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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Electricity Restructuring Background: Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA)
This report provides background information on PUHCA, including its history and impact. It also discusses how PUHCA reform fits into the current electric utility industry restructuring debate. This report will be updated as events warrant. For related information on electricity restructuring, see the CRS Electronic Briefing Book. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs892/
Electricity Restructuring Background: The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992
The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) increased competition in the electric generating sector by creating new entities that can generate and sell electricity at wholesale without being regulated as utilities under PUHCA. PURPA began to shift more regulatory responsibilities to the federal government, and EPACT continued that shift away from the states by creating new options for utilities and regulators to meet electricity demand. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs642/
The Naval Petroleum Reserves: Proposed Sale and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs313/
The Abandoned Mine Land Fund: Grants Distribution and Issues
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA, P.L. 95-87), enacted in 1977, established reclamation standards for all coal surface mining operations, and for the surface effects of underground mining. It also established the Abandoned Mine Land (AML) program to promote the reclamation of sites mined and abandoned prior to the enactment of SMCRA. To finance reclamation of abandoned mine sites, the legislation established fees on coal production. These collections are divided into federal and state shares; subject to annual appropriation, AML funds are distributed annually to states with approved reclamation programs. This report describes the distribution of these funds and the various issues that arise from said distribution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs398/
Alternative Transportation Fuels: Oil Import, Highway Tax, and Implementation Issues
This report discusses three major pieces of legislation designed to, among other objectives, foster the development, introduction, and diffusion of alternative nonpetroleum fuels into the U.S. transportation sector. These three pieces of legislation are the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, and the Energy Policy Act of 1992. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs317/
Department of Energy: Programs and Reorganization Proposals
This report, a revision of an earlier CRS review of DOE programs, consists of an introductory discussion of the agency and its mission as a whole, and a description of its major programs as independent entities. Many of DOE's original energy-related missions have disappeared or changed radically. In addition, with the end of the Cold War, DOE's nuclear weapons-related programs, almost two-thirds of the total budget, are undergoing modification. However, regardless of the outcome of the debate on DOE's future, many of its present functions will continue in one location or another. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs987/
DOE Laboratory Restructuring Legislation
Interest in restructuring (including eliminating) the Department of Energy (DOE) and its laboratories has increased since the end of the Cold War, and especially since the beginning of the 104th Congress. A number of non-legislative proposals and activities to this end are reviewed, including DOE's own proposals for "alignment and downsizing" of the Department and its laboratories. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs356/
DOE Laboratory Restructuring Legislation in the 104th Congress
Interest in restructuring (including eliminating) the Department of Energy (DOE) and its laboratories has increased since the end of the Cold War, and especially since the beginning of the 104th Congress. A number of non-legislative proposals and activities to this end are reviewed, including DOE's own proposals for "alignment and downsizing" of the Department and its laboratories. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs480/
Restructuring DOE and Its Laboratories: Issues in the 105th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs977/
The Weatherization Assistance Program: A Fact Sheet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10007/
Auburn Dam on the American River: Fact Sheet
For more than 30 years, Congress has debated constructing a dam on the American River near Auburn, California. The Army Corps of Engineers recently identified three alternatives for flood control, with the Division office's preferred plan calling for construction of a 508-foot-high detention dam. Currently, two bills address the issue: H.R. 3270 supports construction of the dam, while H.R. 2951 opposes construction of any structure on the North Fork of the American River. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs314/
DOE Security: Protecting Nuclear Material and Information
Congress is focusing on problems with security at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) national security facilities, especially the nuclear weapon laboratories. Problems include espionage from within the labs and protection of nuclear material and facilities from outside attack. This report describes the main components of DOE’s security system and reviews current efforts to address shortcomings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs988/
Japan's Sea Shipment of Plutonium
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs53/
Industrial Energy Intensiveness and Energy Costs in the Context of Climate Change Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs434/
Transportation Fuel Taxes Early in the 105th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs429/
Transportation Fuel Taxes, Legislative Issues, and the Transportation Equity Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs643/
Alternative Transportation Fuels and Clean Gasoline: Background and Regulatory Issues
This report discusses legislative initiatives underway to tighten emission standards, produce cleaner cars, and develop alternative fuels, such as clean gasoline, natural gas, ethanol, and electricity. Specifically, the report focuses on the reformulate gasoline (RFG) program and the Energy Policy Act of 1992. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs316/
DOE Environmental Technology Department - A Fact Sheet
The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development in 1989 to develop faster and less expensive technical solutions to the Department's widespread environmental problems, primarily the legacy of decades of nuclear weapons production. Without new environmental technologies, DOE contends, some types of contamination may prove impossible to clean up. The Office of Technology Development, which is part of DOE's Environmental Management Program (EM), manages all stages of the development of new environmental restoration and waste management technologies, from basic research and development through final testing, demonstration and evaluation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs111/
Nuclear Weapons Production Complex: Environmental Compliance and Waste Management
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs433/
Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs640/
Appropriations for FY1999: Energy and Water Development
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Energy and Water Development Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs668/
