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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Davis v. United States: Retroactivity and the Good-Faith Exception to the Exclusionary Rule

Davis v. United States: Retroactivity and the Good-Faith Exception to the Exclusionary Rule

Date: April 19, 2011
Creator: Barbour, Emily C.
Description: This report covers the legal causes and implications of Davis v. United States. The Supreme Court will consider whether evidence that was seized in violation of the defendant’s Fourth Amendment rights is admissible at trial because the police seized the evidence in good-faith reliance on then-controlling case law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
DNA Databanking: Selected Fourth Amendment Issues and Analysis

DNA Databanking: Selected Fourth Amendment Issues and Analysis

Date: June 6, 2011
Creator: Barbour, Emily C.
Description: This report looks at how the practice of DNA database programs, which have been looked at favorably by Congress, are in possible violation of the Fourth Amendment's prohibition on unreasonable searches and seizures. It looks at how the databases' legality has currently been holding up in court, as well as how new advances and revelations in the science of forensic analysis and databanking may have potentially significant legal implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
H.R. 5825 (109th Congress): "Electronic Surveillance Modernization Act"

H.R. 5825 (109th Congress): "Electronic Surveillance Modernization Act"

Date: September 8, 2006
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B
Description: This report discusses the National Security Agency’s “Terrorist Surveillance Program,” a program in which international communications of persons within the United States have been the subject of electronic surveillance without a warrant or a Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court order.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Capital Punishment: An Overview of Federal Death Penalty Statutes

Capital Punishment: An Overview of Federal Death Penalty Statutes

Date: July 23, 2002
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B.
Description: This report lists the current federal capital offenses and summarizes the procedures for federal civilian death penalty cases. Several laws are relevant to the topic including: P.L. 103-322, the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994; the Anti-terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996; and P.L. 107-197, the Terrorist Bombings Convention Implementation Act of 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Mexico Security Cooperation Following "El Chapo" Guzmán's Escape

U.S.-Mexico Security Cooperation Following "El Chapo" Guzmán's Escape

Date: July 21, 2015
Creator: Beittel, June S.
Description: This report discusses the escape of Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán on July 11, 2015, from a maximum security federal prison near Mexico City.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Mexico Security Cooperation Following "El Chapo" Guzmán's Escape

U.S.-Mexico Security Cooperation Following "El Chapo" Guzmán's Escape

Date: October 20, 2015
Creator: Beittel, June S. & Seelke, Clare Ribando
Description: This report discusses U.S.-Mexican security cooperation in the wake of the escape of Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán on July 11, 2015, from a maximum security federal prison near Mexico City.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Securing America's Borders: The Role of the Intelligence Community

Securing America's Borders: The Role of the Intelligence Community

Date: December 7, 2010
Creator: Best, Jr., Richard A.
Description: Maintaining the security of U.S. borders is a fundamental responsibility of the federal government. This report discusses the contribution of intelligence agencies to the border security efforts of the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, and other federal agencies that work in cooperation with state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies. Much of the intelligence community's border security-related efforts are classified, however.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)--Responsibilities and Potential Congressional Concerns

The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)--Responsibilities and Potential Congressional Concerns

Date: January 7, 2011
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Description: This report looks at inadequacies present in the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) which prevent the Center from adequately performing its duty. These inadequacies include issues with agency organization, lack of resources, and a focus on threats from Yemen over domestic threats.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)--Responsibilities and Potential Congressional Concerns

The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)--Responsibilities and Potential Congressional Concerns

Date: January 15, 2010
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Description: This report looks at inadequacies present in the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) which prevent the Center from adequately performing its duty. These inadequacies include issues with agency organization, lack of resources, and a focus on threats from Yemen over domestic threats.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)—Responsibilities and Potential Congressional Concerns

The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)—Responsibilities and Potential Congressional Concerns

Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Description: This report looks at inadequacies present in the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) which prevent the Center from adequately performing its duty. These inadequacies include issues with agency organization, lack of resources, and a focus on threats from Yemen over domestic threats.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)—Responsibilities and Potential Congressional Concerns

The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)—Responsibilities and Potential Congressional Concerns

Date: December 19, 2011
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Description: This report looks at inadequacies present in the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) which prevent the Center from adequately performing its duty. These inadequacies include issues with agency organization, lack of resources, and a focus on threats from Yemen over domestic threats.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Issues for Congress

Intelligence Issues for Congress

Date: July 12, 2006
Creator: Best, Richard, A., Jr.
Description: This report discusses legislative initiatives to address the challenges facing the U.S. Intelligence Community in the 21st century.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
American Foreign Fighters and the Islamic State: Broad Challenges for Federal Law Enforcement

American Foreign Fighters and the Islamic State: Broad Challenges for Federal Law Enforcement

Date: September 19, 2014
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Description: This report offers a framework for considering the challenges to domestic security posed by American fighters in the terrorist group known as the Islamic State (IS, previously referred to as ISIS or ISIL) and outlines some of the ways that U.S. law enforcement responds to such challenges.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

Date: December 7, 2010
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Description: This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. "Homegrown" and "domestic" are terms that describe terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States. The report also discusses the radicalization process and the forces driving violent extremist activity. It analyzes post-9/11 domestic jihadist terrorism and describes law enforcement and intelligence efforts to combat terrorism and the challenges associated with those efforts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

