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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Suits Against Terrorist States
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Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term
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Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term
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Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, October 1983 Term
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The Religious Freedom Amendment: H.J. Res. 78, As Reported by the House Judiciary Committee
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Trade Legislation in the 106th Congress: An Overview
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Trade Legislation in the 106th Congress: An Overview
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Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) Negotiations
This report provides: (1) context for the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations; (2) analysis of possible trade and investment issues in the negotiations; and (3) discussion of issues for Congress. The U.S.-EU negotiations on TTIP are not public, however, the information and analysis in this report on issues in the negotiations are based on publicly-available information. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282290/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization Legislation: An Overview
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English as the Official Language of the United States: An Overview
This report provides background on contemporary efforts to declare English the official language, a review of selected issues raised by official English proposals in Congress, and a summary of arguments that have been advanced in favor of and in opposition to such proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs403/
Congressional Gifts and Travel: Legislative Proposals for the 109th Congress
The House and Senate examined their rules on the acceptance of gifts and travel expenses. Press accounts of alleged excesses in privately funded congressional travel and gifts, particularly from lobbyists, have provided an impetus for proposed changes in the 109th Congress. This report provides an analysis of the proposals for change introduced or discussed in the 109th Congress and will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8345/
Common Legal Questions and Answers Concerning Currency, Legal Tender and Money
This report answers common legal questions relating to currency, legal tender, and money. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9034/
An Economic Analysis and Brief Legislative Overview of Usury Ceilings
This report gives an economic analysis of usury ceilings, laws which set the maximum legal rate of interest to be charged on particular types of loans. It provides a brief overview of recent Federal l e g i s l a t i o n dealing with usury, with special emphasis on the Federal authorities mandated by P.L. 96-221, and the effectiveness of Federal preemption of State usury laws. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8157/
Department of Defense Facilities Energy Conservation Policies and Spending
This report reviews energy conservation legislation and Executive Orders that apply to the Department of Defense, directives and instructions to the military departments and agencies on implementing the legislation and orders, Defense spending on facility energy over the last decade, annual Defense appropriations that fund energy-conservation improvements, and Defense energy conservation investments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86537/
The Northeast Heating Oil Supply, Demand, and Factors Affecting Its Use
This report discusses the United States' exports and imports of refined petroleum products and a number of factors that may contribute to the nation's declining demand for heating oil. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306473/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas
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Vocational Education: Legislation to Reauthorize the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Analysis of Changes Made by P.L. 108-446
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Interactions with Selected Provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA)
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Interactions with Selected Provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA)
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Overview of Major Provisions
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Selected Changes that Would be Made to the Law by S. 1248, 108th Congress
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International Criminal Court Cases in Africa: Status and Policy Issues
The International Criminal Court (ICC) has, to date, opened cases exclusively in Africa. Cases concerning 25 individuals are open before the Court, pertaining to crimes allegedly committed in six African states: Libya, Kenya, Sudan (Darfur), Uganda (the Lord's Resistance Army, LRA), the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Central African Republic. This report provides background on current ICC cases and examines issues raised by the ICC's actions in Africa. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94168/
International Criminal Court Cases in Africa: Status and Policy Issues
The International Criminal Court (ICC) has, to date, opened cases exclusively in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Statute of the ICC, also known as the Rome Statute, entered into force on July 1, 2002, and established a permanent, independent Court to investigate and bring to justice individuals who commit war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. As of October 2010, 114 countries-including 31 African countries, the largest regional block-were parties to the Statute. The United States is not a party. This report provides background on current ICC cases and examines issues raised by the ICC's actions in Africa. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33072/
Sport Hunting in Alaska
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Black and Hispanic Federal Judges: 1900 to Present
This report shows that in recent years, attention has increasingly focused upon the minority composition of the Federal judiciary, in apparent response to concerns that judges appointed to the Federal bench should more compositely reflect the U.S. population they serve. Two of the larger U.S. subpopulations served by the Federal judiciary are blacks and Hispanics. Accordingly, this mini brief lists chronologically and cumulatively the appointments of blacks and Hispanics to the Federal bench, which includes the U.S.Supreme Court, Circuit Courts of Appeals, and District courts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8861/
Parental Notification for Family Planning Services: Title X Regulations
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Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)
The agencies that implement the Endangered Species Act (ESA) regard the designation of critical habitat (CH) as providing only very limited benefits beyond those achieved through the listing of species and the avoidance of jeopardy to them. Several courts have now held that the relevant regulation and interpretation that result in this conclusion are erroneous and do not carry out the intent of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10094/
The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3771/
The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1406/
The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Background and Current Law
This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10071/
The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Current Law and Legislative Proposals
This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3772/
