You limited your search to:

 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8639/
The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5101/
The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1849/
Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers
The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29491/
Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers
The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29490/
Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers
The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26088/
Immigration: The Labor Market Effects of a Guest Worker Program for U.S. Farmers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9094/
An Information Technology Labor Shortage? Legislation in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1974/
The Labor Market during the Great Depression and the Current Recession
This report analyzes the labor market experiences of workers during the 1930s, which encompassed the almost five years of the Great Depression. Because it was a period very distant and different from today, considerable time is devoted to examining the employment and unemployment measures available at that time. The report ends by comparing the labor market conditions of the 1930s with those encountered by workers thus far during the recession that began in December 2007. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26169/
Leave Benefits in the United States
This report begins by reviewing the federal statutes that pertain directly or indirectly to employer provision of leave benefits for any purpose, including a discussion of the California and New Jersey family leave insurance programs. The report than examines the incidence of different types of paid leave that U.S. employers voluntarily provide as part of an employee's total compensation (wages and benefits). The report closes with results from a federal government survey of the average direct cost to business of different types of leave. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26263/
The Male-Female Wage Gap: A Fact Sheet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1262/
Offshoring (a.k.a. Offshore Outsourcing) and Job Insecurity Among U.S. Workers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6122/
Offshoring (a.k.a. Offshore Outsourcing) and Job Insecurity Among U.S. Workers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6480/
A Shortage of Registered Nurses: Is It on the Horizon or Already Here?
The largest traditionally female-dominated health care occupation is registered nurses (RNs). It has been asserted that there is an ongoing nationwide shortage of RNs of various kinds and in various sectors of the health care services industry. Before the latest (mid-2002) release of supply-demand projections from the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), it was estimated, based in whole or part on 1996 HRSA projections, that there would likely be a shortage of RNs in 2007 or shortly thereafter. This report first will analyze recent trends in the RN labor market and then examine HRSA’s new projections, which moved up the date of an RN shortage to 2000. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3260/
A Shortage of Registered Nurses: Is It on the Horizon or Already Here?
The largest, traditionally female-dominated health care occupation is registered nurses (RNs). It has been asserted that there are too few RNs available today to meet employers’ needs, that is, there is a shortage of nurses at the present time. It also has been estimated that there could well be a shortage of RNs in the not-too-distant future. This report will analyze the labor market conditions facing RNs and their employers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1872/
Tax Treatment of Employer Educational Assistance for the Benefit of Employees
Educational assistance offered by employers to their employees may be exempt from federal income tax under Section 127 and Section 132 of the Internal Revenue Code. Section 127 is the employer educational assistance exclusion; Section 132, the fringe benefit exclusion for working condition benefits (e.g., job-related eduction) among other benefits. Congress established the two tax provisions well before it enacted to her higher education tax benefits meant to assist taxpayers, their spouses, and dependents -- regardless of employment status -- pay current educational expenses incurred while obtaining postsecondary degrees and undertaking lifelong learning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10765/
The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN)
Congress has passed legislation to facilitate the reemployment of workers who through no fault of their own are let go by their employers. Among these laws is the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act, P.L. 100-379, enacted in 1988. This report discusses the WARN Act in brief, especially as related to Congress's renewed interest in the Act due to the current financial crises and recession. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26202/
The Workforce Investment Act (WIA): Program-by-Program Overview and FY2007 Funding of Title I Training Programs
Title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) (P.L. 105-220) authorizes several job training programs, including Youth, Adult, and Dislocated Worker Activities, Job Corps, the Native American Program, the Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Program, and the Veterans’ Workforce Investment Program. This report briefly summarizes each WIA program, the FY2007 budget request, and for comparison, the FY2006 appropriation (P.L. 109-149). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9968/
The Workforce Investment Act (WIA): Program-by-Program Overview and FY2007 Funding of Title I Training Programs
Title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) (P.L. 105-220) authorizes several job training programs, including Youth, Adult, and Dislocated Worker Activities, Job Corps, the Native American Program, the Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Program, and the Veterans’ Workforce Investment Program. This report briefly summarizes each WIA program, the FY2007 budget request, and for comparison, the FY2006 appropriation (P.L. 109-149). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9992/
Prevailing Wage Requirements and the Emergency Suspension of the Davis-Bacon Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7666/
Coal Excise Tax Refunds: United States v. Clintwood Elkhorn Mining Co.