Appropriations for FY2000: Energy and Water Development
This report discusses the Energy and Water Development FY2000 appropriations bill, which includes funding for civil projects of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (BuRec), most of the Department of Energy (DOE), and a number of independent agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs979/
Appropriations for FY2000: Energy and Water Development
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Energy and Water Development Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs985/
The Department of Energy's FY1996 Budget
This issue brief describes the FY1996 request for DOE's major programs, its implications, and congressional action on the DOE budget. Table 1 at the end of the issue brief highlights the FY1996 DOE budget request. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs329/
The Department of Energy's FY1998 Budget
This issue brief describes the FY1998 request for DOE's major programs, its implications, and congressional action on the DOE budget. Table 1 at the end of the issue brief highlights the FY1998 DOE budget request. House and Senate marks and the final budget enacted will be included in revised versions as the appropriations bills move through the Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs445/
Alcohol Fuels Tax Incentive
This report discusses federal tax subsidies for alcohol transportation fuels, as well as legislative actions underway to repeal, extend, or reduce them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs960/
Alcohol Fuels Tax Incentives and the EPA Renewable Oxygenate Requirement
This report examines the current alcohol fuels Federal tax incentives. Part I describes the statutory provisions of each of the five incentives. Part II examines the major public policy and economic issues of concern to policymakers: potential revenue effects, effectiveness, and economic efficiency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs110/
Tax Incentives for Alcohol Fuels
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs189/
The Tax Treatment of Alternative Transportation Fuels
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs428/
Implementation of the Reformulated Gasoline Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs190/
MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6516/
Department of Energy Abolition? Implications for the Nuclear Weapons Program
This report considers how abolition might affect the U.S. nuclear weapons program. It provides background on the weapons program and the debate on what organization should control it; summarizes the debate over managing the program, including criticisms of DOE’s management and issues in deciding where to place the program, and presents four options for the weapons program. It considers pros and cons for each option. This report should be of value for understanding consequences of alternative organizational “homes” for the weapons program for those considering legislation to abolish DOE. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs195/
Market-Based Environmental Management: Issues in Implementation
Increasingly, efforts to protect integral features of the natural environment that are essential to human well being face a double challenge. First, the magnitude of some conventional and emerging threats to environmental quality is growing, despite solid progress in controlling some causes. This is particularly the concern on a global scale in terms of atmospheric changes and loss of biological diversity. Second, easily-implemented uniform control methods using feasible technologies or other direct regulatory approaches are already in place for many pollution and resource management problems in the United States. Additional progress with so-called command and control policies can be expensive and disruptive, and thus counter productive to overall economic well being. This type of dilemma is common where environmental deterioration results from diffuse and complex causes inherent in technically-advanced high-consumption industrial societies such as the U.S. Solutions to these types of environmental problems are complicated by the diffuse benefits which obscures the net gains of additional controls that have concentrated and highly visible costs. Given this double bind, many policy analysts and academics have for years advocated more cost-effective and flexible approaches relying on market forces to further some environmental management objectives. Although market-based theory and practical environmental policy are still far apart, the incremental approach to environmental policymaking since the late seventies has resulted in some market-type innovations within traditional regulatory frameworks at all levels of government. The most prominent examples are the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) air emissions trading program and the recently enacted sulfur dioxide allowance trading program under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26038/
Oil Imports: An Overview and Update of Economic and Security Effects
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs432/
Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund (LUST)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs431/
Electric Utility Restructuring: Overview of Basic Policy Questions
Proposals to increase competition in the electric utility industry involve segmenting electric functions (generation, transmission, distribution) that are currently integrated (or bundled) in most cases (both in terms of corporate and rate structures). This report identifies five basic issues this effort raises for the Congress to consider as the debate on restructuring proceeds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs426/
Electric Utility Restructuring: Overview of Basic Policy Questions
Proposals to increase competition in the electric utility industry involve segmenting electric functions (generation, transmission, distribution) that are currently integrated (or bundled) in most cases (both in terms of corporate and rate structures). This report identifies five basic issues this effort raises for the Congress to consider as the debate on restructuring proceeds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs958/
Electricity Restructuring: Comparison of S.1401, H.R. 655, H.R. 1230, S. 722, H.R. 1960, and S. 2287
Once considered the nation's most regulated industry, the electric utility industry is evolving into a more competitive environment. At the current time, the focus of this development is the generating sector, where the advent of new generating technologies, such as gas-fired combined cycle, has lowered both entry barriers to competitors of traditional utilities and lowered the marginal costs of those competitors below those of some traditional utilities. This technological advance has been combined with legislative initiatives, such as the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), to encourage the introduction of competitive forces into the electric generating sector. The questions now are whether further legislative action is desirable to encourage competition in the electric utility sector and how the transition between a comprehensive regulatory regime to a more competitive electric utility sector can be made with the least amount of economic and service disruption. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs641/
Fossil Energy Research and Development: Whither Coal?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs318/
World Oil Production After Year 2000: Business As Usual or Crises?