Federal Land Management: Appeals and Litigation
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Habitat Modification and the Endangered Species Act: The
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Overview of NEPA Requirements
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The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act
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The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)
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The "Timber Rider": Section 2001 of the Rescissions Act
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Endangered Species Act Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 and H.R. 2351
Because of wide-spread interest in possible amendments to the Endangered Species Act (ESA), CRS has received numerous requests for an analysis and critique of S.1180 and H.R. 2351. This report analyzes those bills. HR. 2351 was introduced on July 31, 1997 and S. 1180 on September 16, 1997. Each bill is discussed under various topic headings. The Senate bill will be described first, since it has been reported. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs530/
The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"
This report provides a context for evaluating legislative proposals through examples of how science has been used in selected cases, a discussion of the nature and role of science in general, and its role in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) process in particular, together with general and agency information quality requirements and policies, and a review of how the courts have viewed agency use of science. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2155/
The Endangered Species Act: A Primer
The Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 receives significant congressional attention. The associated power and reach of its comprehensive protection for species identified as endangered or threatened with extinction has ignited concern that there be appropriate bounds on this power. The following discussion provides an overview and background on the various features of the ESA that contribute to its stature and yet spark an ongoing debate over its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9669/
The Endangered Species Act: A Primer
The Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 receives significant congressional attention. The associated power and reach of its comprehensive protection for species identified as endangered or threatened with extinction has ignited concern that there be appropriate bounds on this power. The following discussion provides an overview and background on the various features of the ESA that contribute to its stature and yet spark an ongoing debate over its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9678/
Energy Policy: Conceptual Framework and Continuing Issues
In the spring of 2006, crude oil prices were exceeding $70/barrel (bbl) in response to tight markets and uncertainty over the security of world oil supply. A number of developments have placed additional pressure on world markets, including Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (in late August and late September 2005), the phaseout of the gasoline additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and a renewable fuels mandate, and a continuing high and worldwide demand for oil. Energy policy issues for continuing interest include opening up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for leasing; Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (CAFE) for passenger vehicles; improving U.S. energy infrastructure, including pipelines and refineries; seeking effective means to promote energy conservation using currently available technologies, and developing new technologies and alternative fuels. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10448/
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: History, Perspectives, and Issues
This report offers a brief history of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. It discusses the establishment of a regional home heating oil reserve and addresses the question when the SPR should be used. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94026/
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: History, Perspectives, and Issues
This report discusses the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA, P.L. 94-163), which is intended to help prevent a repetition of the economic dislocation caused by the 1973-1974 Arab oil embargo. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98062/
Energy Policy: Historical Overview, Conceptual Framework, and Continuing Issues
Energy policy issues of continuing interest include whether or not to open up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for leasing; settlement upon a pipeline route to allow production of Alaskan natural gas; access to public lands for energy exploration and development; restructuring of the electric utility industry to encourage competition and consumer choice; raising corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for motor vehicles; seeking effective means to promote energy conservation using currently available technologies; and development of new technologies and alternative fuels. This report discusses those major policy approaches, provides a conceptual framework for categorizing energy policy proposals, and briefly describes issues that remain current in the debates over energy policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7840/
Energy Policy: Setting the Stage for the Current Debate
The Bush Administration issued its plan for a national energy policy on May 16, 2001. The plan was controversial, characterized by some as leaner on conservation and renewables than Democratic proposals, and predisposed to trade off environmental considerations to increase supply. Comprehensive energy legislation was introduced in the Senate by both parties by late March (S. 388, S. 389, S. 596, S. 597). Bills reported by several House committees (H.R. 2436, H.R. 2460, H.R. 2511, and H.R. 2587) were combined in a single bill, H.R. 4, passed by the House, August 1, 2001. The House version of H.R. 4 would require a 5 billion gallon reduction in light-duty truck and SUV fuel consumption and would open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to leasing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2647/
Energy Policy: Setting the Stage for the Current Debate
The Bush Administration issued its plan for a national energy policy on May 16, 2001. Comprehensive energy legislation was introduced in the Senate by both parties by late March (S. 388, S. 389, S. 596, S. 597). Bills reported by several House committees (H.R. 2436, H.R. 2460, H.R. 2511, and H.R. 2587) were combined in a single bill, H.R. 4, passed by the House, August 1, 2001. The bill includes provisions that would require a reduction in light-duty truck and SUV fuel consumption, and would open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to leasing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1660/
Energy Policy: Setting the Stage for the Current Debate
The Bush Administration issued its plan for a national energy policy on May 16, 2001. The plan was controversial, characterized by some as leaner on conservation and renewables than Democratic proposals, and predisposed to trade off environmental considerations to increase supply. Comprehensive energy legislation was introduced in the Senate by both parties by late March (S. 388, S. 389, S. 596, S. 597). Bills reported by several House committees (H.R. 2436, H.R. 2460, H.R. 2511, and H.R. 2587) were combined in a single bill, H.R. 4, passed by the House, August 1, 2001. The House version of H.R. 4 would require a 5 billion gallon reduction in light-duty truck and SUV fuel consumption and would open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to leasing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2652/