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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2010
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Committee Types and Roles

Committee Types and Roles

Date: November 10, 2010
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Description: This report briefly describes the structure of the congressional committee system and the types of congressional committees, as well as congressional subcommittees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Guide to Individuals Seated on the House Dais

Guide to Individuals Seated on the House Dais

Date: November 10, 2010
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Description: This report describes the House of Representatives officers who sit on the three tiers of the House chamber's central dais.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Legislative Process on the Senate Floor: An Introduction

The Legislative Process on the Senate Floor: An Introduction

Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Description: This report provides a brief introduction to the legislative process on the Senate floor, including filibusters and cloture, restraint and delay, scheduling legislative business, unanimous consent agreements, the daily order of business, the amending process, and quorum calls and rollcall votes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Office of the Parliamentarian in the House and Senate

The Office of the Parliamentarian in the House and Senate

Date: July 14, 2010
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Description: This report discusses the Office of the Parliamentarian, which provides expert advice and assistance on questions relating to the meaning and application of that chamber's legislative rules, precedents, and practices, in both the House and Senate. The Speaker began naming a parliamentarian in 1927; the Senate first recognized its parliamentarian in 1935.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities

Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities

Date: July 14, 2010
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Description: Each major party in the House has a leadership hierarchy. This report summarizes the election, duties, and responsibilities of the Speaker of the House, the majority and minority leaders, and the whips and whip system.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2010

Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2010

Date: June 29, 2010
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Description: This report briefly describes current responsibilities and selection mechanisms for 15 House and Senate party leadership posts and provides tables with historical data, including service dates, party affiliation, and other information for each.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Points of Order, Rulings, and Appeals in the House of Representatives

Points of Order, Rulings, and Appeals in the House of Representatives

Date: November 10, 2010
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Description: This report briefly describes points of order in the House of Representatives. A point of order is a formal appeal made when a Member of House believes that the House's legislative procedures or are about to be violated in some way.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget Enforcement Procedures: Senate Pay- As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule

Budget Enforcement Procedures: Senate Pay- As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule

Date: January 12, 2010
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: This report discusses the Senate pay-as-you-go, or PAYGO, rule which generally requires that any legislation projected to increase direct spending or reduce revenues must also include equivalent amounts of direct spending cuts, revenue increases, or a combination of the two, so that the legislation does not increase the on-budget deficit over a six-year period and an 11-year period.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Allocations and Subdivisions in the Congressional Budget Process

Allocations and Subdivisions in the Congressional Budget Process

Date: November 29, 2010
Creator: Heniff, Jr., Bill
Description: This report very briefly discusses the allocations and subdivisions portions of the congressional budget process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Date: November 29, 2010
Creator: Heniff, Jr., Bill
Description: This report briefly discusses the budget reconciliation process, which is an optional two-step process Congress may use to assure compliance with the direct spending, revenue, and debt-limit levels set forth in budget resolutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of the Authorization-Appropriations Process

Overview of the Authorization-Appropriations Process

Date: November 29, 2010
Creator: Heniff, Jr., Bill
Description: A primary avenue for exercising Congress's power of the purse is the authorization and appropriation of federal spending to carry out government activities. This report discusses the formal authorization-appropriation process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Executive Departments During the 110th Congress, 2007-2008

Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Executive Departments During the 110th Congress, 2007-2008

Date: November 19, 2010
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.; Carey, Maeve P. & Bearden, Maureen
Description: This report explains the process for filling positions to which the President makes appointments with the advice and consent of the Senate (PAS positions). It also identifies, for the 110th Congress, all nominations to executive-level full-time positions in the 15 departments. Profiles of the departments provide information regarding their full-time PAS positions and related appointment activity during the 110th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and the Role of Congress in Trade Policy

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and the Role of Congress in Trade Policy

Date: November 4, 2010
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F. & Cooper, William H.
Description: This report presents background and analysis on the development of Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), which expired on July 1, 2007. The report also includes a summary of the major provisions under the recently expired authority and a discussion of the issues that have arisen in the debate over TPA renewal. It also explores the policy options available to Congress and will be updated as the congressional debate unfolds.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trade Preferences: Economic Issues and Policy Options

