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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights
This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8176/
Clearcutting in the National Forests
Congressional interest in clearcutting has increased in the past few years. Several bills have been introduced in the current and preceding Congresses to ban the use of clearcutting and/or all even-aged management systems in the national forests. The issue, however, transcends the use of clearcutting and focuses on how to assure the choice of a silvicultural system and the implementation of the management practices that will achieve the stated goals for public land and resource management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs34/
Federal Land Management: Appeals and Litigation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs473/
Habitat Modification and the Endangered Species Act: The
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs179/
The President's Forest/Roadless Area Initiative
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1014/
The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs853/
The "Timber Rider": Section 2001 of the Rescissions Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs347/
Survey of Grazing Programs in Western States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs283/
Endangered Species Act Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 and H.R. 2351
Because of wide-spread interest in possible amendments to the Endangered Species Act (ESA), CRS has received numerous requests for an analysis and critique of S.1180 and H.R. 2351. This report analyzes those bills. HR. 2351 was introduced on July 31, 1997 and S. 1180 on September 16, 1997. Each bill is discussed under various topic headings. The Senate bill will be described first, since it has been reported. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs530/
The Abandoned Mine Land Fund: Grants Distribution and Issues
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA, P.L. 95-87), enacted in 1977, established reclamation standards for all coal surface mining operations, and for the surface effects of underground mining. It also established the Abandoned Mine Land (AML) program to promote the reclamation of sites mined and abandoned prior to the enactment of SMCRA. To finance reclamation of abandoned mine sites, the legislation established fees on coal production. These collections are divided into federal and state shares; subject to annual appropriation, AML funds are distributed annually to states with approved reclamation programs. This report describes the distribution of these funds and the various issues that arise from said distribution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs398/
Natural Resources: Assessing Nonmarket Values through Contingent Valuation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1010/
Pacific Salmon and Anadromous Trout: Management Under the Endangered Species Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs851/
Agreements to Promote Fishery Conservation and Management in International Waters
Declining fish populations threaten an important food source. Natural catastrophes, pollution, habitat destruction, and overfishing contribute to the depletion of fish stocks. Overexploitation of fishery resources often occurs when management allows expanding and increasingly efficient fishing fleets to continue harvesting dwindling supplies. Although prevalent, overexploitation is not universal and its extent varies among areas, species, and fisheries. This report discusses the issue of overfishing and its possible consequences, as well as domestic and international efforts to combat overfishing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs341/
The Weatherization Assistance Program: A Fact Sheet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10007/
Grazing Fees: An Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs281/
Grazing Fees and Rangeland Management
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs519/
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future
This report discusses the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It is divided into six sections: Introduction, Background, CITES and the Endangered Species Act, Implementation, Upcoming Events, and Appendices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs96/
Ecosystems, Biomes, and Watersheds: Definitions and Use
This paper describes the meaning and applications of ecosystem and of the related terms watershed and biome. It discusses the pros and cons of all three as organizing principles for land management, and the major issues that are likely to arise in the debate over ecosystem management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs70/
The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs23/
Mahoganies: International Protection?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs144/
Mexican Wolf: Federal Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs48/
Non-Indigenous Species: Government Response to the Brown Tree Snake and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs387/
The Northern Goshawk: Future Endangered Species?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs95/
African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE
The conservation of African elephants has been controversial recently on two fronts: the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES, to which the United States is a party), and a Zimbabwean program for sustainable development called CAMPFIRE, which is partially funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Two controversies have sprung up recently about the African elephant. One is the changing status of this species under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), of which the United States is a signatory. The other is over a program in Zimbabwe called "CAMPFIRE." The partial funding of this program by the U.S. Agency for International Development has been criticized by animal welfare groups and some conservation groups, though it has been supported by other conservation groups as well as many hunting organizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs388/
