 1994 (USIB Act) and the U.S. international broadcasting services were consolidated under the BBG within the United States Information Agency (USIA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306503/
Breastfeeding and Jury Duty: State Laws, Court Rules, and Related Issues
The fact that a state, a court system, or a single court does not have a law, rule, or formally written procedure does not necessarily mean that a breastfeeding mother will be compelled to serve on a jury. It appears that a general “medical exception” from jury duty may be applicable to breastfeeding mothers in some instances, and local practice and custom may influence an excuse or deferral from jury duty. It appears that many of the decisions concerning a nursing mother’s excuse or deferral from jury duty are handled on a case-by-case basis by the individual courts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7790/
Breastfeeding: Federal Legislation
There has been significant growth in the practice of breastfeeding in recent years. As a result, Congress and numerous state legislatures have considered various proposals concerning different aspects of breastfeeding. Through appropriations legislation, Congress has repeatedly affirmed a mother’s right to breastfeed on federal property or in a federal building, if the mother and child are authorized to be in that location. This practice was most recently affirmed in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7786/
Paleontological Resources Preservation Act: Proposal for the Management and Protection of Fossil Resources Located on Federal Lands
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The World Bank's Clean Technology Fund (CTF)
The United States Treasury has led efforts to create a $10 billion Clean Technology Fund (CTF), located at the World Bank, to help fund deployment of clean technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing economies. The Bush administration has asked Congress to authorize and appropriate U.S. funding of $2 billion over three years (FY2009 to FY2011). While many Members of Congress have expressed support for the CTF, others have raised concerns, primarily with respect to whether the CTF should finance carbon-based energy projects. To date, Congress has not passed legislation authorizing or appropriating U.S. contributions to the Fund. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10826/
Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress
On March 19, 2003, the House of Representatives passed H.R. 975, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2003. H.R. 975, as introduced, was substantially similar to the legislation (H.R. 333) approved by both the House and the Senate during the 107th Congress, but omitted the Schumer Amendment which would have prevented the discharge of liability for willful violation of protective orders and violent protests against providers of “lawful services,” including reproductive health services. As passed by the House, H.R. 975 was amended to add sections to, among other things, increase the cap on wage and employee benefit claims. The Senate did not consider H.R. 975 during the first session of the 108th Congress. This report provides an overview of selected major provisions of the legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5902/
Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress
On February 27, 2003, House Judiciary Chairman James Sensenbrenner introduced H.R. 975, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2003. Subcommittee hearings were held on March 4, and the legislation was marked-up and ordered to be reported by the full committee on March 12. This report provides an overview of selected major provisions of the legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4657/
Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress
On March 19, 2003, the House of Representatives passed H.R. 975, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2003. H.R. 975, as introduced, was substantially similar to the legislation (H.R. 333) approved by both the House and the Senate during the 107th Congress, but omitted the Schumer Amendment which would have prevented the discharge of liability for willful violation of protective orders and violent protests against providers of “lawful services,” including reproductive health services. As passed by the House, H.R. 975 was amended to add sections to, among other things, increase the cap on wage and employee benefit claims. The Senate did not consider H.R. 975 during the first session of the 108th Congress. This report provides an overview of selected major provisions of the legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4658/
Bankruptcy Reform in the 108th Congress
On March 19, 2003, the House of Representatives passed H.R. 975, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2003. H.R. 975, as introduced, was substantially similar to the legislation (H.R. 333) approved by both the House and the Senate during the 107th Congress, but omitted the Schumer Amendment which would have prevented the discharge of liability for willful violation of protective orders and violent protests against providers of “lawful services,” including reproductive health services. As passed by the House, H.R. 975 was amended to add sections to, among other things, increase the cap on wage and employee benefit claims. The Senate did not consider H.R. 975 during the first session of the 108th Congress. This report provides an overview of selected major provisions of the legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4659/
The Constitutionality of Including the Phrase "Under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance
On October 14, 2003, the Supreme Court granted certiorari in the appeal regarding the California statute, and on June 14, 2004, the Court reversed the Ninth Circuit’s decision finding that Newdow lacked standing to challenge the school district’s policy in federal court. This report summarizes the facts of the case, the opinions that have been rendered, congressional action, and the appeal to the Supreme Court. It will be updated as circumstances warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6131/
Copyright Protection of Digital Television: The "Broadcast Flag"
This report addresses the adoption of a “broadcast flag” system by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to protect digital television (DTV) broadcasts from unauthorized redistribution. The report also addresses the recent decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit reversing and vacating the FCC’s broadcast flag report and order. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7772/
Employer Liability Provisions in Selected Patient Protection Bills
In the various patient protection bills introduced in the 106th (H.R. 5628, S.Amdt. 3694, H.R. 2990) and to date in the 107th (H.R. 526, H.R. 2315, H.R. 2563, S. 889, S. 1052), Congress has attempted to address the issue of employer liability by limiting liability to certain persons or circumstances. This report provides an overview of the employer liability provisions of selected bills from the 106th and 107th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1856/
Employer Liability Provisions in Selected Patient Protection Bills
In the various patient protection bills introduced in the 106th (H.R. 5628, S.Amdt. 3694, H.R. 2990) and to date in the 107th (H.R. 526, H.R. 2315, H.R. 2563, S. 889, S. 1052), Congress has attempted to address the issue of employer liability by limiting liability to certain persons or circumstances. This report provides an overview of the employer liability provisions of selected bills from the 106th and 107th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5107/
Fair Credit Reporting Act: Preemption of State Law
As financial privacy issues are debated in Congress, numerous questions about the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) have emerged. Enacted in 1970, the Fair Credit Reporting Act is the federal statute that establishes a regulatory framework for credit reporting in the United States and establishes a consumer’s rights with respect to his or her credit report. This report attempts to answer frequently asked questions about the Fair Credit Reporting Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4074/
Federal and State Causes of Action Against Health Plans Under S. 1052 and S. 889
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Federal and State Isolation and Quarantine Authority
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Identity Theft and the Fair Credit Reporting Act: An Analysis of
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Identity Theft and the Fair Credit Reporting Act: An Analysis of
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Identity Theft and the Fair Credit Reporting Act: An Analysis of
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Information Brokers: Federal and State Laws
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The Law of Church and State: Opinions of Judge Samuel Alito
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The Law of Church and State: Selected Opinions of Justice O'Connor
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Managed Care and State External Review Statutes
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Mandatory Vaccinations: Precedent and Current Laws
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Remedies Available to Victims of Identity Theft
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Remedies Available to Victims of Identity Theft
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Remedies Available to Victims of Identity Theft
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Remedies Available to Victims of Identity Theft
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