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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Kosovo and NATO: Selected Issues of International Law

Kosovo and NATO: Selected Issues of International Law

Date: April 28, 1999
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2000

Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2000

Date: December 13, 1999
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: Although Congress authorizes most federal programs for multiple years, it annually authorizes programs for national defense as well as appropriating funding for them each fiscal year. Of the activities traditionally authorized and funded, the Department of Defense (DOD) administers the following six environmental programs: environmental restoration, compliance, cleanup at base closure sites, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and natural resource conservation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection: Defense-Related Programs

Environmental Protection: Defense-Related Programs

Date: July 28, 1998
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) operates six environmental programs that address cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to current activities, cleanup at military bases being closed, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste generated from the past production of atomic materials used to construct nuclear weapons and for remediating contaminated sites. For FY1999, the Administration has requested a total of $10. 14 billion for DOD and DOE's defense-related environmental activities, which represents about 3.7% of the total request of $271.6 billion for national defense and is roughly 1.6% below the FY1998 funding level of $l0.30 billion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Convention on Nuclear Safety - A Fact Sheet

The Convention on Nuclear Safety - A Fact Sheet

Date: May 16, 1996
Creator: Behrens, Carl E & Donnelly, Warren H
Description: Until the catastrophic accident with the former Soviet Union's Chernobyl nuclear power plant showed that radioactivity from a major nuclear accident could reach neighboring nations, nuclear safety was held to be an exclusively sovereign responsibility of each nation. Now it is recognized that a nuclear accident in one state can release radioactivity dangerous to another. As a result, many now view international cooperation as one way to help to assure safe operation of each nation's civil nuclear power stations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EURATOM and the United States: Renewing the Agreement for Nuclear Cooperation

EURATOM and the United States: Renewing the Agreement for Nuclear Cooperation

Date: April 26, 1996
Creator: Behrens, Carl E & Donnelly, Warren H
Description: The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) is a regional organization established in 1958 to "create conditions necessary for the establishment and growth of nuclear industries." The United States promoted its establishment to benefit sales of U.S. nuclear power reactors and related equipment. fuels and technology in Europe. The agreement for nuclear cooperation between the United States and EURATOM expired at the end of 1995. On November 29 President Clinton submitted to Congress a new agreement. reached after several years of difficult negotiation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Implications of the Military Technical Revolution

Intelligence Implications of the Military Technical Revolution

Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Best, Jr., Richard A.
Description: The availability of precise, real-time intelligence has been an integral part of a military technical revolution being implemented by the Department of Defense for post-Cold War conflicts and peacekeeping operations. Providing this intelligence requires new types of equipment, analysis and organizational relationships within the U.S. intelligence community.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934

The U.S. Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934

Date: May 26, 1994
Creator: Best, Jr., Richard A.
Description: In 1915, the United States undertook a military occupation of Haiti to preempt any European intervention, to establish order out of civil strife, and to stabilize Haitian finances. During the nineteen-year occupation, U.S. military and civilian officials, numbering less than 2500 for the most part, supervised the collection of taxes and the disbursement of revenues, maintained public order, and initiated a program of public works. The Haitian government remained in place, but was subject to U.S. guidance. The Haitian people benefitted from the end of endemic political violence and from the construction of roads, bridges, and ports as well as from improved access to health care. The U.S. occupation was, nonetheless, deeply resented throughout Haitian society, and many of its accomplishments did not long endure its termination in 1934.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Agent Attacks in Japan

Chemical Agent Attacks in Japan

Date: May 4, 1995
Creator: Bowman, Steven R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Weapons of Mass Destruction - the Terrorist Threat

Weapons of Mass Destruction - the Terrorist Threat

Date: December 8, 1999
Creator: Bowman, Steven R & Barel, Helit
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bosnia Stabilization Force (SFOR) and U.S. Policy