In 1998, a U.S. district court held that the imposition of the coal excise tax, or black lung excise tax, on coal destined for export was unconstitutional. The process of refunding the tax has been controversial. This is because some coal producers and exporters have attempted to bypass the limitations in the Internal Revenue Code's refund scheme for bringing suit under the Export Clause in the Court of Federal Claims, seeking damages from the United States in the amount of coal excise taxes paid. The Federal Circuit Court of Appeals held the court had jurisdiction under the Tucker Act to hear the suits and allowed them as an alternative to the Code's refund process. However, in a 2008 decision, United States v. Clintwood Elkhorn Mining Co., the Supreme Court unanimously held that taxpayers must comply with the Code's administrative refund process before bringing suit. Meanwhile, H.R. 1762 and S. 373 would provide an alternative method for taxpayers to receive coal excise tax refunds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10743/
Flexible Spending Accounts and Medical Savings Accounts: A Comparison
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5003/
Flexible Spending Accounts and Medical Savings Accounts: A Comparison
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5002/
Flexible Spending Accounts and Medical Savings Accounts: A Comparison
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3130/
Flexible Spending Accounts and Medical Savings Accounts: A Comparison
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3129/
Flexible Spending Accounts and Medical Savings Accounts: A Comparison
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3128/
Vietnam's Labor Rights Regime: An Assessment
Report regarding Vietnam that gives context to a bilateral trade agreement under consideration by the U.S. Congress. From the summary: "This report details Vietnam's law and policy in six areas of labor rights: the right of association/collective bargaining; forced labor; child labor; health and safety; wages, hours and welfare benefits; and discrimination. This report also provides international context by contrasting the Vietnamese and Chinese labor rights regimes." Includes an appendix of Vietnamese labor laws (p. 37) digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3540/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9545/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9878/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10169/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8352/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. Many in the scientific community maintain that in order to compete with countries that are rapidly expanding their scientific and technological capabilities, the country needs to bring to the United States those whose skills will benefit society and will enable us to compete in the new-technology based global economy. This report analyzes this issue in detail and includes discussion of related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26122/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report explains this issue in detail, as well as probable causes of said incongruity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10524/
Homeland Security: Data on Employees and Unions Potentially Affected
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4633/
Homeland Security: Data on Employees and Unions Potentially Affected
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2802/
Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9751/
Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9317/
Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6667/
Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5787/
Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4129/
Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6517/
Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2377/
Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2376/
Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4128/
Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response
Trafficking in people for prostitution and forced labor is one of the most prolific areas of international criminal activity and is of significant concern to the United States and the international community. The overwhelming majority of those trafficked are women and children. In December 2005, Congress adopted the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005. The State Department, on June 5, 2006, issued a mandate that categorized countries into four groups according to the efforts they were making to combat trafficking. Those countries (Tier Three) that do not cooperate in the fight against trafficking have been made subject to U.S. sanctions since 2003. In the second session of the 109th Congress, both chambers are expected to continue to address the human trafficking issue as part of their authorization, appropriations, and oversight activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10488/
Converting Retirement Savings into Income: Annuities and Periodic Withdrawals
To a worker contemplating retirement, there is perhaps no more important question than "How long will my money last?" Congress has a strong interest in the income security of older Americans because much of their income is either provided directly from public programs like Social Security, or in the case of pensions and retirement accounts, is subsidized through tax deductions and deferrals. This report discusses risks involved with retirement fund disbursement and strategies for dealing with such risks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83870/
Converting Retirement Savings into Income: Annuities and Periodic Withdrawals
To a worker contemplating retirement, there is perhaps no more important question than "How long will my money last?" Congress has a strong interest in the income security of older Americans because much of their income is either provided directly from public programs like Social Security, or in the case of pensions and retirement accounts, is subsidized through tax deductions and deferrals. This report looks at strategies to help deal with the following risks: longevity, investment, inflation, and unexpected events. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83896/
Homeland Security and Labor-Management Relations:
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9401/
Social Security and Medicare Taxes and Premiums: Fact Sheet
Financing for social security -- Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance -- and the Hospital Insurance part of Medicare is provided primarily by taxes levied on wages and net self-employment income. Financing for the Supplementary Medical Insurance portion of Medicare is provided by premiums from enrollees and payments from the government. This report describes these taxes and premiums. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26042/
Social Security Benefits for Noncitizens: Current Policy and Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5943/