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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Tibet: Problems, Prospects, and U.S. Policy
This report consists of three free-standing parts: the first discusses current issues in Tibet, including the March 2008 Chinese crackdown against demonstrations in Lhasa and elsewhere; the second briefly reviews Tibet's historical and political status with respect to China — a basic source of controversy in many Sino-Tibetan problems; and the third reviews and analyzes U.S. relations with and congressional actions toward Tibet since the 1980s, including legislative initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462491/
China's Prospects After Tiananmen Square: Current Conditions, Future Scenarios, and a Survey of Expert Opinion
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs14/
The Alien Tort Statute: Legislative History and Executive Branch Views
The report provides a historical overview of court decisions interpreting the Alien Tort Statute (ATS), also known as the Alien Tort Claims Act (ACTA). The report then provides an overview of the positions taken by the U.S. government in published opinions of the Attorney General and in court briefs related to ATS claims. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8433/
Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications
This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9389/
Military Tribunals: Historical Patterns and Lessons
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Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List
Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9387/
The Unification of Germany: Background and Analysis of the Two-Plus-Four Talks
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German Unification
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A Parliamentary-Style Question Period: Proposals and Issues for Congress
This report surveys how question periods are conducted in Britain and other parliamentary democracies, examines previous proposals for question periods in the United States, considers potential advantages and disadvantages of a question period, and outlines some legislative considerations for policymakers considering a question period for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463193/
A Parliamentary-Style Question Period: Proposals and Issues for Congress
This report surveys how question periods are conducted in Britain and other parliamentary democracies, examines previous proposals for question periods in the United States, considers potential advantages and disadvantages of a question period, and outlines some legislative considerations for policymakers considering a question period for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700769/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
This report is a guide to locating individual service records and military unit histories from the American Revolution to the present. This guide provides referral information for locating individual service records of discharged and deceased veterans. It includes information regarding locating and obtaining active service records. Also included are relevant addresses and websites of government agencies, historical associations, and a select bibliography. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10261/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
This report is a guide to locating individual service records and military unit histories from the American Revolution to the present. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9541/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
This report is a guide to locating individual service records and military unit histories from the American Revolution to the present. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9874/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
This report provides information on locating military unit histories and individual service records of discharged, retired, and deceased military personnel. It includes contact information for military history centers, websites for additional sources of research, and a bibliography of other publications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491130/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
This report provides information on locating military unit histories and individual service records of discharged, retired, and deceased military personnel. It includes contact information for military history centers, websites for additional sources of research, and a bibliography of other publications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462135/
Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources
This guide provides information on locating military unit histories and individual service records of discharged, retired, and deceased military personnel. It includes contact information for military history centers, websites for additional sources of research, and a bibliography of other publications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99123/
U.S. Use of Preemptive Military Force
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U.S. Use of Preemptive Military Force
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U.S. Use of Preemptive Military Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4327/
The Strategic Defense Initiative: Issues for Phase 1 Deployment
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The Strategic Defense Initiative: Issues for Phase 1 Deployment
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The Strategic Defense Initiative: Program Facts
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The Strategic Defense Initiative: Program Facts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9601/
Iraq: International Attitudes to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Reconstruction
Although there was widespread international disagreement in the period leading up to the U.S.-led war in Iraq, forty-nine countries demonstrated support for the coalition’s actions in Iraq by publicly agreeing to be included in the Bush Administration’s “coalition of the willing." This report tracks countries’ current political stances on the postwar situation, as well as major foreign monetary and military contributions to postwar Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9292/
Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options
This report provides background information about the establishment and evolution of federal emergency management and related homeland security organization since 1950. Post-Katrina assessments of current arrangements by Congress and the White House are also discussed. Finally, the report provides a brief summary of related legislation that had been introduced as of July 17, 2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9422/
Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options
This report provides background information about the establishment and evolution of federal emergency management and related homeland security organization since 1950. Post-Katrina assessments of current arrangements by Congress and the White House are also discussed. Finally, the report provides a brief summary of related legislation that had been introduced as of July 17, 2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9421/