Deficient productive capacity has not yet caused an oil crisis, but that does not mean it never will. Significant increases in world oil demand will have to be met primarily from Persian Gulf supplies. This is a region with a history of wars, illegal occupations, soups, revolutions, sabotage, terrorism, and oil embargoes. To these possibilities may be added growing Islamist movements with various antipathies to the West. If oil production were constrained, oil prices could rise abruptly along with adverse world economic repercussions. If the IEA and EIA are correct on the demand side, deficient world oil productive capacity could cause an oil crisis within 15 years and political disruptions in Saudi Arabia could cause one sooner. However, if the increases in world oil demand were more moderate, and there is long-term relative peace in the Middle East, with increasing foreign participation in upstream oil activities, a business as usual world oil demand and supply situation would be a likely scenario for much of the next century. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs191/
The Department of Energy FY1998 Research and Development Budget and Issues
This report focuses on the R&D programs. DOE has divided its activities into four major business categories: Resource, Science and Technology, National Security, and Environmental Quality. Each has an R&D component, although the R&D funding is concentrated in the first three. Table 1 (on the next page) shows FY1997 R&D funding, the FY1998 request, and the FY1998 appropriation actions by those categories digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs440/
Department of Energy FY1999 Research and Development Budget: Description and Analysis
This report focuses on the R&D programs. It divides the programs into four categories: energy resources R&D, science, national security R&D, and environmental quality R&D. Those categories, which approximate the way DOE has divided up its programs, are set up to keep similar research activities together.(1) R&D funding is concentrated in the first three. The report gives a description of the programs within each category including their research objectives and the activities where significant budget changes were requested for FY1999. It then describes the request, and congressional appropriation and authorization action. There follows a discussion of issues about the FY1999 request that are emerging during congressional consideration of the budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs674/
Department of Energy FY1999 Research and Development Budget: Description and Analysis
This report focuses on the R&D programs. It divides the programs into four categories: energy resources R&D, science, national security R&D, and environmental quality R&D. Those categories, which approximate the way DOE has divided up its programs, are set up to keep similar research activities together.(1) R&D funding is concentrated in the first three. The report gives a description of the programs within each category including their research objectives and the activities where significant budget changes were requested for FY1999. It then describes the request, and congressional appropriation and authorization action. There follows a discussion of issues about the FY1999 request that are emerging during congressional consideration of the budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs673/
Electric Power and the Year 2000 Computer Problem
The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) at the request of the Department of Energy is coordinating an effort to minimize the vulnerability of the nation's electric utility system to disruption resulting from computer failures as the date changes to January 1, 2000, the so-called Y2K computer problem. NERC now believes that the electric power industry would be able to reliably meet demand during the transition from 1999 to 2000 with the systems that are now Y2K ready. Nevertheless, at least 30% of the nation's utilities and 35% of the nation's nuclear power plants are not now expected to be Y2K ready until the last half of 1999. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1031/
The Department of Energy's Tritium Production Program
Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen used to enhance the explosive yield of every thermonuclear weapon. Tritium has a radioactive decay rate of 5.5% per year and has not been produced in this country for weapons purposes since 1988. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs752/
Energy Efficiency: A New National Outlook?
In 1992, the Nation spent $522 billion for energy ($1996 constant), while energy efficiency and conservation measures were saving the economy about $275 billion per year. Energy is conserved when technical means are employed to improve efficiency or to reduce energy waste. In 1996 constant dollars, conservation research and development (R&D) funding declined from $698 million in FY1979 to $198 million in FY1988 and then climbed to $486 million in FY1994, 31% below the FY1979 peak. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs319/
Energy Efficiency: Key to Sustainable Energy Use
This report includes the debate in the 105th Congress over the funding and direction of energy efficiency programs involves the FY1999 spending request, the Administration's Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI), and proposals for restructuring the electricity industry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs644/
Renewable Energy and Electricity Restructuring
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs962/
Renewable Energy: Key to Sustainable Energy Supply
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs961/
World Solar Summit: Launching the World Renewable Energy Program
The World Solar Summit and proposed World Solar Program 1996-2005 address energy problems through increased use of renewable energy technologies. The World Solar Commission will host the World Solar Summit in Harare, Zimbabwe, on September 16 and 17, 1996, and it will direct the World Solar Program 1996-2005. At the Summit, the Commission is expected to adopt a World Plan ofAction and a number of Strategic Projects. The proposed World Plan of Action includes a selection of high-priority renewable energy projects at the national or regional level to be implemented between 1996 and 2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs315/
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