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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Colleges and Universities Attended by Senators of the 107th Congress
This report identifies the colleges and universities attended by Senators serving in the 107th Congress. Where available in published sources, the degrees earned are also listed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2292/
Colleges and Universities Attended by Senators of the 109th Congress
This report identifies the colleges and universities attended by Senators serving in the 109th Congress. Where available in published sources, the degrees earned are also listed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7902/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2206/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
The federal government's role in financing school construction and renovation continues to be an issue in the 109th Congress, although school construction has generally been considered a state and local responsibility. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the unmet need for school construction and renovation is estimated to be $127 billion. NCES indicates that three-quarters of the nation's schools report needing funds to bring their buildings into a "good overall condition." Indirect federal support for school construction is currently provided by exempting the interest on state and local governmental bonds from federal income taxes, as well as other tax code provisions. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, an estimated 400 schools need to be rebuilt in Louisiana and Mississippi. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10206/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3858/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3859/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1096/
Congress and Program Evaluation: An Overview of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and Related Issues
This report discusses what RCTs are and identifies a number of issues regarding RCTs that might arise when Congress considers making program evaluation policy. For example, in the 109th Congress, Section 3 of S. 1934 (as introduced) would establish a priority for RCTs when evaluating offender reentry demonstration projects; Section 114 of S. 667 (Senate Finance Committee-reported bill) would require RCTs for demonstration projects for low-income families; and Section 5 of S. 1129 (as introduced) would call for RCTs for projects and policies of multilateral development banks. Issues regarding RCTs could also arise when actors in the policy process present specific program evaluations to Congress (e.g., in the President’s budget proposals) to influence Congress’s views and decision making. For many reasons, evaluations often merit scrutiny and care in interpretation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9145/
Student Drug Testing: Constitutional Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9284/
Federal and Non-Federal Support of University Based Research
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9092/
Foreign Medical Graduates: A Brief Overview of the J-1 Visa Waiver Program
The Educational and Cultural Exchange Visitor program has become a gateway for foreign medical graduates (FMGs) to gain admission to the United States as nonimmigrants for the purpose of graduate medical education and training. These FMGs either enter under the J-1 nonimmigrant visa or receive waivers that require them to work in a designated healthcare professional shortage area for a minimum of three years. The ability of states to request such waivers is known as the "Conrad State Program," and was added temporarily to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) in 1994. It has been extended by the last several Congresses. Legislation has been introduced in the 110th Congress to address the program's expiration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10688/
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act: A Legal Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7985/
Unauthorized Alien Students, Higher Education, and In-State Tuition Rates: A Legal Analysis
Currently, federal law prohibits states from granting unauthorized aliens certain postsecondary educational benefits on the basis of state residence, unless equal benefits are made available to all U.S. citizens. This prohibition is commonly understood to apply to the granting of "in-state" residency status for tuition purposes. In the 110th Congress, several bills that would amend this federal law have been introduced. Meanwhile, some states have passed laws aimed at making unauthorized state residents eligible for in-state tuition without violating this provision. This report provides a legal overview of cases involving immigrant access to higher education, as well as an analysis of the legality of state laws that make in-state tuition rates available to illegal immigrants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10680/
Internships and Fellowships: Congressional, Federal, and Other Work Experience Opportunities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5016/
Internships and Fellowships: Congressional, Federal, and Other Work Experience Opportunities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1817/
Internships and Fellowships: Congressional, Federal, and Other Work Experience Opportunities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1818/
Internships and Fellowships: Congressional, Federal, and Other Work Experience Opportunities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3151/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9926/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
Issues and legislation related to foreign students continue to arise. The funding and English-language competency of foreign students have raised concerns with some universities, advocacy groups, and other observers. Additionally, some recent legislation has focused on attracting foreign students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Legislation passed in the Senate (S. 2611) would create pathways to citizenship for foreign students in the STEM fields of study. Although there are provisions in this legislation for undergraduate students, the major focus has been on students obtaining advanced degrees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10477/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9954/
Adult Education and Literacy: Overview and Reauthorization Proposals of the 109th Congress