Marine Dead Zones: Understanding the Problem
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs740/
Biological Diversity: Issues Related to the Convention on Biodiversity
This report discusses treaty on biodiversity, issues, history and current status. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs235/
Biosphere Reserves and the U.S. MAB Program
Since 1972, the United States has participated in the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB), coordinated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In addition to the American Land Sovereignty Protection Act this report also discusses the legislation that would affect U.S. participation in the World Heritage Convention, under which World Heritage sites are recognized, and which include some of the sites recognized as biosphere reserves digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1013/
Biosphere Reserves: Fact Sheet
Since 1972, the United States has participated in the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB), coordinated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). This report presents a background on the criteria for Biosphere Reserves, designation process and the policy implications of designation/recognition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs472/
International Forest Agreements: Current Status
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs194/
Biological Diversity Treaty: Fact Sheet
As human activity continues to change and modify natural areas, widespread extinctions of plants, animals, and other types of species result. In 1992, negotiations conducted under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) were completed on a comprehensive global treaty to protect biological diversity (biodiversity). In June 1993, President Clinton signed the treaty and sent it to the Senate for advice and consent. It is not pending in the Senate. The treaty entered into force on December 29, 1993. As of May 15, 1995, 118 nations had ratified the treaty. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26102/
Trade and Environment: Treatment in Recent Agreements--GATT and NAFTA
This report reviews some of the concerns surrounding the environment work program and other environmental issues. It briefly describes work underway in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and current thinking underlying development of U.S. positions on trade and the environment in the GATT. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26036/
Alternative Sources of Wood for Japan
Japan is one of the world's largest wood importers, with two-thirds of its imports as logs (unprocessed timber). Southeast Asia has been the largest log supplier, but supplies (and exports to Japan) have been declining. The United States has become a more important supplier, but concerns about declining domestic timber supplies have led to proposals to prohibit or to tax log exports. Opponents suggest that Japan would simply turn to other sources to replace U.S. logs. One question in this debate is where the alternative sources of logs or wood products might be. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs143/
Below-Cost Timber Sales: An Overview
The Forest Service sells some timber at prices that are less than the agency costs to administer the timber program. This report discusses these "below-cost" timber sales that have been debated by Congress for more than a decade, but no policy to address the issue has been adopted legislatively or administratively. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs145/
The Chip Mill Industry in the South
Chip mills turn trees into chips for paper, particle-boards, and exports. While the federal government does not collect data on a chip mill industry, chip production in the South has apparently been expanding. The timber supply appears sufficient to allow some increased harvests, but could be depleted by continued industrial expansion. The federal government does not directly regulate timber cutting but could become engaged if requirements of the Clean Water and Endangered Species Acts were triggered. The government also has export promotion programs and export tax incentives. Recently, concerns have been expressed to Congress about the possible effects of clear-cutting for chip exports on water quality and wildlife habitat. This report will not be updated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs750/
Federal Land and Resource Management: A Primer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs753/
Federal Sales of Natural Resources: Pricing and Allocation Mechanisms (1998)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs751/
Federal Timber Harvests: Implications for U.S. Timber Supply
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs749/
Forest Fires and Forest Health
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs345/
Forest Health: Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs748/
Forest Service Timber Sale Practices and Procedures: Analysis of Alternative Systems
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs233/
Natural Resource "Subsidy" Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs237/
Roadless Areas: The Administration's Moratorium
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1012/
The Salvage Timber Sale Rider: Overview and Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs348/
Salvage Timber Sales and Forest Health
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs344/
Softwood Lumber Imports: The 1996 U.S.-Canada Agreement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6357/
Federal Land Ownership: Constitutional Authority; the History of Acquisition, Disposal, and Retention; and Current Acquisition and Disposal Authorities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1009/
Restricting Softwood Log Exports: Policy and Legal Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs71/
Mexican Spotted Owls: Federal Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs47/
The Mining Law Millsite Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1011/
Mining Law Reform: The Impact of a Royalty
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs142/
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