Date: November 15, 2011
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Description: This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. For this report, "homegrown" and "domestic" are terms that describe terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States. The report also discusses the radicalization process and the forces driving violent extremist activity. It analyzes post-9/11 domestic jihadist terrorism and describes law enforcement and intelligence efforts to combat terrorism and the challenges associated with those efforts. It also outlines actions underway to build trust and partnership between community groups and government agencies and the tensions that may occur between law enforcement and engagement activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Domestic Terrorism Appears to Be Reemerging as a Priority at the Department of Justice

Domestic Terrorism Appears to Be Reemerging as a Priority at the Department of Justice

Date: August 15, 2014
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Description: This document examines an apparent shift in priorities at the Department of Justice (DOJ) towards a renewed focus on domestic terrorism with the reestablishment of its Domestic Terrorism Executive Committee, which had been defunct for several years. The report considers why the shift in focus may be occurring and also briefly examines different types of domestic terror threats.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Domestic Terrorist Threat: Background and Issues for Congress

The Domestic Terrorist Threat: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: February 19, 2014
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Description: This report focuses on how domestic terrorism is conceptualized by the federal government and issues involved in assessing this threat's significance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Domestic Terrorist Threat: Background and Issues for Congress

The Domestic Terrorist Threat: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: May 15, 2012
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Description: In the last decade, domestic terrorists-people who commit crimes within the homeland and draw inspiration from U.S.-based extremist ideologies and movements-have killed American citizens and damaged property across the country. Not all of these criminals have been prosecuted under terrorism statutes. This report discusses domestic terrorism's significance to policymakers per five topics: level of activity, use of nontraditional tactics, exploitation of the internet, decentralized nature of the threat, and prison radicalization. The report also discusses three areas that Congress may consider the federal role of combating such activities: the issue of definitions, adequacy of domestic terrorism intelligence collection efforts, and the value of community outreach driven efforts to quell terrorism related radicalization in the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sifting Domestic Terrorism from Hate Crime and Homegrown Violent Extremism

Sifting Domestic Terrorism from Hate Crime and Homegrown Violent Extremism

Date: June 13, 2016
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Description: This report examines the differences between domestic terrorism, hate crime, and homegrown violent extremism. Federal law enforcement agencies use these three distinct concepts to categorize key types of criminals whose illegal activities are at least partly ideologically motivated.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sifting Domestic Terrorism from Other Illegal Activity

Sifting Domestic Terrorism from Other Illegal Activity

Date: June 24, 2015
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Description: This report briefly discusses key differences between domestic terrorism and ordinary criminal activity. Unlike ordinary criminals--who are often driven by self-centered motives such as profit and tend to opportunistically seek easy prey--domestic terrorists are driven by a cause or ideology.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement

Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement

Date: December 23, 2010
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P. & Finklea, Kristin M.
Description: This report provides an analysis of how organized crime has capitalized on globalization by using borders as opportunities, relying on fast-paced technological change, and adapting its organizational structures. It illustrates how these transformations can impact U.S. persons, businesses, and interests. The report includes a discussion of how U.S. law enforcement conceptualizes organized crime in the 21st century and concludes by examining potential issues for Congress, including the extent to which organized crime is a national security threat (partly to be tackled by U.S. law enforcement agencies), congressional oversight regarding the federal coordination of organized crime investigations, and the utility of current resources appropriated to combat organized crime.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement

Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement

Date: January 6, 2012
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P. & Finklea, Kristin M.
Description: In the last two decades, organized crime has grown more complex, posing evolving challenges for U.S. federal law enforcement. These criminals have transformed their operations in ways that broaden their reach and make it harder for law enforcement to combat them. They have adopted more-networked structural models, internationalized their operations, and grown more tech savvy. They are a significant challenge to U.S. law enforcement. There still is no single agency charged with investigating organized crime in the way the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has been designated the lead investigative agency for terrorism. Further, resources to tackle this issue are divided among many federal agencies. As such, Congress may exert its oversight authority regarding the federal coordination of organized crime investigations via the 2011 strategy. Policymakers may also debate the efficacy of current resources appropriated to combat organized crime.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

Date: September 20, 2010
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P. & Randol, Mark A.
Description: Between May 2009 and August 2010, arrests were made for 19 "homegrown," jihadist-inspired terrorist plots by American citizens or legal permanent residents of the United States. The apparent spike in such activity after May 2009 suggests that at least some Americans - even if a tiny minority - continue to be susceptible to ideologies supporting a violent form of jihad. This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. This report also provides official definitions for terms such as "homegrown," "jihadist," and "violent jihadist." The report also discusses the radicalization process and the forces driving violent extremist activity. It analyzes post-9/11 domestic jihadist terrorism, describes law enforcement and intelligence efforts to combat terrorism and the challenges associated with those efforts. It also outlines actions underway to build trust and partnership between community groups and government agencies and the tensions that may occur between law enforcement and engagement activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Public Mass Shootings in the United States: Selected Implications for Federal Public Health and Safety Policy

Public Mass Shootings in the United States: Selected Implications for Federal Public Health and Safety Policy

Date: April 16, 2013
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.; Bagalman, Erin; Caldwell, Sarah W.; Finklea, Kristin M. & McCallion, Gail
Description: This report focuses on mass shootings and selected implications they have for federal policy in the areas of public health and safety. While such crimes most directly impact particular citizens in very specific communities, addressing these violent episodes involves officials at all levels of government and professionals from numerous disciplines.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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