The 109th Congress is considering the reauthorization of federal adult education and literacy programs. The Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) authorized these programs through FY2003. The primary AEFLA activity is a state grant program that supports education and literacy services for educationally disadvantaged adults. The AEFLA also authorizes national leadership activities in adult education and literacy, and the National Institute for Literacy. The FY2005 AEFLA appropriation is $585 million; the FY2006 budget request would reduce funding to $216 million. The AEFLA was enacted as Title II of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), P.L. 105-220, on August 7, 1998. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7291/
Higher Education Tax Credits: An Economic Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8354/
An Overview of Tax Benefits for Higher Education Expenses
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8444/
Possible Impacts of Major Counter Terrorism Security Actions on Research, Development, and Higher Education
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2517/
Teacher Recruitment and Retention: Current Programs and Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5865/
Trio and GEAR UP Programs: Status and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7267/
Foreign Language and International Studies: Federal Aid Under Title VI of the Higher Education Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7881/
National Security Education Program: Background and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6216/
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9227/
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9432/
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9433/
Saving for College Through Qualified Tuition (Section 529) Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6839/
Saving for College Through Qualified Tuition (Section 529) Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6846/
Tax Treatment of Employer Educational Assistance for the Benefit of Employees
Educational assistance offered by employers to their employees may be exempt from federal income tax under Section 127 and Section 132 of the Internal Revenue Code. Section 127 is the employer educational assistance exclusion; Section 132, the fringe benefit exclusion for working condition benefits (e.g., job-related eduction) among other benefits. Congress established the two tax provisions well before it enacted to her higher education tax benefits meant to assist taxpayers, their spouses, and dependents -- regardless of employment status -- pay current educational expenses incurred while obtaining postsecondary degrees and undertaking lifelong learning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10765/
Federal Taxation of Student Aid: An Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2602/
Tax Benefits for Education in the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997: New Legislative Developments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1245/
Tax Benefits for Education in the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997: New Legislative Developments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1816/
Education Savings Accounts for Elementary and Secondary Education
The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (P.L. 107-16) that President Bush signed on June 7, 2001, includes these changes, effective after 2001. The most prominent issue they raise is whether the federal government should assist families whose children are educated in private schools. Policy questions include what effect such assistance might have on public schools and student performance and whether it would be constitutional. Concerns have also been expressed that the legislation would create compliance problems and is most likely to benefit better-off families. P.L. 107-22 renamed the accounts Coverdell education savings accounts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1819/
Education Savings Accounts for Elementary and Secondary Education
The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (P.L. 107-16) that President Bush signed on June 7, 2001, includes these changes, effective after 2001. The most prominent issue they raise is whether the federal government should assist families whose children are educated in private schools. Policy questions include what effect such assistance might have on public schools and student performance and whether it would be constitutional. Concerns have also been expressed that the legislation would create compliance problems and is most likely to benefit better-off families. P.L. 107-22 renamed the accounts Coverdell education savings accounts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1820/
Financial Aid for Students: Print and Web Guides
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2617/
Financial Aid for Students: Print and Web Guides
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4421/
Funding School Renovation: Qualified Zone Academy Bonds vs. Traditional Tax-Exempt Bonds
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1649/
Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education: Background and Funding
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9121/
Internships, Fellowships, and Other Work Experience Opportunities in the Federal Government
This report describes Internet resources on internships, fellowships, and work experience programs within the federal government. It is intended as a selective guide for students of all levels: high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate. This report will be updated annually. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83853/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10169/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8352/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9878/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9545/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report explains this issue in detail, as well as probable causes of said incongruity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10524/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. Many in the scientific community maintain that in order to compete with countries that are rapidly expanding their scientific and technological capabilities, the country needs to bring to the United States those whose skills will benefit society and will enable us to compete in the new-technology based global economy. This report analyzes this issue in detail and includes discussion of related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26122/
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