Trade Preferences: Economic Issues and Policy Options

Date: September 24, 2010
Creator: Jones, Vivian C.; Hornbeck, J. F. & Villarreal, M. Angeles
Description: Since 1974, Congress has created multiple trade preference programs designed to foster economic growth and development in less developed countries. Congress conducts regular oversight of these programs, often revising and extending them. This report discusses the major U.S. trade preference programs, their possible economic effects, stakeholder interests, and legislative options.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives

Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives

Date: March 29, 2010
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M.
Description: This report describes the Select Committees on Intelligence and then the former Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, often cited as a model for a counterpart on intelligence. The study also sets forth proposed characteristics for a joint committee on intelligence, differences among these, and their pros and cons.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives

Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives

Date: January 25, 2010
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M.
Description: This report describes the current select committees on intelligence; characteristics and a model for a possible joint committee; recent actions by Congress; and obstacles affecting legislative oversight in the field.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals

Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals

Date: January 27, 2010
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M.
Description: This report discusses safeguards in place to protect controlled information and proposals for change of some of the mechanisms in place. Congress uses classified national security and other controlled information to fulfill its constitutional responsibilities, particularly overseeing the executive, appropriating funds, and legislating public policy.
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Independent Evaluators of Federal Programs: Approaches, Devices, and Examples

Independent Evaluators of Federal Programs: Approaches, Devices, and Examples

Date: August 16, 2010
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M. & Brass, Clinton T.
Description: Congress and the executive, as well as outside organizations, have long been attentive to the evaluation of federal programs, with frequent interest paid to the independent status of the evaluator. This interest continues into the current era, with numerous illustrations of the multifaceted approaches adopted and proposed. This report focuses on examples of independent evaluators (IEs): when an evaluation is to be conducted by an entity outside the immediate organization that is responsible for policy implementation, and the entity also is intended to have one or more dimensions of independence.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd Rule"

The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd Rule"

Date: July 2, 2010
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: Reconciliation is a procedure under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 by which Congress implements budget resolution policies affecting mainly permanent spending and revenue programs. The principal focus in the reconciliation process has been deficit reduction, but in recent years reconciliation has encompassed revenue reduction generally and spending increases in selected program areas. This report discusses the Byrd rule, which provides six definitions of what constitutes extraneous matter for purposes of the rule (and several exceptions thereto), but the term is generally described as covering provisions unrelated to achieving the goals of the reconciliation instructions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Duration of Continuing Resolutions in Recent Years

Duration of Continuing Resolutions in Recent Years

Date: May 13, 2010
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report provides information on congressional practices with respect to the duration of continuing resolutions, including the use of full-year measures, and focuses particularly on the period covering FY1998-FY2010.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House Committee Markups: Manual of Procedures and Procedural Strategies

House Committee Markups: Manual of Procedures and Procedural Strategies

Date: February 25, 2010
Creator: Koempel, Michael L. & Schneider, Judy
Description: This manual examines procedures and strategy related to committee markups and provides sample procedural scripts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
History of the Joint Committee on Reduction of Non-Essential Federal Expenditures (1941- 1974), with Observations on Oversight Today

History of the Joint Committee on Reduction of Non-Essential Federal Expenditures (1941- 1974), with Observations on Oversight Today

Date: October 26, 2010
Creator: Koempel, Michael L.; Murray, Justin & Tabit, Brian P.J.
Description: This report traces the history of the joint committee and describes the subject matter of some of its principal work products. The report concludes with some considerations involved with the creation of a committee - the purpose of which is to assist Congress in reducing federal spending - and with a brief examination of committee oversight authority extant in House and Senate committees and of alternative mechanisms for cutting spending.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Direct Overt U.S. Aid and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2011

Direct Overt U.S. Aid and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2011

Date: February 16, 2010
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: Aid and military reimbursements made to Pakistan from 2002-2011. The list is divided by agency.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Funded Assistance Programs in China

U.S.-Funded Assistance Programs in China

Date: July 9, 2010
Creator: Lum, Thomas
Description: This report provides legislative and policy background concerning U.S. assistance programs in the People's Republic of China (PRC). The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) does not have an official presence in China. The majority of congressional foreign operations appropriations for the PRC promotes the rule of law, civil society, and political development in the country. These programs constitute a key component of U.S. efforts to promote democratic change in the PRC. Other related U.S. activities include participation in official bilateral dialogues on human rights, public diplomacy programs, and open criticism of PRC policies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department