Bosnia Stabilization Force (SFOR) and U.S. Policy

Date: January 29, 1998
Creator: Bowman, Steven R; Kim, Julie & Woehrel, Steven
Description: In December 1995, a NATO-led implementation force (IFOR) was deployed to Bosnia to enforce the military aspects of the Bosnian peace agreement. After fierce debate, the House and Senate passed separate resolutions in December 1995 expressing support for the U.S. troops in Bosnia, although not necessarily for the mission itself. Legislative efforts to bar funds for the deployment of U.S. troops to Bosnia were narrowly rejected. In the 105th Congress, similar efforts to bar a U.S. deployment after June 1998 were also rejected, although the FY 1998 defense authorization and appropriations laws contain reporting requirements that must be fulfilled before an extended deployment may take place. The defense appropriation measure requires the President to seek a supplemental appropriation for any deployment after June 1998.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the Armed Forces

Women in the Armed Forces

Date: September 29, 1998
Creator: Burrelli, David F
Description: Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Peacekeeping Options: Considerations for U.S. Policymakers and the Congress

Peacekeeping Options: Considerations for U.S. Policymakers and the Congress

Date: April 10, 1997
Creator: Collier, Ellen & Serafino, Nina M.
Description: This report provides a frame of reference for considering the relative merits of using these organizations in peace and security operations. It first reviews the types of actions and activities available to deal with situations ranging from low-level tension to open conflict to post-conflict transition. It then examines, for each of the organizations, the major considerations, i.e., effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages, and other important issues for U.S. policy makers in their use.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798-1993

Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798-1993

Date: October 7, 1993
Creator: Collier, Ellen C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Key Foreign and Defense Policy Issues in the 104th Congress

Key Foreign and Defense Policy Issues in the 104th Congress

Date: December 20, 1994
Creator: Collier, Ellen C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the Armed Forces

Women in the Armed Forces

Date: November 20, 1991
Creator: Collier, Ellen C
Description: Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Desert Shield and Desert Storm Implications for Future U.S. Force Requirements

Desert Shield and Desert Storm Implications for Future U.S. Force Requirements

Date: April 19, 1991
Creator: Collins, John M
Description: This preliminary assessment summarizes U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps performances during recent war, then relates it to past experience and potential threats in ways that might help decisionmakers determine the most suitable characteristics of U.S. armed forces for the rest of this decade.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Korean Crisis, 1994: Military Geography, Military Balance, Military Options

Korean Crisis, 1994: Military Geography, Military Balance, Military Options

Date: April 11, 1994
Creator: Collins, John M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
North Korea: U.S. Policy and Negotiations to Halt Its Nuclear Weapons Program: An Annotated Chronology and Analysis

North Korea: U.S. Policy and Negotiations to Halt Its Nuclear Weapons Program: An Annotated Chronology and Analysis

Date: November 18, 1994
Creator: Cronin, Richard P & Moore, Violet Jie
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Burdensharing: Is Japan's Host Nation Support a Model for Other Allies?

Defense Burdensharing: Is Japan's Host Nation Support a Model for Other Allies?

Date: June 20, 1994
Creator: Daggett, Stephen
Description: Under an agreement announced in January 1991, the Government of Japan committed itself to increase substantially the amount of support that it provides for U.S. military forces based there. Among other things, Japan agreed by 1995 to absorb 100 percent of the cost of Japanese nationals employed at U.S. military facilities and to pay for all utilities supplied to U.S. bases, to increase the amount of military and family housing construction that it is providing to support U.S. forces, to continue to provide facilities at no charge to the United States and to waive taxes and fees that might otherwise apply to U.S. activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Missile Defense: Status of the Debate

National Missile Defense: Status of the Debate

Date: May 29, 1998
Creator: Daggett, Stephen & Shuey, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Kosovo: International Reactions to NATO Air Strikes

Kosovo: International Reactions to NATO Air Strikes

Date: April 21, 1999
Creator: Donfried, Karen
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japan's Sea Shipment of Plutonium

Japan's Sea Shipment of Plutonium

Date: January 15, 1993
Creator: Donnelly, Warren H & Davis, Zachary S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996: A Summary

Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996: A Summary

Date: June 3, 1996
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 is the product of legislative efforts stretching back well over a decade and stimulated to passage in part by the tragedies in Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. This report summarizes the six titles of the Act, its sources, and related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
NATO Expansion: Cost Issues

NATO Expansion: Cost Issues

Date: February 26, 1998
Creator: Ek, Carl
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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