The Stock Market's Response to Dramatic Historical Events
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6989/
Initial Federal Budget Response to the 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor
This report discusses initial federal budget response to attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, which occurred as the federal government was half way through FY1942. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7567/
Summary of Major Changes in the Social Security Cash Benefits Program: 1935-1996
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Financing Issues and Economic Effects of American Wars
This report examines financing and economic issues in World War II, the Korean Conflict, the Vietnam Conflict, the Reagan Military Buildup, and the 1991 and 2003 wars in Iraq. It examines tax policy, non-military outlays, the budget balance, economic growth, inflation, and interest rates during these periods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461913/
A History of Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes
In this report, the history of the federal transfer taxes, has been divided into four parts: (1) the federal death and gift taxes utilized in the period 1789 to 1915; (2) the development of the modern estate and gift taxes from 1916 through 1975; (3) the creation and refinement of a unified estate and gift tax system, supplemented by a generation-skipping transfer tax; and (4) the phase out and repeal of the estate and generation-skipping taxes, with the gift tax being retained as a device to protect the integrity of the income tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1946/
A History of Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes
In this report, the history of the federal transfer taxes, has been divided into four parts: (1) the federal death and gift taxes utilized in the period 1789 to 1915; (2) the development of the modern estate and gift taxes from 1916 through 1975; (3) the creation and refinement of a unified estate and gift tax system, supplemented by a generation-skipping transfer tax; and (4) the phase out and repeal of the estate and generation-skipping taxes, with the gift tax being retained as a device to protect the integrity of the income tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5392/
Vietnamese Victims of Agent Orange and U.S.-Vietnam Relations
This report examines various estimates of the effects of Agent Orange on Vietnam's people and environment, the history of U.S. policy on the issue, the current cleanup efforts in Vietnam, the various forms of assistance—including U.S. assistance—provided to people with medical conditions associated with dioxin exposure, and the implications for bilateral relations. It concludes with a brief discussion of possible congressional responses to the issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122330/
Vietnamese Victims of Agent Orange and U.S.-Vietnam Relations
This report examines various estimates of the effects that the herbicide Agent Orange has had on Vietnam's people and environment, the history of U.S. policy on the issue, the current clean up efforts in Vietnam, the various forms of assistance -- including U.S. assistance -- provided to people with medical conditions associated with dioxin exposure, and the implications for bilateral relations. It concludes with a brief discussion of possible congressional responses to the issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26299/
Israel: Background and Relations with the United States
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Israel: Background and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9443/
Israel: Background and Relations with the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9554/
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflict, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9470/
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflict, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9467/
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflict, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9468/
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflict, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9471/
Soviet Policy Under Andropov
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9189/
Japan's World War II Reparations: A Fact Sheet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs13/
Japan's Response to the Persian Gulf Crisis: Implications for U.S. -Japan Relations
This report provides information and analysis for use by Members of Congress as they deliberate on the Japanese response to the Gulf crisis and, perhaps more important, what it may mean for future U.S.-Japanese relations. The first chapter briefly reviews Japanese government actions in response to the crisis, from August 1990 to February 1991. A second section examines in detail the various factors and constraints that affected Japanese policy. The final section offers conclusions and examines implications of the episode for future U.S.-Japanese relations. Published sources for the report are cited in footnotes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8/
Persian Gulf War: Defense-Policy Implications for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6963/
Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9474/
Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9473/
The Iran-Iraq War: Implications for U.S. Policy
This report discusses the Iran-Iraq conflict at its present state, which has become a war of attrition with neither side capable of achieving a decisive military victory over the other in the short term. U.S. policy concerns currently are threefold: first, that Iraq, despite moves to sustain its economic and military capacities, ultimately might suffer a destabilizing defeat to the detriment of U.S. interests in the Persian Gulf region; second, that future instability in Iran could open opportunities for Soviet exploitation; and third, that the conflict might expand beyond its present confines to threaten friendly regional states and the availability of their vast petroleum resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9596/
Iran-Contra Affair: Biographical Profiles
This report provides biographical information on individuals who have been associated in public reports with the controversy surrounding the secret U.S. arms sales to Iran and the channeling of profits to the rebels or Contras in Nicaragua. The information has been compiled from public sources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8423/
U.S. Periods of War
This report lists the beginning and ending dates for "periods of war" found in Title 38 of the Code of Federal Regulations, dealing with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). It also lists and differentiates other beginning dates given in declarations of war, as well as termination of hostilities dates and armistice and ending dates given in proclamations, laws, or treaties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626965/